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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905491/changes-in-urinary-metabolomic-profile-during-relapsing-renal-vasculitis
#1
Bahjat Al-Ani, Martin Fitzpatrick, Hamad Al-Nuaimi, Alice M Coughlan, Fionnuala B Hickey, Charles D Pusey, Caroline Savage, Christopher M Benton, Eóin C O'Brien, Declan O'Toole, Ken H Mok, Stephen P Young, Mark A Little
Current biomarkers of renal disease in systemic vasculitis lack predictive value and are insensitive to early damage. To identify novel biomarkers of renal vasculitis flare, we analysed the longitudinal urinary metabolomic profile of a rat model of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were immunised with human myeloperoxidase (MPO). Urine was obtained at regular intervals for 181 days, after which relapse was induced by re-challenge with MPO. Urinary metabolites were assessed in an unbiased fashion using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and analysed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares regression (PLS-R)...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890783/the-proline-glycine-rich-region-of-the-biofilm-adhesion-protein-aap-forms-an-extended-stalk-that-resists-compaction
#2
Alexander E Yarawsky, Lance R English, Steven T Whitten, Andrew B Herr
Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the primary bacterial species responsible for healthcare-associated infections. The most significant virulence factor for S. epidermidis is its ability to form a biofilm, which renders the bacteria highly resistant to host immune responses and antibiotic action. Intercellular adhesion within the biofilm is mediated by the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), a cell wall-anchored protein that self-assembles in a zinc-dependent manner. The C-terminal portion of Aap contains a proline/glycine-rich, 135 amino acid-long region that has not yet been characterized...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872009/molecular-details-on-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-sensitivity-to-low-water-temperatures-from-1-h-nmr-metabolomics
#3
Riccardo Melis, Roberta Sanna, Angela Braca, Elia Bonaglini, Roberto Cappuccinelli, Hanno Slawski, Tonina Roggio, Sergio Uzzau, Roberto Anedda
Biometric and metabolic responses of gilthead sea bream to cold challenge are described following a growth trial divided into three water temperature steps, namely cooling, cold maintenance and recovery. Experimental data provide a useful description of fish response to thermal stress at both zootechnical and molecular level. Although no mortality has been observed, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based metabolomics confirms the marked sensitivity of this fish species to low water temperature, and explains some key molecular events associated to fish response to cold...
November 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864387/increased-trimethylamine-n-oxide-portends-high-mortality-risk-independent-of-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
W H Wilson Tang, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Yiying Fan, Daniel S Li, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Concentrations of a proatherogenic gut microbe-generated metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), predict increased incident cardiovascular disease risks in multiple cohorts. TMAO concentrations are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but their prognostic value and relation to glycemic control are unclear...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855528/dietary-anthropometric-and-biochemical-factors-influencing-plasma-choline-carnitine-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-concentrations
#5
Anna M Malinowska, Artur Szwengiel, Agata Chmurzynska
The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional, anthropometric, and biochemical factors that influence choline, l-carnitine, trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in elderly women. The volunteers' diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were estimated using a self-established score method. Body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, total, HDL, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine (tHcy), free choline (fchol), L-carnitine, TMA, and TMAO were assessed...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834801/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#6
REVIEW
Manuel T Velasquez, Ali Ramezani, Alotaibi Manal, Dominic S Raj
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported...
November 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833015/trimethylamine-n-oxide-induces-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-via-activating-ros-txnip-nlrp3-inflammasome
#7
Xiaolei Sun, Xuefei Jiao, Yarong Ma, Yong Liu, Lei Zhang, Yanzheng He, Yunhui Chen
Recent research demonstrates that the choline-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are strongly associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks. The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to exogenous and endogenous danger signals involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Moreover, thioredoxin-interactive protein (TXNIP) activation is a key event linked to NLRP3 inflammasome via reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whether TMAO prime NLRP3 inflammasome via ROS-TXNIP pathway remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827475/stabilizing-effect-of-tmao-on-globular-pnipam-states-preferential-attraction-induces-preferential-hydration
#8
Martin A Schroer, Julian Michalowsky, Birgit Fischer, Jens Smiatek, Gerhard Grübel
We study the effect of the organic co-solute trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) on the volume phase transition of microgel particles made from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The DLS measurements reveal a continuous TMAO-induced shrinking process from a coil to a globular state of PNIPAM microgel particles. Analyzing the DLS data by the phenomenological Flory-Rehner theory verifies the stabilization of the globular state of the particles in the presence of TMAO...
November 9, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825547/trimethylamine-n-oxide-friend-foe-or-simply-caught-in-the-cross-fire
#9
REVIEW
Clara E Cho, Marie A Caudill
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut-derived metabolite, has recently emerged as a candidate risk factor for cardiovascular disease and other adverse health outcomes. However, the relation between TMAO and chronic disease can be confounded by several factors, including kidney function, the gut microbiome, and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) genotype. Thus, whether TMAO is a causative agent in human disease development and progression, or simply a marker of an underlying pathology, remains inconclusive...
November 4, 2016: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813294/modulation-of-the-polymerization-kinetics-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tubulin-by-osmolytes-and-macromolecular-crowding
#10
Paul Hendrik Schummel, Mimi Gao, Roland Winter
Tubulin is one of the main components of the cytoskeleton and can be found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we explored the effects of kosmotropic and chaotropic osmolytes, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and the metabolic waste product urea, as well as the crowding agents Ficoll and sucrose on the polymerization reaction of α/β-tubulin. Time-dependent turbidimetry and fluorescence anisotropy experiments were performed to explore the kinetics of the polymerization reaction. Under different solvent conditions, diverse changes in the lag time, the half-life of the polymerization reaction, and the critical concentration of the polymerization reaction were observed...
November 3, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806268/tmao-protein-preferential-interaction-profile-determines-tmao-s-conditional-in%C3%A2-vivo-compatibility
#11
Jiang Hong, Shangqin Xiong
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) exemplifies how Nature uses the solute effect as a simple chemical strategy to cope with hydrodynamic pressure or urea stress to maintain proteostasis. It is a gut-microbe-generated metabolite that strongly promotes the development of atherosclerosis. It remains unclear how TMAO exerts its effects. In this study, we experimentally characterized the profile of the preferential interaction potential of TMAO with proteins, a thermodynamic key to understanding the effects of TMAO on protein processes and the distinction of TMAO among osmolytes...
November 1, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792658/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-coronary-artery-calcium-in-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study-cardia
#12
Katie A Meyer, Thomas Z Benton, Brian J Bennett, David R Jacobs, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Myron D Gross, J Jeffrey Carr, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Steven H Zeisel
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies implicate trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO; a gut microbiota-dependent nutrient metabolite) in cardiovascular disease risk. There is a lack of population-based data on the role of TMAO in advancing early atherosclerotic disease. We tested the prospective associations between TMAO and coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA), a biracial cohort of US adults recruited in 1985-1986 (n=5115)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792653/trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-mortality-risk-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#13
Vichai Senthong, Zeneng Wang, Yiying Fan, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen, W H Wilson Tang
BACKGROUND: Production of the proatherogenic metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), from dietary nutrients by intestinal microbiota enhances atherosclerosis development in animal models and is associated with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in humans. The utility of studying plasma levels of TMAO to risk stratify in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the relationship between fasting plasma TMAO and all-cause mortality (5-year), stratified by subtypes of PAD and presence of coronary artery disease in 935 patients with PAD who underwent elective angiography for cardiac evaluation at a tertiary care hospital...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776328/determination-of-trimethylamine-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-taurine-in-human-plasma-and-urine-by-uhplc-ms-ms-technique
#14
Hussain Mohamad Awwad, Juergen Geisel, Rima Obeid
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754287/br-07-2-the-linking-in-the-human-observational-and-clinical-study
#15
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747903/spoilage-phenotypic-characterization-of-shewanella-and-pseudomonas-isolated-from-spoiled-large-yellow-croaker-pseudosciaena-crocea
#16
Yangyang Ge, Junli Zhu, Xiaofeng Ye
Ten strains were isolated from a spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). All of them were able to grow aerobically from 4 °C to 30 °C, and reduce trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to trimethylamine (TMA) and produce H2 S except the SB01, PF05 and PF07. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that eight H2 S producing isolates were closely related to Shewanella baltica, and two isolates PF05 and PF07 were identified as P. fluorescens and P. fragi, respectively...
October 16, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722610/hydration-structure-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-aqueous-solutions-revealed-by-soft-x-ray-emission-spectroscopy-and-chemometric-analysis
#17
Yuu Sasaki, Yuka Horikawa, Takashi Tokushima, Kazumasa Okada, Masaki Oura, Misako Aida
The hydration structure of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in aqueous solutions has been investigated by means of soft X-ray spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Soft X-ray absorption spectra in the O 1s region have a concentration-dependent shoulder at 533 eV, which is assigned to the 6a1 resonance of TMAO. Soft X-ray emission spectra acquired at this resonance comprise both TMAO and water components, with a prominent peak at 525.6 eV which is assigned to the emission caused by the 5e to O 1s transition. An apparent inverse concentration dependence of around 523 eV suggests that the electronic structure of water is modified by the strong interaction with TMAO...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700087/how-does-a-hydrophobic-macromolecule-respond-to-mixed-osmolyte-environment
#18
Indrajit Tah, Jagannath Mondal
The role of the protecting osmolyte Trimethyl N-oxide (TMAO) in counteracting the denaturing effect of urea on a protein is quite well established. However, the mechanistic role of osmolytes on the hydrophobic interaction underlying protein folding is a topic of contention and is emerging as a key area of biophysical interest. Although recent experiment and computer simulation have established that individual aqueous solution of TMAO and urea respectively stabilizes and destabilizes the collapsed conformation of a hydrophobic polymer, it remains to be explored how a mixed aqueous solution of protecting and denaturing osmolytes influences the conformations of the polymer...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682400/arsenic-speciation-and-cadmium-determination-in-tobacco-leaves-ash-and-smoke
#19
Takahiro Iwai, Koichi Chiba, Tomohiro Narukawa
The concentrations of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in the tobacco leaves, ash and smoke of 10 kinds of cigarettes collected from different countries worldwide were determined by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion. Total As and Cd concentrations in the tobacco leaves ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and 1.8 to 9.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. By the speciation analysis of As in tobacco leaves and ash by HPLC-ICP-MS following acid extraction, arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] were determined and trace amounts of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium (TeMA) and some unidentified As species were also found...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671248/osmolyte-effects-on-the-growth-of-amyloid-fibrils
#20
Aswathy N Muttathukattil, Govardhan Reddy
Understanding the role of naturally occurring protective osmolytes, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in the growth of amyloid fibrils implicated in neurodegenerative diseases is important to prevent fibril growth. The effect of TMAO on the growth of amyloid fibrils formed by the Sup35 prion peptide NNQQNY is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The free-energy surface for the growth of the protofibril shows three major basins, corresponding to the free state where the peptide is in solution, the docked state where the peptide in solution interacts with the surface of the protofibril, and the locked state where the peptide is tightly bound to the protofibril, becoming a part of the fibril...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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