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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807493/homocysteine-and-cognitive-function-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Nicole Licking, Charles Murchison, Brenna Cholerton, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Thomas J Montine, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Kathryn A Chung, Karen Edwards, James B Leverenz, Joseph F Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Increased plasma homocysteine (HC) is a risk factor for dementia in the general population. Levodopa therapy causes increased plasma HC, but it remains unclear whether elevated plasma HC is associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: The study population includes all participants in the Pacific Northwest Udall Center (PANUC) Clinical cohort at the time of the study, consisting of 294 individuals with PD who had a standardized neuropsychological assessment and plasma collection for HC measurement...
August 9, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804398/the-transfer-of-skills-from-cognitive-and-physical-training-to-activities-of-daily-living-a-randomised-controlled-study
#2
Magdalena Hagovska, Iveta Nagyova
Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40)...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800631/lack-of-spacing-effects-during-piano-learning
#3
Melody Wiseheart, Annalise A D'Souza, Jacey Chae
Spacing effects during retention of verbal information are easily obtained, and the effect size is large. Relatively little evidence exists on whether motor skill retention benefits from distributed practice, with even less evidence on complex motor skills. We taught a 17-note musical sequence on a piano to individuals without prior formal training. There were five lags between learning episodes: 0-, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-min. After a 5-min retention interval, participants' performance was measured using three criteria: accuracy of note playing, consistency in pressure applied to the keys, and consistency in timing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800429/bimanual-coordination-positively-predicts-episodic-memory-a-combined-behavioral-and-mri-investigation
#4
Keith B Lyle, Brynn A Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E Switala, Brendan E Depue
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands...
August 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800148/for-better-or-for-worse-positive-and-negative-parental-influences-on-young-children-s-executive-function
#5
Claire Hughes, Rory T Devine
Despite rapidly growing research on parental influences on children's executive function (EF), the uniqueness and specificity of parental predictors and links between adult EF and parenting remain unexamined. This 13-month longitudinal study of 117 parent-child dyads (60 boys; Mage at Time 1 = 3.94 years, SD = 0.53) included detailed observational coding of parent-child interactions and assessed adult and child EF and child verbal ability (VA). Supporting a differentiated view of parental influence, negative parent-child interactions and parental scaffolding showed unique and specific associations with child EF, whereas the home learning environment and parental language measures showed global associations with children's EF and VA...
August 11, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799411/the-modrey-an-episodic-memory-test-for-nonclinical-and-preclinical-populations
#6
Christiane Hale, Briana S Last, Irene B Meier, Lok-Kin Yeung, Mariana Budge, Richard P Sloan, Scott A Small, Adam M Brickman
List learning tests are used in practice for diagnosis and in research to characterize episodic memory, but often suffer from ceiling effects in unimpaired individuals. We developed the Modified Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, or ModRey, an episodic memory test for use in normal and preclinical populations. We administered the ModRey to 230 healthy adults and to 86 of the same individuals 102 days later and examined psychometric properties and effects of demographic factors. Primary measures were normally distributed without evidence of ceiling effect...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799030/transfer-of-improved-movement-technique-after-receiving-verbal-external-focus-and-video-instruction
#7
Anne Benjaminse, Wouter Welling, Bert Otten, Alli Gokeler
PURPOSE: It is unknown how movement patterns that are learned carry over to the field. The objective was to determine whether training during a jump-landing task would transfer to lower extremity kinematics and kinetics during sidestep cutting. METHODS: Forty healthy athletes were assigned to the verbal internal focus (IF, n = 10), verbal external focus (EF, n = 10), video (VI, n = 10) or control (CTRL, n = 10) group. A jump-landing task was performed as baseline followed by training blocks (TR1 and TR2) and a post-test...
August 10, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798706/age-dependent-positivity-bias-in-children-s-processing-of-emotion-terms
#8
Daniela Bahn, Michael Vesker, José C García Alanis, Gudrun Schwarzer, Christina Kauschke
Emotions play an important role in human communication, and the daily-life interactions of young children often include situations that require the verbalization of emotional states with verbal means, e.g., with emotion terms. Through them, one can express own emotional states and those of others. Thus, the acquisition of emotion terms allows children to participate more intensively in social contexts - a basic requirement for learning new words and for elaborating socio-emotional skills. However, little is known about how children acquire and process this specific word category, which is positioned between concrete and abstract words...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797212/effect-of-conceptual-and-lexical-errorless-versus-trial-and-error-learning-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#9
Brandy L Callahan, Nicole D Anderson
Errorless learning (EL), involving presenting the target information during encoding, is generally considered effective for teaching information to memory-impaired populations. However, evidence suggests that trial-and-error learning (TEL) can benefit healthy older adults' memory when guesses are conceptually related to the target. To determine whether TEL can benefit persons with mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 24 participants with aMCI were given cues associated with nine target words. Half the sample received Conceptual cues (e...
August 11, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789690/first-year-medical-students-learning-style-preferences-and-their-correlation-with-performance-in-different-subjects-within-the-medical-course
#10
Daniel Hernández-Torrano, Syed Ali, Chee-Kai Chan
BACKGROUND: Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum...
August 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779851/a-tale-of-two-sites-differential-impairment-of-frequency-and-duration-mismatch-negativity-across-a-primarily-inpatient-versus-a-primarily-outpatient-site-in-schizophrenia
#11
Migyung Lee, Pejman Sehatpour, Elisa C Dias, Gail S Silipo, Joshua T Kantrowitz, Antigona M Martinez, Daniel C Javitt
Deficits in mismatch negativity (MMN) generation are among the best replicated neurophysiological deficits in schizophrenia, with reduced amplitude reflecting impaired information processing at the level of supratemporal auditory cortex. Differential patterns of MMN dysfunction according to deviant types have been reported across studies, with some research groups showing impairment in duration MMN but not frequency MMN, and other research groups reporting both findings. We evaluate the hypothesis that recruitment setting, reflecting current functional status, might be an important determinant of the pattern of MMN dysfunction...
August 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774649/the-dynamic-imprint-of-word-learning-on-the-dorsal-language-pathway
#12
María-Ángeles Palomar-García, Ana Sanjuán, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, César Ávila
According to Hickok and Poeppel (2007), the acquisition of new vocabulary rests on the dorsal language pathway connecting auditory and motor areas. The present study tested this hypothesis longitudinally by measuring BOLD signal changes during a verbal repetition task and modulation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in the dorsal stream. Thirty-five healthy participants, divided into trained and control groups, completed fMRI sessions on days 1, 10, and 24. Between days 1 and 10, the trained group learned 84 new pseudowords associated with 84 native words...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768650/intake-of-niacin-folate-vitamin-b-6-and-vitamin-b-12-through-young-adulthood-and-cognitive-function-in-midlife-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-cardia-study
#13
Bo Qin, Pengcheng Xun, David R Jacobs, Na Zhu, Martha L Daviglus, Jared P Reis, Lyn M Steffen, Linda Van Horn, Stephen Sidney, Ka He
Background: Epidemiologic evidence regarding niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to cognitive function is limited, especially in midlife.Objective: We hypothesize that higher intake of these B vitamins in young adulthood is associated with better cognition later in life.Design: This study comprised a community-based multicenter cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 y in 1985-1986 (year 0, i.e., baseline) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n = 3136)...
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765082/is-there-a-relationship-between-accelerometer-assessed-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-and-cognitive-function-in-us-hispanic-latino-adults-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#14
Elizabeth Vásquez, Garrett Strizich, Carmen R Isasi, Sandra E Echeverria, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Kelly R Evenson, Marc D Gellman, Priya Palta, Qibin Qi, Melissa Lamar, Wassim Tarraf, Hector M González, Robert Kaplan
Normative changes in cognitive function are expected with increasing age. Research on the relationship between normative cognitive decline and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SED) needs further investigation in Hispanic/Latinos adults. We assessed the cross-sectional association between accelerometer assessed MVPA and SED with cognitive function in 7,478 adults aged 45-74years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. At baseline, cognitive tests included two executive function tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a test of language (Word Fluency), and a test of memory (Spanish English Verbal Learning Test)...
July 29, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761926/amyloid-%C3%AE-associated-cognitive-decline-in-the-absence-of-clinical-disease-progression-and-systemic-illness
#15
Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, David Ames, Jason Hassenstab, Simon M Laws, Ralph N Martins, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Christopher C Rowe, Olivier Salvado, Vincent Doré, Victor L Villemagne, Peter J Snyder, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
INTRODUCTION: High levels of amyloid β (Aβ) are associated with cognitive decline in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. This study investigated the nature of cognitive decline in healthy individuals who did not progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia. METHOD: Cognition was measured over 72 months and compared between low (Aβ-) and high (Aβ+) CN older adults (n = 335) who did not progress to mild cognitive impairment or dementia and who remained free of severe or uncontrolled systemic illness...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759971/validity-of-a-newly-developed-measure-of-memory-feasibility-study-of-the-virtual-environment-grocery-store
#16
Thomas D Parsons, Michael Barnett
Virtual reality-based neuropsychological assessments proffer the potential to address the limited ecological validity of pen-and-paper measures of memory. To investigate the construct validity of a newly developed virtual reality measure of memory, the Virtual Environment Grocery Store (VEGS), traditional neuropsychological measures of memory and executive functioning were administered to 48 older adults and 55 young adults. Performances on the VEGS memory tasks and the traditional neuropsychological assessments of memory were positively correlated, indicating that memory for VEGS content was similar to memory for traditional paper-and-pencil measures...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759398/early-sign-language-exposure-and-cochlear-implantation-benefits
#17
Ann E Geers, Christine M Mitchell, Andrea Warner-Czyz, Nae-Yuh Wang, Laurie S Eisenberg
BACKGROUND: Most children with hearing loss who receive cochlear implants (CI) learn spoken language, and parents must choose early on whether to use sign language to accompany speech at home. We address whether parents' use of sign language before and after CI positively influences auditory-only speech recognition, speech intelligibility, spoken language, and reading outcomes. METHODS: Three groups of children with CIs from a nationwide database who differed in the duration of early sign language exposure provided in their homes were compared in their progress through elementary grades...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756681/explicit-and-implicit-motor-learning-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#18
John van der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen, Rich S W Masters
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate the capacity for explicit and implicit learning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. PARTICIPANTS: Children with left and right unilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children shuffled disks toward a target. DESIGN: A prism-adaptation design was implemented, consisting of pre-exposure, prism exposure, and post-exposure phases. Half of the participants were instructed about the function of the prism glasses, while the other half were not...
July 30, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756343/ptsd-symptoms-are-associated-with-visual-retrieval-performance-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans
#19
Darrin M Aase, Julia A DiGangi, Joseph M Babione, Christopher Schroth, David M Levy, Amy E Kennedy, Eric Proescher, Justin E Greenstein, Robert Walters, Holly Passi, Scott A Langenecker, K Luan Phan
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poorer performance on neuropsychological tests in veterans. However, prior studies have generally compared individuals with PTSD to control groups, often excluding individuals with moderate symptoms. The present study evaluated neuropsychological performance among OEF/OIF/OND veterans as a function of overall PTSD severity, while also exploring potential associations between cognitive performance and PTSD symptom clusters. Using a brief neuropsychological battery, clinical interviews, and self-report instruments, we evaluated neuropsychological and psychiatric functioning in 90 OEF/OIF/OND veterans...
July 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756237/distinct-resting-state-functional-connections-associated-with-episodic-and-visuospatial-memory-in-older-adults
#20
Sana Suri, Anya Topiwala, Nicola Filippini, Enikő Zsoldos, Abda Mahmood, Claire E Sexton, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Clare E Mackay, Stephen Smith, Klaus P Ebmeier
Episodic and spatial memory are commonly impaired in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Volumetric and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest a preferential involvement of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), particularly the hippocampus, in episodic and spatial memory processing. The present study examined how these two memory types were related in terms of their associated resting-state functional architecture. 3T multiband resting state fMRI scans from 497 participants (60-82 years old) of the cross-sectional Whitehall II Imaging sub-study were analysed using an unbiased, data-driven network-modelling technique (FSLNets)...
July 26, 2017: NeuroImage
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