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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932344/using-robust-normative-data-to-investigate-the-neuropsychology-of-cognitive-aging
#1
Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, David Ames, Jason Hassenstab, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Olivier Salvado, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which increasing age is associated with impairment in cognitive function, termed cognitive aging, may have been overestimated in prior studies. The inclusion of individuals with severe or uncontrolled systemic medical illness or prodromal neurodegenerative disease in normal aging samples is likely to bias estimates toward lower cognitive performance and inflate estimates of variability. METHOD: Unbiased estimates of cognitive aging in 658 adults aged 60-84, who underwent rigorous screening to ensure their general and cognitive health, were computed...
December 8, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929612/effects-of-cumulative-herpesviridae-and-toxoplasma-gondii-infections-on-cognitive-function-in-healthy-bipolar-and-schizophrenia-subjects
#2
Nora Hamdani, Claire Daban-Huard, Ophelia Godin, Hakim Laouamri, Stéphane Jamain, Dodji Attiba, Marine Delavest, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Josselin Houenou, Jean-Romain Richard, Robert H Yolken, Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy, Ryad Tamouza, Marion Leboyer, Faith B Dickerson
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment leading to social disruption. While previous studies have focused on the effect of individual infectious exposure, namely, Herpesviridae viruses or Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii), on cognitive functioning, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of multiple infections on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and in healthy controls. METHODS: Seropositivity to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and T gondii was related to cognitive status among 423 participants (recruited between 2008 and 2014; 138 patients with bipolar disorder, 105 patients with schizophrenia [DSM-IV criteria], and 180 healthy controls) for episodic verbal memory (California Verbal Learning Test), working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition), and premorbid intelligence quotient (National Adult Reading Test)...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927036/integrative-group-based-cognitive-rehabilitation-efficacy-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Oiane Rilo, Javier Peña, Natalia Ojeda, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Mar Mendibe-Bilbao, Ainara Gómez-Gastiasoro, John DeLuca, Nancy Chiaravalloti, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the efficacy of the integrative group-based cognitive rehabilitation programme, REHACOP, on improving cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Fourty-two MS patients were randomized to the treatment programme REHACOP (n = 21) or waiting list control condition (n = 21). The REHACOP group received cognitive rehabilitation in group format for three months focused on attention, processing speed, learning and memory, language, executive functioning, and social cognition...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#4
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921860/effects-of-cognitive-remediation-therapy-on-neurocognition-and-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-an-italian-naturalistic-study
#5
Mariangela Lanfredi, Giacomo Deste, Clarissa Ferrari, Stefano Barlati, Laura Rosa Magni, Roberta Rossi, Luca de Peri, Marco Bonomi, Giuseppe Rossi, Antonio Vita
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been reported to positively affect neurocognitive processes among patients with schizophrenia; however, the degree to which changes in cognition is linked to improved clinical symptoms, remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate whether cognitive gains were associated to improvements in negative symptoms' severity in patients with schizophrenia living in two Italian psychiatric facilities. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were consecutively assigned to CRT (n = 33) and compared with an historical control group (n = 28)...
December 6, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920794/dance-experience-and-associations-with-cortical-gray-matter-thickness-in-the-aging-population
#6
Shai Porat, Naira Goukasian, Kristy S Hwang, Theodore Zanto, Triet Do, Jonathan Pierce, Shantanu Joshi, Ellen Woo, Liana G Apostolova
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluations...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919482/the-association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-gray-matter-atrophy-and-cortical-lesion-load-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#7
Sevda Diker, Arzu Ceylan Has, Aslı Kurne, Rahşan Göçmen, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Rana Karabudak
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis can impair cognition from the early stages and has been shown to be associated with gray matter damage in addition to white matter pathology. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline. METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918170/does-language-help-regularity-learning-the-influence-of-verbalizations-on-implicit-sequential-regularity-learning-and-the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-children-younger-and-older-adults
#8
Nicola K Ferdinand, Jutta Kray
This study aimed at investigating the ability to learn regularities across the life span and examine whether this learning process can be supported or hampered by verbalizations. For this purpose, children (aged 8-10 years) and younger (aged 19-30 years) and older (aged 70-80 years) adults took part in a sequence learning experiment. We found that verbalizing sequence-congruent information during learning is a powerful tool to generate explicit knowledge and it is especially helpful for younger adults. Although recent research suggests that implicit learning can be influenced by directing the participants' attention to relevant aspects of the task, verbalizations had a much weaker influence on implicit than explicit learning...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915588/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome
#9
Michael Perdices, Geoffrey Herkes
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a relatively rare, non-progressive angiopathy frequently heralded by severe thunderclap headache. It is characterised by vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries which usually resolves within three months of onset. Transient focal neurological signs may occur, and persistent deficits associated with haemorrhagic comorbidities have been reported in a small percentage of individuals. In this paper we report the case of RH, a 36-year-old woman who presented at a university teaching hospital in Sydney with a clinical history and radiological evidence consistent with RCVS...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911299/chronotropic-response-and-cognitive-function-in-a-cohort-at-risk-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Lena L Law, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Jean A Einerson, Ryan J Dougherty, Jennifer M Oh, Claudia E Korcarz, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Barbara B Bendlin, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, James H Stein, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery- two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test- with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety participants (age = 63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910252/memory-performance-on-the-story-recall-test-and-prediction-of-cognitive-dysfunction-progression-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#11
Jong-Hwan Park, Hyuntae Park, Sang Wuk Sohn, Sungjae Kim, Kyung Won Park
AIM: To determine the factors that influence diagnosis and differentiation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD) by comparing memory test results at baseline with those at 1-2-year follow up. METHODS: We consecutively recruited 23 healthy participants, 44 MCI patients and 27 patients with very mild AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorder Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease and Petersen's clinical diagnostic criteria...
December 1, 2016: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#12
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903333/diffusion-tensor-imaging-predictors-of-episodic-memory-decline-in-healthy-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Melissa A Lancaster, Michael Seidenberg, J Carson Smith, Kristy A Nielson, John L Woodard, Sally Durgerian, Stephen M Rao
OBJECTIVES: White matter (WM) integrity within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for episodic memory (EM) functioning. The current study investigated the ability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MTL WM tracts to predict 3-year changes in EM performance in healthy elders at disproportionately higher genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Fifty-one cognitively intact elders (52% with family history (FH) of dementia and 33% possessing an Apolipoprotein E ε4 allelle) were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at study entry and at 3-year follow-up...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900770/what-are-standardized-literacy-and-numeracy-tests-testing-evidence-of-the-domain-general-contributions-to-students-standardized-educational-test-performance
#14
Steven J Howard, Stuart Woodcock, John Ehrich, Sahar Bokosmaty
BACKGROUND: A fundamental aim of standardized educational assessment is to achieve reliable discrimination between students differing in the knowledge, skills and abilities assessed. However, questions of the purity with which these tests index students' genuine abilities have arisen. Specifically, literacy and numeracy assessments may also engage unintentionally assessed capacities. AIMS: The current study investigated the extent to which domain-general processes - working memory (WM) and non-verbal reasoning - contribute to students' standardized test performance and the pathway(s) through which they exert this influence...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898343/caregivers-and-strangers-the-influence-of-familiarity-on-gaze-following-and-learning
#15
Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Jessica L Burris, Katharine Graf Estes, Susan M Rivera
This study examines how social cues facilitate learning by manipulating the familiarity of a social cue. Participants were forty-nine infants between 12-18 months. Infants were taught a novel label for a novel object under two pre-recorded gaze conditions-one in which the caregiver was seen gazing at a novel object while a verbal label was played, and one in which a stranger was seen gazing at a novel object while a verbal label was played. Learning was only evident in the caregiver condition and only in the infants most skilled at following their caregivers' gaze...
November 26, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895602/motivational-and-behavioral-activation-as-an-adjunct-to-psychiatric-rehabilitation-for-mild-to-moderate-negative-symptoms-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-a-proof-of-concept-pilot-study
#16
Kee-Hong Choi, Eunju Jaekal, Ga-Young Lee
Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA) is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation toward treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA) has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893814/rapid-top-down-control-of-behavior-due-to-propositional-knowledge-in-human-associative-learning
#17
Francisco J López, Rafael Alonso, David Luque
Propositional and associative processes have been proposed to explain human associative learning. Our main objective in this study was to evaluate whether propositional knowledge may gain control over behavior even under high time-pressure conditions, as suggested by propositional single-process models. In the experiment reported, different groups of participants had to learn a series of cue-outcome relationships on a trial-by-trial basis under different time pressure conditions. Later, a simple verbal instruction indicated that one of the cues had reversed its contingency (informed condition)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893017/evaluation-of-cognitive-deficits-and-structural-hippocampal-damage-in-encephalitis-with-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-antibodies
#18
Carsten Finke, Harald Prüss, Josephine Heine, Sigrid Reuter, Ute A Kopp, Florian Wegner, Florian Then Bergh, Sebastian Koch, Olav Jansen, Thomas Münte, Günther Deuschl, Klemens Ruprecht, Winfried Stöcker, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Friedemann Paul, Thorsten Bartsch
Importance: Limbic encephalitis with leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies is one of the most frequent variants of autoimmune encephalitis with antibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens. However, the neuroimaging pattern and long-term cognitive outcome are not well understood. Objective: To study cognitive outcome and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) alterations in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Departments of Neurology at Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany...
November 21, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889837/exercise-training-effects-on-memory-and-hippocampal-viscoelasticity-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-novel-application-of-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#19
Brian M Sandroff, Curtis L Johnson, Robert W Motl
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS...
November 26, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889770/usefulness-of-discriminability-and-response-bias-indices-for-the-evaluation-of-recognition-memory-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#20
María Julieta Russo, Gabriela Cohen, Jorge Campos, Maria Eugenia Martin, María Florencia Clarens, Liliana Sabe, Ernesto Barcelo, Ricardo F Allegri
BACKGROUND: Most studies examining episodic memory in Alzheimer disease (AD) have focused on patients' impaired ability to remember information. This approach provides only a partial picture of memory deficits since other factors involved are not considered. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recognition memory performance by using a yes/no procedure to examine the effect of discriminability and response bias measures in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), AD dementia, and normal-aging subjects...
November 26, 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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