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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036206/risk-characterization-of-hospitalizations-for-mental-illness-and-or-behavioral-disorders-with-concurrent-heat-related-illness
#1
Michael T Schmeltz, Janet L Gamble
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found significant associations between high ambient temperatures and increases in heat-related morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in heat-related hospitalizations are elevated among individuals with diagnosed mental illnesses and/or behavioral disorders (MBD). However, there are a limited number of studies regarding risk factors associated with specific mental illnesses that contribute, at least in part, to heat-related illnesses (HRI) in the United States...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032922/serotonin-transporter-density-in-binge-eating-disorder-and-pathological-gambling-a-pet-study-with-11-c-madam
#2
Joonas Majuri, Juho Joutsa, Jarkko Johansson, Valerie Voon, Riitta Parkkola, Hannu Alho, Eveliina Arponen, Valtteri Kaasinen
Behavioral addictions, such as pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED), appear to be associated with specific changes in brain dopamine and opioid function, but the role of other neurotransmitter systems is less clear. Given the crucial role of serotonin in a number of psychiatric disorders, we aimed to compare brain serotonergic function among individuals with BED, PG and healthy controls. Seven BED patients, 13 PG patients and 16 healthy controls were scanned with high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) using the serotonin transporter (SERT) tracer [(11)C]MADAM...
October 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032769/amphetamine-modestly-improves-conners-continuous-performance-test-performance-in-healthy-adults
#3
David A MacQueen, Arpi Minassian, Brook L Henry, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young, William Perry
OBJECTIVES: Amphetamine improves vigilance as assessed by continuous performance tests (CPT) in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Less is known, however, regarding amphetamine effects on vigilance in healthy adults. Thus, it remains unclear whether amphetamine produces general enhancement of vigilance or if these effects are constrained to the remediation of deficits in patients with ADHD. METHODS: We tested 69 healthy adults (35 female) on a standardized CPT (Conner's CPT-2) after receiving 10- or 20-mg d-amphetamine or placebo...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028525/risk-taking-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-gap-between-real-life-behavior-and-experimental-decision-making
#4
Yehuda Pollak, Reut Shalit, Adi Aran
Adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are prone to suboptimal decision making and risk taking. The aim of this study was to test performance on a theoretically-based probabilistic decision making task in well-characterized adults with and without ADHD, and examine the relation between experimental risk taking and history of real-life risk-taking behavior, defined as cigarette, alcohol, and street drug use. University students with and without ADHD completed a modified version of the Cambridge Gambling Test, in which they had to choose between alternatives varied by level of risk, and reported their history of substance use...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026986/inter-individual-differences-in-decision-making-flexible-and-goal-directed-behaviors-novel-insights-within-the-prefronto-striatal-networks
#5
Aurélie Fitoussi, Prisca Renault, Catherine Le Moine, Etienne Coutureau, Martine Cador, Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn
Inflexible behavior is a hallmark of several decision-making-related disorders such as ADHD and addiction. As in humans, a subset of healthy rats makes poor decisions and prefers immediate larger rewards despite suffering large losses in a rat gambling task (RGT). They also display a combination of traits reminiscent of addiction, notably inflexible behavior and perseverative responses. The goal of the present work was twofold: (1) to elucidate if behavioral inflexibility of poor decision-makers could be related to a lower quality of goal-directed behavior (action-outcome associations); (2) to uncover the neural basis of inter-individual differences in goal-directed behavior...
October 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974265/effectiveness-of-two-web-based-cognitive-bias-modification-interventions-targeting-approach-and-attentional-bias-in-gambling-problems-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Marilisa Boffo, Ronny Willemen, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers, Geert Dom
BACKGROUND: Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully re-training these automatic cognitive biases in SUD. CBM interventions can, in principle, be administered online, thus showing potential of being a low-cost, low-threshold addition to conventional treatments...
October 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973793/the-relationship-between-gambling-severity-and-risk-of-criminal-recidivism
#7
Laura M April, Jeremiah Weinstock
Individuals involved with the criminal justice system have the highest prevalence of gambling disorder. Yet, this is an understudied area, especially in relation to postrelease functioning and recidivism risk. Participants (N = 100) were recruited from a local nonprofit organization and a federal probation office. Participants completed both self-report and interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing past-year and lifetime gambling behaviors and problems, legal history, health, and risk of recidivism...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971988/high-dietary-sodium-causes-dyssynchrony-of-the-renal-molecular-clock-in-rats
#8
Joshua S Speed, Kelly A Hyndman, Kaehler J Roth, Jonathan Brett Heimlich, Malgorzata Kasztan, Brandon M Fox, Jermaine G Johnston, Bryan K Becker, Chunhua Jin, Karen L Gamble, Martin E Young, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Pollock
Dyssynchrony of circadian rhythms are associated with various disorders, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The cell autonomous molecular clock maintains circadian control, however, environmental factors that may cause circadian dyssynchrony either within or between organ systems are poorly understood. Our lab recently reported that the endothelin B (ETB) receptor functions to facilitate Na+ excretion in a time of day dependent manner. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine whether high salt (HS) intake leads to circadian dyssynchrony within the kidney, and whether the renal endothelin system contributes to control of the renal molecular clock...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958752/under-the-influence-effects-of-adolescent-ethanol-exposure-and-anxiety-on-motivation-for-uncertain-gambling-like-cues-in-male-and-female-rats
#9
Samantha N Hellberg, Jeremy D Levit, Mike J F Robinson
Gambling disorder (GD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol use and anxiety disorders, suggesting possible shared mechanisms. Recent research suggests reward uncertainty may powerfully enhance attraction towards reward cues. Here, we examined the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure, anxiety, and reward uncertainty on cue-triggered motivation. Male and female adolescent rats were given free access to ethanol or control jello for 20days. Following withdrawal, rats underwent autoshaping on a certain (100%-1) or uncertain (50%-1-2-3) reward contingency, followed by single-session conditioned reinforcement and progressive ratio tasks, and 7days of omission training, during which lever pressing resulted in omission of reward...
September 25, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953790/decision-making-in-panic-disorder-preliminary-report
#10
Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Alicja Raczak, Jerzy Landowski, Mariusz Stanisław Wiglusz, Maria Gałuszko-Węgielnik, Krzysztof Krysta, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
BACKGROUND: The impaired decision-making with high risk-aversive behavior and elevated impulsivity are reported as a trait feature in anxiety disorders including panic disorder (PD). It is hypothesised that PD patients exhibit difficulties in executive functions which can influence patients behavioural strategies e.g. problem solving, decision making, planning, impulse control. The aim of this study was to asses decision making process, risk-taking and impulsivity in PD patients as compared to healthy controls...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950781/blockade-of-dopamine-d1-family-receptors-attenuates-the-mania-like-hyperactive-risk-preferring-and-high-motivation-behavioral-profile-of-mice-with-low-dopamine-transporter-levels
#11
Morgane Milienne-Petiot, Lucianne Groenink, Arpi Minassian, Jared W Young
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D1-family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice...
October 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944474/altered-neural-oscillations-during-multisensory-integration-in-adolescents-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#12
Alfredo D Bolaños, Brian A Coffman, Felicha T Candelaria-Cook, Piyadasa Kodituwakku, Julia M Stephen
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), who were exposed to alcohol in utero, display a broad range of sensory, cognitive, and behavioral deficits, which are broadly theorized to be rooted in altered brain function and structure. Based on the role of neural oscillations in multisensory integration from past studies, we hypothesized that adolescents with FASD would show a decrease in oscillatory power during event-related gamma oscillatory activity (30-100Hz), when compared to typically-developing healthy controls (HC), and that such decrease in oscillatory power would predict behavioral performance...
September 25, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#13
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 18, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#14
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905166/efficacy-of-a-self-help-treatment-for-at-risk-and-pathological-gamblers
#15
Catherine Boudreault, Isabelle Giroux, Christian Jacques, Annie Goulet, Hélène Simoneau, Robert Ladouceur
Available evidence suggests that self-help treatments may reduce problem gambling severity but inconsistencies of results across clinical trials leave the extent of their benefits unclear. Moreover, no self-help treatment has yet been validated within a French Canadian setting. The current study therefore assesses the efficacy of a French language self-help treatment including three motivational telephone interviews spread over an 11-week period and a cognitive-behavioral self-help workbook. At-risk and pathological gamblers were randomly assigned to the treatment group (n = 31) or the waiting list (n = 31)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899443/geriatric-gambling-disorder-challenges-in-clinical-assessment
#16
Mara Smith, Ana Hategan, James A Bourgeois
To the Editor: The gaming industry is growing rapidly, as is the proportion of older adults aged 65 years or older who participate in gambling (Tse et al., 2012). With casinos tailoring their venues and providing incentives to attract older adults, and with the increasing popularity of "pleasure trips" to casinos organized by retirement homes, plus active promotion of government-operated lotteries in many countries, this trend is likely to continue. Gambling disorder (GD) or "pathological" or "problem" gambling presents a public health concern in the geriatric population...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894886/adolescent-gambling-in-greater-athens-area-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Dimitris C Anagnostopoulos, Helen Lazaratou, Mina P Paleologou, Lily E Peppou, Marina Economou, Melpomeni Malliori, George N Papadimitriou, Charalampos Papageorgiou
PURPOSE: Problem gambling in adolescents has recently emerged as a pressing public health concern. In this context and in light of the pervasive financial crisis in Greece, the present study aimed to explore adolescents' gambling involvement in Athens region to estimate the prevalence of its problematic form and to identify its risk/protective factors. METHODS: A total of 2141 students were recruited from a representative sample of 51 schools located in greater Athens area...
September 11, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893336/problematic-internet-use-in-gamblers-impact-on-clinical-and-cognitive-measures
#18
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Eric Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Gambling is a commonplace phenomenon, existing along a continuum from occasional gambling to functionally impairing gambling disorder. The internet may act as a conduit for some gambling behaviors. The impact of problematic internet use on clinical and cognitive features relevant to gambling has received little research attention. METHODS: A total of 206 adults aged 18-30 years who gamble at least five times per year were recruited from the general community and undertook detailed clinical and cognitive assessments...
September 12, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891116/measuring-treatment-outcomes-in-gambling-disorders-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Dylan Pickering, Brittany Keen, Gavin Entwistle, Alex Blaszczynski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considerable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery...
August 5, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890860/why-do-young-adults-gamble-online-a-qualitative-study-of-motivations-to-transition-from-social-casino-games-to-online-gambling
#20
Hyoun S Kim, Michael J A Wohl, Rina Gupta, Jeffrey L Derevensky
The present research examined the mechanisms of initiating online gambling among young adults. Of particular interest was whether social casino gaming was noted as part of young adults' experience with online gambling. This is because there is growing concern that social casino gaming may be a 'gateway' to online gambling. Three focus groups (N = 21) were conducted with young adult online gamblers from two large Canadian Universities. Participants noted the role of peer influence as well as incentives (e...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
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