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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143869/peripheral-endocannabinoid-concentrations-are-not-associated-with-verbal-memory-impairment-during-mdma-intoxication
#1
E Haijen, M Farre, R de la Torre, A Pastor, E Olesti, N Pizarro, J G Ramaekers, K P C Kuypers
BACKGROUND: Preclinical data have suggested involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Clinical research has shown that blockade of the 5-HT2 receptor nulls memory impairment during MDMA intoxication. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that the eCB and the 5-HT system interact. It was hypothesized that MDMA would cause an increase in eCB concentrations together with a decrease in memory performance, and that combining MDMA with a 5-HT2 receptor blocker ketanserin would lead to a counteraction of the MDMA effects on eCB concentrations and memory...
November 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143061/the-origins-of-verb-learning-preverbal-and-postverbal-infants-learning-of-word-action-relations
#2
Lakshmi Gogate, Madhavilatha Maganti
Purpose: This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Method: Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2 dynamic video displays of novel word-action pairings, the words /wem/ or /bæf/, spoken synchronously with an adult shaking or looming an object, and tested with interchanged (switched) versus same word-action pairings...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#3
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141548/cognitive-training-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-findings-of-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Alessandro Trebbastoni, Letizia Imbriano, Livia Podda, Lidia Rendace, Maria Luisa Sacchetti, Alessandra Campanelli, Fabrizia D Antonio, Carlo de Lena
BACKGROUND: Cognitive training (CT) is a non-pharmacological intervention based on a set of tasks that reflect specific cognitive functions. CT is aimed at improving cognition in patients with cognitive impairment, though no definitive conclusions have yet been drawn on its efficacy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a CT program designed to improve cognition in AD patients. METHOD: This is a randomized, controlled, single-blind, longitudinal trial with a no-treatment control condition in mild-to-moderate AD...
November 12, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131878/association-of-brain-structure-changes-and-cognitive-function-with-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-individuals
#5
Ryan Sanford, Lesley K Fellows, Beau M Ances, D Louis Collins
Importance: Despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders continue to be a problem for treated HIV-positive individuals. The cause of this impairment remains unclear. Objective: To determine if detectable brain changes occur during a 2-year period in HIV-positive individuals who were aviremic and treated with cART. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this longitudinal case-control study, participants underwent neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment approximately 2 years apart...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129545/predicting-progression-of-amnesic-mci-the-integration-of-episodic-memory-impairment-with-perfusion-spect
#6
Davide Quaranta, Guido Gainotti, Daniela Di Giuda, Maria Gabriella Vita, Fabrizio Cocciolillo, Giordano Lacidogna, Valeria Guglielmi, Carlo Masullo, Alessandro Giordano, Camillo Marra
The present study aimed at assessing if the ability to predict progression from amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) to dementia is improved by considering the presence at the baseline of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) perfusion abnormalities in addition to a defect of long term memory. The Episodic Memory Score (EMS), a global index which integrates results obtained in subtests of the Rey's Verbal Learning Test and the Rey-Osterrieth Figure recall, were taken into account to evaluate defects of long term memory...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#7
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128471/development-of-verbal-short-term-memory-and-working-memory-in-children-with-epilepsy-developmental-delay-and-impact-of-time-related-variables-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Loretta van Iterson, Peter F de Jong
While short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are understood as being crucial for learning, and children with epilepsy often experience learning difficulties, little is known about the age-related development of memory span tasks in children with epilepsy. Short-term memory and WM, operationalized as digit span forwards (DSF) or digit span backwards (DSB), respectively, were studied. Participants were 314 children with epilepsy and 327 typically developing children in ages between 5 and 15years and full scale intelligence quotient (FS-IQ)≥75...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128167/a-prospective-evaluation-of-hippocampal-radiation-dose-volume-effects-and-memory-deficits-following-cranial-irradiation
#9
Ting Martin Ma, Jimm Grimm, Riley McIntyre, Heather Anderson-Keightly, Lawrence R Kleinberg, Russell K Hales, Joseph Moore, Tracy Vannorsdall, Kristin J Redmond
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone...
November 8, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125485/cognitive-variability-predicts-incident-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-comparable-to-a-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarker
#10
Carey E Gleason, Derek Norton, Eric D Anderson, Michelle Wahoske, Danielle T Washington, Emre Umucu, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Sterling C Johnson, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers are emerging as critically important for disease detection and monitoring. Most biomarkers are obtained through invasive, resource-intense procedures. A cognitive marker, intra-individual cognitive variability (IICV) may provide an alternative or adjunct marker of disease risk for individuals unable or disinclined to undergo lumbar puncture. OBJECTIVE: To contrast risk of incident AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) associated with IICV to risk associated with well-established biomarkers: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau181) and amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) peptide...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124752/extending-the-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-explanations-effect-to-popular-articles-about-educational-topics
#11
Soo-Hyun Im, Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
BACKGROUND: The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings. AIM: This study extended this finding to arguments concerning the application of psychological findings to educational topics. SAMPLE: Participants (n = 320) were recruited from the general public, specifically among English-speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers residing in the United States...
December 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121595/from-the-psychosis-prodrome-to-the-first-episode-of-psychosis-no-evidence-of-a-cognitive-decline
#12
Ricardo E Carrión, Deborah J Walder, Andrea M Auther, Danielle McLaughlin, Heather O Zyla, Steven Adelsheim, Roderick Calkins, Cameron S Carter, Bentson McFarland, Ryan Melton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Tamara G Sale, Stephan F Taylor, William R McFarlane, Barbara A Cornblatt
Cognitive deficits have an important role in the neurodevelopment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. However, there is a continuing debate as to whether cognitive impairments in the psychosis prodrome are stable predictors of eventual psychosis or undergo a decline due to the onset of psychosis. In the present study, to determine how cognition changes as illness emerges, we examined baseline neurocognitive performance in a large sample of helping-seeking youth ranging in clinical state from low-risk for psychosis through individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for illness to early first-episode patients (EFEP)...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120842/do-cognitive-deficits-predict-negative-emotionality-and-aggression-in-schizophrenia
#13
Anthony O Ahmed, Jenae Richardson, Alex Buckner, Sabrina Romanoff, Michelle Feder, Njideka Oragunye, Andriana Ilnicki, Ishrat Bhat, Matthew J Hoptman, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119874/using-helping-skills-with-korean-clients-the-perspectives-of-korean-counselors
#14
Eunsun Joo, Clara E Hill, Young Hwa Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how Korean counselors modify the helping skills they learned during training in their work with Korean clients. METHOD: Thirteen practicing Korean therapists who had taken two master's level courses in the Hill helping skills model were interviewed about their experiences in applying the model in their work with clients. Data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research (CQR). RESULTS: Several characteristics were noted of Korean clients that might influence the appropriateness of the helping skills model (e...
November 9, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119036/technology-assisted-rehabilitation-of-writing-skills-in-parkinson-s-disease-visual-cueing-versus-intelligent-feedback
#15
Evelien Nackaerts, Alice Nieuwboer, Elisabetta Farella
Recent research showed that visual cueing can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on handwriting of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls depending on the circumstances. Hence, using other sensory modalities to deliver cueing or feedback may be a valuable alternative. Therefore, the current study compared the effects of short-term training with either continuous visual cues or intermittent intelligent verbal feedback. Ten PD patients and nine healthy controls were randomly assigned to one of these training modes...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116675/the-course-of-neuropsychological-functioning-in-young-people-with-attenuated-vs-discrete-mental-disorders
#16
Ashleigh M Tickell, Rico S C Lee, Ian B Hickie, Daniel F Hermens
AIM: Clinical staging of mental disorders is designed to facilitate the selection of stage-appropriate interventions, early in the course of illness. Neuropsychological performance, particularly at early stages of mental disorder, is a strong predictor of medium-term functional outcomes. Despite this, the longitudinal examination of neuropsychological profiles in early stages of illness is poorly researched. Thus, we examined baseline and longitudinal neuropsychological profiles of young patients with attenuated syndromes vs those with discrete disorders...
November 8, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115755/nurses-as-participants-in-research-an-evaluation-of-recruitment-techniques
#17
Lauretta Luck, Harrison Ng Chok, Lesley Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of participants, as well as response rates, can be challenging in nursing research. This can be because of the questions asked; the choice of methodology; the methods used to collect data; the characteristics of potential participants; the sample size required; and the duration of the study. Additionally, conducting research with nurses as participants presents several issues for them, including the time needed to participate in the research, the competing commitments for clinical practice, the political and environmental climate, and recruitment itself...
September 19, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113548/cognitive-functions-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-men-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-symptoms-of-overactive-bladder-when-treated-with-a-combination-of-tamsulosin-and-solifenacin-in-a-higher-dosage
#18
Kirill Kosilov, Irina Kuzina, Vladimir Kuznetsov, Yuliya Gainullina, Liliya Kosilova, Alexandra Prokofyeva, Sergey Loparev
AIM: To study the cognitive functions and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals taking a combination of tamsulosin and solifenacin in a higher dosage. METHODS: All patients (n = 262) were assigned to group A (N = 93, tamsulosin 0.4 mg + solifenacin 10 mg per day), group B (N = 83, tamsulosin 0.4 mg + solifenacin 20 mg), and control group C (N = 86; tamsulosin 0.4 mg + placebo). The lower urinary tract (LUT) condition was assessed on the scales International Prostate Symptom Score, Over Active Bladder Awareness Tool and uroflowmetry...
November 7, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108712/cognitive-functioning-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-its-relation-to-motor-function-communication-and-epilepsy
#19
Júlia Ballester-Plané, Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Esther Toro-Tamargo, Francisca Gimeno, Ana Narberhaus, Dolors Segarra, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of motor function often accompanied by cognitive impairment. There is a paucity of research focused on cognition in dyskinetic CP and on the potential effect of related factors. AIM: To describe the cognitive profile in dyskinetic CP and to assess its relationship with motor function and associated impairments. METHOD: Fifty-two subjects with dyskinetic CP (28 males, mean age 24 y 10 mo, SD 13 y) and 52 typically-developing controls (age- and gender-matched) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107851/are-wisc-iq-scores-in-children-with-mathematical-learning-disabilities-underestimated-the-influence-of-a-specialized-intervention-on-test-performance
#20
Katharina Lambert, Birgit Spinath
BACKGROUND: Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. AIMS: The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD...
October 28, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
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