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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212570/altered-amygdala-and-hippocampus-effective-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-with-depression-a-resting-state-functional-mr-imaging-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#1
Li Juan Zheng, Gui Fen Yang, Xin Yuan Zhang, Yun Fei Wang, Ya Liu, Gang Zheng, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang, Ying Han
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the major depression disorder would increase the risk of dementia in the older with amnestic cognitive impairment. We used granger causality analysis algorithm to explore the amygdala- and hippocampus-based directional connectivity patterns in 12 patients with major depression disorder and amnestic cognitive impairment (mean age: 69.5 ± 10.3 years), 13 amnestic cognitive impairment patients (mean age: 72.7 ± 8.5 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age: 64.7 ± 7...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210777/effects-of-biperiden-and-acute-tryptophan-depletion-and-their-combination-on-verbal-word-memory-and-eeg
#2
Laura G J M Borghans, Arjan Blokland, Anke Sambeth
BACKGROUND: Research on the neurobiological foundations of memory has shown that multiple neurotransmitters play an important role in memory processing. To study the interaction between neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and serotonin, pharmacological models can be used. In this study, we tested the effects of the muscarinic M1 antagonist biperiden, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD), and the interaction between the two on episodic memory using the verbal learning task. METHODS: The study was conducted according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover design...
February 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205498/cognitive-control-learning-and-clinical-motor-ratings-are-most-highly-associated-with-basal-ganglia-brain-volumes-in-the-premanifest-huntington-s-disease-phenotype
#3
Maria B Misiura, Spencer Lourens, Vince D Calhoun, Jeffrey Long, Jeremy Bockholt, Hans Johnson, Ying Zhang, Jane S Paulsen, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu, Betul Kara, Elizabeth Fall
OBJECTIVES: Huntington's disease (HD) is a debilitating genetic disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities associated with neuropathological decline. HD pathology is the result of an extended chain of CAG (cytosine, adenine, guanine) trinucleotide repetitions in the HTT gene. Clinical diagnosis of HD requires the presence of an otherwise unexplained extrapyramidal movement disorder in a participant at risk for HD. Over the past 15 years, evidence has shown that cognitive, psychiatric, and subtle motor dysfunction is evident decades before traditional motor diagnosis...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#4
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195953/cross-validation-of-a-classification-system-for-persons-with-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-posthospital-period
#5
Mark Sherer, Jennie Ponsford, Amelia Hicks, Luis Leon-Novelo, Esther Ngan, Angelle M Sander
OBJECTIVE: To (1) identify groupings of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the posthospital period in a cohort recruited in Australia; (2) compare groupings from the Australian cohort to groupings previously developed for a US cohort. SETTING: Rehabilitation centers in the US and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 170 persons with TBI from Australia and 504 persons with TBI from the United States. Participants were aged 18 to 64 years, greater than 6 months postinjury, had capacity to give consent, and had definitive contemporaneous medical evidence of TBI...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193685/neurocomputational-consequences-of-evolutionary-connectivity-changes-in-perisylvian-language-cortex
#6
Malte R Schomers, Max Garagnani, Friedemann Pulvermüller
The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory (VWM) - a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities - but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function is still missing...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186454/prospective-analysis-of-neuropsychological-deficits-following-resection-of-benign-skull-base-meningiomas
#7
Klaus Zweckberger, Eveline Hallek, Lidia Vogt, Henrik Giese, Uta Schick, Andreas W Unterberg
OBJECTIVE Resection of skull base tumors is challenging. The introduction of alternative treatment options, such as radiotherapy, has sparked discussion regarding outcome in terms of quality of life and neuropsychological deficits. So far, however, no prospective data are available on this topic. METHODS A total of 58 patients with skull base meningiomas who underwent surgery for the first time were enrolled in this prospective single-center trial. The average age of the patients was 56.4 ± 12.5 years. Seventy-nine percent of the tumors were located within the anterior skull base...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185899/lurasidone-versus-treatment-as-usual-for-cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-i-disorder-a-randomised-open-label-pilot-study
#8
Lakshmi N Yatham, Sylvia Mackala, Jayasree Basivireddy, Sharon Ahn, Nazlin Walji, Chen Hu, Raymond W Lam, Ivan J Torres
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is present in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and correlates with impairments in everyday functioning. We aimed to examine the efficacy of lurasidone adjunctive therapy compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in improving cognition. METHODS: For this randomised, open-label, pilot study, we recruited patients aged 19-65 years with euthymic bipolar I disorder from the Mood Disorder Centre in UBC Hospital (Vancouver, Canada)...
February 6, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182471/efficacy-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-using-computer-software-with-individuals-living-with-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-japan
#9
Kazuhiko Iwata, Yasuhiro Matsuda, Sayaka Sato, Shunichi Furukawa, Yukako Watanabe, Norifumi Hatsuse, Emi Ikebuchi
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is common in schizophrenia, and is associated with poor psychosocial functioning. Previous studies had inconsistently shown improvement in cognitive functions with cognitive remediation therapy. This study examined whether cognitive remediation is effective in improving both cognitive and social functions in schizophrenia in outpatient settings that provide learning-based psychiatric rehabilitation. This study is the first randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation in Japan...
February 9, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181042/should-we-change-targets-and-methods-of-early-intervention-in-autism-in-favor-of-a-strengths-based-education
#10
Laurent Mottron
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) and its recent variant, naturalist developmental behavioral intervention (NDBI) aim to increase socialization and communication, and to decrease repetitive and challenging behaviors in preschool age autistic children. These behaviorist techniques are based on the precocity and intensity of the intervention, face-to-face interaction, errorless learning, and information fragmentation. Once considered to be "scientifically proven", the efficacy of these approaches has been called into question in the last decade due to poor-quality data, small effects, low cost-efficiency, and the evolution of ethical and societal standards...
February 8, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177183/learning-by-experience-visceral-pain-related-neural-and-behavioral-responses-in-a-classical-conditioning-paradigm
#11
A Icenhour, F Labrenz, C Ritter, N Theysohn, M Forsting, U Bingel, S Elsenbruch
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating mechanisms underlying nocebo responses in pain have mainly focused on negative expectations induced by verbal suggestions. Herein, we addressed neural and behavioral correlates of nocebo responses induced by classical conditioning in a visceral pain model. METHODS: In two independent studies, a total of 40 healthy volunteers underwent classical conditioning, consisting of repeated pairings of one visual cue (CS(High) ) with rectal distensions of high intensity, while a second cue (CS(Low) ) was always followed by low-intensity distensions...
February 8, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176292/children-s-success-at-detecting-circular-explanations-and-their-interest-in-future-learning
#12
Candice M Mills, Judith H Danovitch, Sydney P Rowles, Ian L Campbell
These studies explore elementary-school-aged children's ability to evaluate circular explanations and whether they respond to receiving weak explanations by expressing interest in additional learning. In the first study, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-olds (n = 53) heard why questions about unfamiliar animals. For each question, they rated the quality of single explanations and later selected the best explanation between pairs of circular and noncircular explanations. When judging single explanations, 8- and 10-year-olds, and to some extent 6-year-olds, provided higher ratings for noncircular explanations compared to circular ones...
February 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174550/impaired-memory-for-instructions-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-is-improved-by-action-at-presentation-and-recall
#13
Tian-Xiao Yang, Richard J Allen, Joni Holmes, Raymond C K Chan
Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often fail to comply with teacher instructions in the classroom. Using action during presentation or recall can enhance typically developing children's abilities to complete multi-step instruction sequences. In this study, we tested the ability to following instructions in children with ADHD under different conditions to explore whether they show the same beneficial effects of action. A total of 24 children with ADHD and 27 typically developing children either listened to or viewed demonstrations of instructions during encoding, and then either verbally repeated or physically performed the sequences during recall...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170167/effects-of-image-based-and-text-based-active-learning-exercises-on-student-examination-performance-in-a-musculoskeletal-anatomy-course
#14
M Melissa Gross, Mary C Wright, Olivia S Anderson
Research on the benefits of visual learning has relied primarily on lecture-based pedagogy, but the potential benefits of combining active learning strategies with visual and verbal materials on learning anatomy has not yet been explored. In this study, the differential effects of text-based and image-based active learning exercises on examination performance were investigated in a functional anatomy course. Each class session was punctuated with an average of 12 text-based and image-based active learning exercises...
February 7, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167926/disrupted-causal-connectivity-anchored-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Hong Yang, Chengwei Wang, Yumei Zhang, Liming Xia, Zhan Feng, Deqiang Li, Shunliang Xu, Haiyan Xie, Feng Chen, Yushu Shi, Jue Wang
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a transitional stage between normal cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have found that neuronal activity and functional connectivity impaired in many functional networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN), which is related to significantly impaired cognitive and memory functions in aMCI patients. However, few studies have focused on the effective connectivity of the DMN and its subsystems in aMCI patients. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is considered a crucial region in connectivity of the DMN and its key subsystem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167329/the-role-of-set-shifting-in-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#16
Sara Siddi, Donatella Rita Petretto, Caterina Burrai, Rosanna Scanu, Antonella Baita, Pierfranco Trincas, Emanuela Trogu, Liliana Campus, Augusto Contu, Antonio Preti
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are a cardinal characteristic of psychosis. Recent research on the neuropsychological mechanism of AVHs has focused on source monitoring failure, but a few studies have suggested the involvement of attention, working memory, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, and executive functions. In this study we examined the neuropsychological profile of patients with AVHs, assuming that the mechanism underlying this symptom could be a dysfunction of specific cognitive domains...
January 21, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167237/does-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-enhance-cognition-a-randomized-trial-in-healthy-adults
#17
Jacqueline A Pettersen
BACKGROUND: Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (<75nmol/L) at baseline. METHODS: Healthy adults (n=82) from northern British Columbia, Canada (54° north latitude) with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≤100nmol/L were randomized and blinded to High Dose (4000IU/d) versus Low Dose (400IU/d) vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for 18weeks...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164725/applying-psycholinguistic-evidence-to-the-construction-of-a-new-test-of-verbal-memory-in-late-life-cognitive-decline
#18
Johannes Baltasar Hessler, David Brieber, Johanna Egle, Georg Mandler, Thomas Jahn
The construction of the German Auditory Wordlist Learning Test (AWLT) for the assessment of verbal memory in late-life cognitive decline was guided by psycholinguistic evidence, which indicates that a word's linguistic characteristics influence its probability of being learned and recalled. The AWLT includes four trials of learning, short and long delayed free recall, and a recognition task. Its words were selected with taking into account their semantic content, orthographic length, frequency in the language, and orthographic neighborhood size (the number of words derived by adding, subtracting, or replacing a single letter at a time)...
February 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163372/more-evidence-for-three-types-of-cognitive-style-validating-the-object-spatial-imagery-and-verbal-questionnaire-using-eye-tracking-when-learning-with-texts-and-pictures
#19
Tim N Höffler, Marta Koć-Januchta, Detlev Leutner
There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three-dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text-picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three-dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ to learning behaviour. The results largely confirm the model in that they show the expected correlations between results on the OSIVQ, visuo-spatial ability and learning behaviour...
January 2017: Applied Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161559/commentary-driver-training-effects-of-commentary-exposure-practice-and-production-on-hazard-perception-and-eye-movements
#20
Angela H Young, David Crundall, Peter Chapman
Commentary driving typically involves being trained in how to produce a verbal running commentary about what you can see, what you are doing, what might happen and what action you will take to avoid potential hazards, while driving. Although video-based commentary training has been associated with subsequent hazard perception improvements, it can have a negative impact on hazard perception when a live commentary is produced at test (Young, Chapman, & Crundall, 2014). In the current study we use balanced training and testing blocks to isolate the effects of commentary exposure, production of a commentary with and without practice, and learning from earlier self-generation of commentary on behavioural and eye movement measures...
February 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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