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Hussain Mohamad Awwad, Juergen Geisel, Rima Obeid
BACKGROUND: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yangyang Ge, Junli Zhu, Xiaofeng Ye
Ten strains were isolated from a spoiled large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). All of them were able to grow aerobically from 4 °C to 30 °C, and reduce trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) to trimethylamine (TMA) and produce H2 S except the SB01, PF05 and PF07. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that eight H2 S producing isolates were closely related to Shewanella baltica, and two isolates PF05 and PF07 were identified as P. fluorescens and P. fragi, respectively...
October 16, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Yuu Sasaki, Yuka Horikawa, Takashi Tokushima, Kazumasa Okada, Masaki Oura, Misako Aida
The hydration structure of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in aqueous solutions has been investigated by means of soft X-ray spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Soft X-ray absorption spectra in the O 1s region have a concentration-dependent shoulder at 533 eV, which is assigned to the 6a1 resonance of TMAO. Soft X-ray emission spectra acquired at this resonance comprise both TMAO and water components, with a prominent peak at 525.6 eV which is assigned to the emission caused by the 5e to O 1s transition. An apparent inverse concentration dependence of around 523 eV suggests that the electronic structure of water is modified by the strong interaction with TMAO...
October 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Indrajit Tah, Jagannath Mondal
The role of the protecting osmolyte Trimethyl N-oxide (TMAO) in counteracting the denaturing effect of urea on a protein is quite well established. However, the mechanistic role of osmolytes on the hydrophobic interaction underlying protein folding is a topic of contention and is emerging as a key area of biophysical interest. Although recent experiment and computer simulation have established that individual aqueous solution of TMAO and urea respectively stabilizes and destabilizes the collapsed conformation of a hydrophobic polymer, it remains to be explored how a mixed aqueous solution of protecting and denaturing osmolytes influences the conformations of the polymer...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Takahiro Iwai, Koichi Chiba, Tomohiro Narukawa
The concentrations of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in the tobacco leaves, ash and smoke of 10 kinds of cigarettes collected from different countries worldwide were determined by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion. Total As and Cd concentrations in the tobacco leaves ranged from 0.20 to 0.63 and 1.8 to 9.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. By the speciation analysis of As in tobacco leaves and ash by HPLC-ICP-MS following acid extraction, arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] were determined and trace amounts of monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium (TeMA) and some unidentified As species were also found...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Aswathy N Muttathukattil, Govardhan Reddy
Understanding the role of naturally occurring protective osmolytes, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in the growth of amyloid fibrils implicated in neurodegenerative diseases is important to prevent fibril growth. The effect of TMAO on the growth of amyloid fibrils formed by the Sup35 prion peptide NNQQNY is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The free-energy surface for the growth of the protofibril shows three major basins, corresponding to the free state where the peptide is in solution, the docked state where the peptide in solution interacts with the surface of the protofibril, and the locked state where the peptide is tightly bound to the protofibril, becoming a part of the fibril...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jia Liu, Mingming Zhao, Juntuo Zhou, Changjie Liu, Lemin Zheng, Yuxin Yin
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite generated from choline, betaine and carnitine in a gut microbiota-dependent way. This molecule is associated with development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. A sensitive liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMAO related molecules including TMAO, betaine, choline, and carnitine in mouse plasma. Analytes are extracted after protein precipitation by methanol and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without preliminary derivatization...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jun-Sheng Tian, Xiao-Tao Xia, Yan-Fei Wu, Lei Zhao, Huan Xiang, Guan-Hua Du, Xiang Zhang, Xue-Mei Qin
Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yijun Zhu, Amira Z Ksibe, Hendrik Schäfer, Claudia A Blindauer, Timothy D H Bugg, Yin Chen
Bacterial trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) demethylase, Tdm, carries out an unusual oxygen-independent demethylation reaction, resulting in the formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and metal analyses by inorganic mass spectrometry have been applied to gain insight into metal stoichiometry and underlying catalytic mechanism of Tdm of Methylocella silvestris BL2. Herein, we demonstrate that active Tdm has 1 molar equivalent of Zn(2+) and 1 molar equivalent of non-haem Fe(2+) ...
September 19, 2016: FEBS Journal
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rachael Beale, Ruth Airs
A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS, electrospray ionisation) method has been developed for the quantification of nitrogenous osmolytes (N-osmolytes) in the particulate fraction of natural water samples. Full method validation demonstrates the validity of the method for measuring glycine betaine (GBT), choline and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in particulates from seawater. Limits of detection were calculated as 3.5, 1.2 and 5.9 pg injected onto column (equivalent to 1.5, 0.6 and 3.9 nmol per litre) for GBT, choline and TMAO respectively...
September 28, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Panteleimon G Takis, Mariam-Eleni Oraiopoulou, Constantinos Konidaris, Anastassios N Troganis
(1)H NMR spectroscopy was employed to investigate the repercussion of Origanum dictamnus tea ingestion in several volunteers' urine metabolic profiles, among them two with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mild IBD and Crohn's disease. Herein, we demonstrate that the concentrations of a lot of urinary metabolites such as hippurate, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), citrate, and creatinine are altered, which prompts the intestinal microflora function/content perturbation as well as kidney function regulation by dictamnus tea...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Qiang Fu, Mingming Zhao, Dezhao Wang, Hongyu Hu, Caixia Guo, Wei Chen, Qun Li, Lemin Zheng, Buxing Chen
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been considered as the ideal tool for the evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques. Circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which is a metabolite of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine, has recently been linked to elevated coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between circulating TMAO level and coronary plaque vulnerability assessed by OCT in patients with CAD. A total of 26 patients with CAD were recruited to assess coronary plaque using OCT and measure plasma TMAO level...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Rong Xu, QuanQiu Wang
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex, with genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors contributing to disease susceptibility and progression. While significant progress has been made in understanding genetic, molecular, behavioral, and neurological aspects of AD, relatively little is known about which environmental factors are important in AD etiology and how they interact with genetic factors in the development of AD. Here, we propose a data-driven, hypotheses-free computational approach to characterize which and how human gut microbial metabolites, an important modifiable environmental factor, may contribute to various aspects of AD...
2016: BMC Systems Biology
Amit Sharma, Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a low molecular weight metabolite whose production is dependent on metabolism of its precursors choline, carnitine, creatinine, betaine or lecithin by host gut microbes resulting in the synthesis of trimethylamine (TMA) and subsequent oxidation to TMAO via the hepatic flavin monooxygenase (FMO) enzyme or bacterial Trimethylamine Monooxygenase (TMM). TMAO is associated with microbial dysbiosis and it is being studied for its linkage with cardiovascular disorders. In addition, dysregulated levels of TMAO has been linked with renal diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer...
August 30, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Rima Obeid, Hussain M Awwad, Susanne H Kirsch, Christiane Waldura, Wolfgang Herrmann, Stefan Graeber, Juergen Geisel
SCOPE: We compared the effect of supplementation with vitamin D + B or vitamin D on plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and choline metabolites. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a randomized single-blinded nonplacebo-controlled study. Twenty-seven participants received 1200 IU vitamin D3 and 800 mg calcium, and 25 participants received additionally 0.5 mg folic acid, 50 mg B6, and 0.5 mg B12 for 1 year. Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), TMAO, and choline metabolites were measured at baseline and 12 months later...
August 28, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Manuel Ottiger, Manuela Nickler, Christian Steuer, Jonas Odermatt, Andreas Huber, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
INTRODUCTION: The pro-atherosclerotic metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular events and a potentially modifiable mediator of chronic inflammation through broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment by changing the microbiome. Whether TMAO is associated with adverse clinical outcomes in acute inflammatory community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients is unknown. METHODS: A total of 317 CAP patients from a previous Swiss multicenter trial were prospectively followed for a median of 6...
August 24, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
Rima Obeid, Hussain M Awwad, Markus Keller, Juergen Geisel
PURPOSE: Restriction of animal foods and choline may affect plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). In vegetarians, we investigated the association between TMAO concentrations and the strictness of the diet or sex. We also studied the biological variations of TMAO in vegans. METHODS: Concentrations of plasma TMAO and choline metabolites were measured in 38 vegans and 67 lacto-ovo-vegetarians (group 1: mean age ± SD = 50 ± 15 years). Group 2 consisted of 66 vegans (29...
August 25, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Peter McPhie, Patrick Brown, Bin Chen, Theodore K Dayie, Allen P Minton
The dependence of the conformation of the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) II riboswitch on the concentration of added Mg(2+) ions and SAM, individually and in mixtures, was monitored by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and by measurement of the diffusion coefficient. The results are analyzed in the context of two complementary quantitative models, both of which are consistent with a single underlying physical model. Magnesium binding sites in the open state have an affinity on average higher than the affinity of those in the compact state, but formation of the compact state is accompanied by an increase in the number of binding sites...
September 13, 2016: Biochemistry
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