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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243011/public-stigma-and-the-label-of-gambling-disorder-does-it-make-a-difference
#1
Billy A Palmer, Eric J Richardson, Martin Heesacker, M Kristina DePue
This study examined public gambling stigma by testing stigmatization of those diagnosed with a gambling disorder, as specified by the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association in Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm16 ). The researchers hypothesized that the magnitude of stigmatization would fall in this order, from most stigmatized to least: (a) the target labelled and described in ways consistent with moderate gambling disorder (b) the target described in ways consistent with moderate gambling disorder, (c) the target described in ways consistent with recreational gambling, (d) and control...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238309/who-seeks-treatment-when-medicine-opens-the-door-to-pathological-gambling-patients-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-heavy-predominance-of-online-gambling
#2
Anders Håkansson, Emma Mårdhed, Mats Zaar
Background: Few studies have assessed treatment-seeking behavior and patient characteristics in pathological gambling focusing on psychiatric comorbidity, particularly in a setting of heavy exposure to online gambling. This study aimed to address patient characteristics in a novel health care-based treatment modality for pathological gambling, including potential associations between gambling types, psychiatric comorbidity, and gender. Methods: All patients undergoing structured assessment between January 2016 and April 2017 were included (N = 106), and patient records were reviewed for cooccurring psychiatric disorders and types of problem games...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226494/how-does-routinely-delivered-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-gambling-disorder-compare-to-gold-standard-clinical-trial
#3
David P Smith, A Kate Fairweather-Schmidt, Peter W Harvey, Malcolm W Battersby
Currently, it is unknown whether treatment outcomes derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for problem gamblers still hold when applied to patients seen in routine practice. Thus, data from an RCT of cognitive therapy versus exposure therapy for problem gambling versus patients of a gambling help service were compared. Assessments of problem gambling severity, psychosocial impairment, and alcohol use were undertaken at baseline and post-treatment and evaluated within a counterfactual framework...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226267/orbitofrontal-cortex-activity-and-connectivity-predict-future-depression-symptoms-in-adolescence
#4
Jingwen Jin, Ananth Narayanan, Greg Perlman, Katherine Luking, Christine DeLorenzo, Greg Hajcak, Daniel N Klein, Roman Kotov, Aprajita Mohanty
Background: Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221791/online-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-prefrontal-metabolites-in-gambling-disorder
#5
Maya Dickler, Christophe Lenglos, Emmanuelle Renauld, Francine Ferland, Richard A Edden, Jean Leblond, Shirley Fecteau
Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent maladaptive gambling behaviors and is now considered among substance-related and addictive disorders. There is still unmet therapeutic need for these clinical populations, however recent advances indicate that interventions targeting the Glutamatergic/GABAergic system hold promise in reducing symptoms in substance-related and addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. There is some data indicating that transcranial direct current stimulation may hold clinical benefits in substance use disorders and modulate levels of brain metabolites including glutamate and GABA...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203423/compulsivity-related-neurocognitive-performance-deficits-in-gambling-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Tim van Timmeren, Joost G Daams, Ruth J van Holst, Anna E Goudriaan
Compulsivity is a core feature of addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. However, it is unclear to what extent this compulsive behavior in gambling disorder is associated with abnormal compulsivity-related neurocognitive functioning. Here, we summarize and synthesize the evidence for compulsive behavior, as assessed by compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks, in individuals with gambling disorder compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 29 studies, comprising 41 task-results, were included in the systematic review; 32 datasets (n=1,072 individuals with gambling disorder; n=1,312 HCs) were also included in the meta-analyses, conducted for each cognitive task separately...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189190/role-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-in-treatment-of-addiction-and-related-disorders-a-systematic-review
#7
Ramkrishna Makani, Basant Pradhan, Umang Shah, Tapan Parikh
BACKGROUND: Addiction and related disorders are devastating with their tremendous social, psychological, and physical consequences for which development of optimally effective treatments are long overdue. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is relatively safe and is becoming an emerging therapeutic tool for these conditions. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, PsychiatryOnline and Cochrane Library ranging from year 2001 to 2017...
November 29, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176580/reduced-loss-aversion-in-pathological-gambling-and-alcohol-dependence-is-associated-with-differential-alterations-in-amygdala-and-prefrontal-functioning
#8
Alexander Genauck, Saskia Quester, Torsten Wüstenberg, Chantal Mörsen, Andreas Heinz, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth
Diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and alcohol dependence (AD) include repeated addictive behavior despite severe negative consequences. However, the concept of loss aversion (LA) as a facet of value-based decision making has not yet been used to directly compare these disorders. We hypothesized reduced LA in pathological gamblers (PG) and AD patients, correlation of LA with disorder severity, and reduced loss-related modulation of brain activity. 19 PG subjects, 15 AD patients and 17 healthy controls (HC) engaged in a LA task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging setting...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175293/depression-symptoms-and-reasons-for-gambling-sequentially-mediate-the-associations-between-insecure-attachment-styles-and-problem-gambling
#9
Matthew T Keough, Trinda L Penniston, Natalie Vilhena-Churchill, R Michael Bagby, Lena C Quilty
One of the central pathways to problem gambling (PG) is gambling to cope with negative moods, which is a cardinal feature of depression. Insecure attachment styles are also etiologically related to depression; and, therefore, by extension, those who are insecurely attached may engage in excessive gambling behaviors to cope with depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate this and to this end predicted that depression severity and coping motives for gambling would conjointly mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and PG...
November 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163238/impairment-of-working-memory-decision-making-and-executive-function-in-the-first-degree-relatives-of-people-with-panic-disorder-a-pilot-study
#10
Zhenhe Zhou, Dongjie Ni
Background: Panic disorder (PD) patients present impairments of working memory, decision-making, and executive function. However, whether the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of people with PD present abnormal characteristics, including clinical and neuropsychological aspects, in comparison to the general population, has not been studied. Investigation and understanding of the abnormal neuropsychological characteristics of the FDRs of people with PD will contribute to the prevention and treatment of PD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157488/l%C3%A2-hypophyse-et-ses-traitements-comment-peuvent-ils-influer-sur-le-comportement-the-pituitary-and-its-treatments-how-can-they-influence-behaviour
#11
C Mouly, F Borson-Chazot, P Caron
Behaviour may be influenced by pituitary hormones or treatments. Dopamine agonist (DA) indicated in prolactinomas treatment can cause side effects, and especially impulse control disorders. In the context of prolactinomas treatment, impulse control disorders (ICD) have been reported like gambling, compulsive shopping, but mostly hypersexuality. These ICD can occur with low AD doses, and seem to be independent of type of molecule and psychiatric medical history. The main pathophysiologic hypothesis is a dysregulation of dopaminergic pathway involved in reward system...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134496/an-analysis-of-treatment-seeking-behavior-in-individuals-with-gambling-disorder
#12
Michael D Harries, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
Gambling disorder affects approximately 1.1-3.5% of the population, with the rates being higher in young adults. Despite this high prevalence, little is known regarding which pathological gamblers decide to seek treatment. This study sought to examine the differences in three groups of pathological gamblers: those who did not seek treatment (n = 94), those who sought therapy (n = 106) and those who sought medication therapy (n = 680). All subjects were assessed on a variety of measures including demographics, family history, gambling history, comorbid psychiatric disorders and an assortment of clinical variables such as the Quality of Life Inventory, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling (PG-YBOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire and select cognitive tasks...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124457/when-does-premature-treatment-termination-occur-examining-session-by-session-dropout-among-clients-with-gambling-disorder
#13
Rory A Pfund, Samuel C Peter, James P Whelan, Andrew W Meyers
Premature termination challenges the successful outcomes of psychological treatments for gambling disorder. To date, research has primarily identified clients who are at particular risk for dropping out of treatment. A smaller but growing body of literature has investigated when dropout occurs. Typically, those studies have not considered improvement in psychological distress within their operationalizations of dropout and therefore may have misrepresented when dropout occurs. The current study examined when dropout occurs using an operationalization based on the criteria of attaining reliable change in a naturalistic sample of clients with gambling disorder, and the classification rates yielded from that operationalization were compared to the rates from a more common operationalization...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098671/similarities-and-differences-in-diagnostic-criterion
#14
Zhengde Wei, Xiaochu Zhang
In this chapter, the main content is to discuss the similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between substance and non-substance addictions. Firstly, diagnostic criteria of substance addiction were introduced, mainly focused on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for the Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Then, we described the diagnostic criteria of several non-substance addictions, including gambling disorder, internet addiction, food addiction and hypersexual disorder. Depending on the proof, substance and non-substance addictions have many similarities in symptoms...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098669/similarities-and-differences-in-neuroimaging
#15
Yan-Kun Sun, Yan Sun, Xiao Lin, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Addiction is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with loss of control. An increasing number of studies have indicated that non-substance addiction, like internet addiction and pathological gambling, share clinical, phenomenological, and biological features with substance addiction. With the development of imaging technology in the past three decades, neuroimaging studies have provided information on the neurobiological effects, and revealed neurochemical and functional changes in the brains of both drug-addicted and non-substance addicted subjects...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098668/similarities-and-differences-in-genetics
#16
Yang Zhang, Yan Sun, Jie Liang, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Similar symptomatology manifestations and high co-morbidity in substance and non-substance addictions suggest that there may be a common pathogenesis between them. Associated with impulse control and emotional processing, the monoamine neurotransmitter system genes are suggested to be related to both substance and non-substance addictions, such as dopamine (DA) system, 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin (5-HT) system, the endogenous opioid system and so on. Here we reviewed the similarities and differences in genetics between classic substance addiction and common types of non-substance addiction, e...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098666/definition-of-substance-and-non-substance-addiction
#17
Zhiling Zou, Huijun Wang, Federico d'Oleire Uquillas, Xiaomei Wang, Jianrui Ding, Hong Chen
Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096335/decreased-value-sensitivity-in-schizophrenia
#18
Cristina Martinelli, Francesco Rigoli, Ray J Dolan, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Pathophysiology in schizophrenia has been linked to aberrant incentive salience, namely the dysfunctional processing of value linked to abnormal dopaminergic activity. In line with this, recent studies showed impaired learning of value in schizophrenia. However, how value is used to guide behaviour independently from learning, as in risky choice, has rarely been examined in this disorder. We studied value-guided choice under risk in patients with schizophrenia and in controls using a task requiring a choice between a certain monetary reward, varying trial-by-trial, and a gamble offering an equal probability of getting double this certain amount or nothing...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094622/long-term-effects-of-internet-supported-cognitive-behaviour-therapy
#19
Gerhard Andersson, Alexander Rozental, Roz Shafran, Per Carlbring
Internet-supported and therapist-guided cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is effective for a range of problems in the short run, but less is known about the long-term effects with follow-ups of two years or longer. Areas covered: This paper reviews studies in which the long-term effects of guided ICBT were investigated. Following literature searches in PubMed and other sources meta-analytic statistics were calculated for 14 studies involving a total of 902 participants, and an average follow-up period of three years...
November 2, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091825/stress-moderates-the-relationships-between-problem-gambling-severity-and-specific-psychopathologies
#20
Silvia Ronzitti, Shane W Kraus, Rani A Hoff, Marc N Potenza
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups...
October 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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