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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634543/cannabis-and-cognitive-functioning-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-gender
#1
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Cognitive function in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is associated with gender differences and the use of smoked/ingested cannabis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to explore a possible gender-cannabis interaction associated with cognitive dysfunction in PwMS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of cognitive data collected from 140 PwMS. A general linear model was conducted to determine gender and cannabis effects on processing speed (SDMT), verbal (CVLT-II) and visual (BVMT-R) memory, and executive functions (D-KEFS), while controlling for age and years of education...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633060/childhood-adversity-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-major-depression
#2
Katharina Dannehl, Winfried Rief, Frank Euteneuer
OBJECTIVE: Major depression is often accompanied by deficits in cognitive functioning and lowered executive functions. However, not all depressed patients show impairments in these domains. The aim of this study was to examine whether different kinds of childhood adversity might account for cognitive deficits in patients with major depression. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with major depression (DSM-IV) and 40 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, processing speed and executive functions...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632752/learning-to-exploit-a-hidden-predictor-in-skill-acquisition-tight-linkage-to-conscious-awareness
#3
Randy Tran, Harold Pashler
It is often assumed that implicit learning of skills based on predictive relationships proceeds independently of awareness. To test this idea, four groups of subjects played a game in which a fast-moving "demon" made a brief appearance at the bottom of the computer screen, then disappeared behind a V-shaped occluder, and finally re-appeared briefly on either the upper-left or upper-right quadrant of the screen. Points were scored by clicking on the demon during the final reappearance phase. Demons differed in several visible characteristics including color, horn height and eye size...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632037/construct-and-concurrent-validity-of-the-cambridge-neuropsychological-automated-tests-in-portuguese-older-adults-without-neuropsychiatric-diagnoses-and-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#4
Marta Matos Gonçalves, Maria Salomé Pinho, Mário R Simões
We aimed to analyze the construct and concurrent validity of the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Reaction Time (RTI), and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB®). Inclusion criteria were checked in a first session. The CANTAB and additional pencil-and-paper tests were administered within 1 week. The participants (aged 69-96 years) were 137 Portuguese adults without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and 37 adults with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease dementia...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631992/validity-of-a-verbal-incidental-learning-measure-from-the-wais-iv-in-older-adults
#5
Dustin B Hammers, Amanda M Kucera, Stephanie J Card, Kathryn A Tolle, Taylor J Atkinson, Kevin Duff, Robert J Spencer
Incidental memory may reflect a form of learning in everyday life, although it is not consistently evaluated during standard neuropsychological evaluations. Further validation of a recently created measure of verbal Incidental Learning (IL) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV is necessary to understand the utility of such a measure in clinical settings. Sixty-eight adults aged 50 to 89 were recruited from a Cognitive Disorders Clinic while receiving a standard neuropsychological assessment, along with two additional measures of IL...
March 2, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630767/the-learning-preferences-among-nursing-students-in-the-king-saud-university-in-saudi-arabia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#6
Homood A Alharbi, Adel F Almutairi, Eyad M Alhelih, Abdualrahman S Alshehry
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify the most common learning preferences among the nursing students in Saudi Arabia and to investigate the associations of certain demographic variables with the learning preferences. METHODS: All the undergraduate nursing students in the nursing college were requested to participate in this descriptive cross-sectional study. An Arabic version of the Felder-Silverman learning style model (FSLSM) questionnaire was used to examine the learning preferences among undergraduate nursing students...
2017: Nursing Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630377/effects-of-cognitive-reserve-depend-on-executive-and-semantic-demands-of-the-task
#7
R Ryan Darby, Michael Brickhouse, David A Wolk, Bradford C Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve (CR) is one factor that helps to maintain cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the effects of CR depend on the semantic/executive components of the task remains unknown. METHODS: 470 patients (138 with AD, 332 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI)) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Linear regression models were used to determine the effects of CR (years of education) on cognitive performance after controlling for demographic factors and regional cortical atrophy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629487/learning-and-memory-in-adolescents-with-critical-biventricular-congenital-heart-disease
#8
Adam R Cassidy, Jane W Newburger, David C Bellinger
OBJECTIVES: Although evidence exists of broadly defined memory impairment among adolescents with critical congenital heart disease (CHD), nuanced investigations of declarative memory in this at-risk population have not been conducted. This study had two primary aims: (1) to conduct a fine-grained analysis of a range of relevant learning and memory processes in adolescents with critical biventricular CHD, and (2) to identify risk, odds, and predictors of memory impairment. METHODS: Data were combined from two single-center studies of neurodevelopmental outcomes in critical CHD...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625185/deterioration-of-visuospatial-associative-memory-following-a-first-psychotic-episode-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#9
C M J Wannan, C F Bartholomeusz, V L Cropley, T E Van Rheenen, A Panayiotou, W J Brewer, T M Proffitt, L Henry, M G Harris, D Velakoulis, P McGorry, C Pantelis, S J Wood
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia, and impairments in most domains are thought to be stable over the course of the illness. However, cross-sectional evidence indicates that some areas of cognition, such as visuospatial associative memory, may be preserved in the early stages of psychosis, but become impaired in later established illness stages. This longitudinal study investigated change in visuospatial and verbal associative memory following psychosis onset...
June 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624680/the-timing-of-spontaneous-detection-and-repair-of-naming-errors-in-aphasia
#10
Julia Schuchard, Erica L Middleton, Myrna F Schwartz
This study examined the timing of spontaneous self-monitoring in the naming responses of people with aphasia. Twelve people with aphasia completed a 615-item naming test twice, in separate sessions. Naming attempts were scored for accuracy and error type, and verbalizations indicating detection were coded as negation (e.g., "no, not that") or repair attempts (i.e., a changed naming attempt). Focusing on phonological and semantic errors, we measured the timing of the errors and of the utterances that provided evidence of detection...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623726/diagnostic-causal-reasoning-with-verbal-information
#11
Björn Meder, Ralf Mayrhofer
In diagnostic causal reasoning, the goal is to infer the probability of causes from one or multiple observed effects. Typically, studies investigating such tasks provide subjects with precise quantitative information regarding the strength of the relations between causes and effects or sample data from which the relevant quantities can be learned. By contrast, we sought to examine people's inferences when causal information is communicated through qualitative, rather vague verbal expressions (e.g., "X occasionally causes A")...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623461/neuropsychological-test-administration-by-videoconference-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Timothy W Brearly, Robert D Shura, Sarah L Martindale, Rory A Lazowski, David D Luxton, Brian V Shenal, Jared A Rowland
The purpose of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of videoconference administration on adult neurocognitive tests. We investigated whether the scores acquired during a videoconference administration were different from those acquired during on-site administration. Relevant counterbalanced crossover studies were identified according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Twelve studies met criteria for analysis. Included samples consisted of healthy adults as well as those with psychiatric or neurocognitive disorders, with mean ages ranging from 34 to 88 years...
June 16, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623151/cognitive-performance-across-3-frailty-phenotypes-toledo-study-for-healthy-aging
#13
Cristina Rosado-Artalejo, Jose Antonio Carnicero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Carmen Castillo-Gallego, Gonzalo Gutierrez-Avila, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Leocadio Rodríguez-Mañas, Francisco José García-García
INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a strong predictor of adverse health events, but its impact on cognitive function is poorly understood. AIM: To assess cognitive performance in frailty and to identify the frailty stage where cognitive impairment begins. METHODS: Data were taken from 2044 people aged ≥65 years without cognitive impairment selected from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a population-based cohort of older adults. Frailty status was assessed by 3 different scales: Frailty Phenotype (FP), Frailty Trait Scale (FTS), and Frailty Index (FI)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617009/-the-feasibility-of-implementing-cognitive-remediation-for-work-in-community-based-psychiatric-rehabilitation-programs-correction-to-mcgurk-et-al-2017
#14
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The feasibility of implementing cognitive remediation for work in community based psychiatric rehabilitation programs" by Susan R. McGurk, Kim T. Mueser, Melanie A. Watkins, Carline M. Dalton and Heather Deutsch (Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 2017[Mar], Vol 40[1], 79-86). In the article, the author order was incorrect due to a printer error. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-13255-004.) Objective: Adding cognitive remediation to vocational rehabilitation services improves cognitive and work functioning in people with serious mental illness, but despite interest, the uptake of cognitive programs into community services has been slow...
June 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613953/correlates-of-verbal-learning-and-memory-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Velisa M Johnson, Jacobus Donders
This study examined the role of injury-related variables, socioeconomic disadvantage, and preexisting conditions on verbal learning and memory in a sample of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We also explored the mediating effect of processing speed and working memory. One hundred children aged 7-16 years (M = 13.46, SD = 2.78) completed a neuropsychological assessment between 1-12 months post injury. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted on domains comprising the four-factor model of the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C)...
June 14, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606193/referential-interactions-of-turkish-learning-children-with-their-caregivers-about-non-absent-objects-integration-of-non-verbal-devices-and-prior-discourse
#16
Beyza Ş Ateş, Aylin C Küntay
This paper examines the way children younger than two use non-verbal devices (i.e., deictic gestures and communicative functional acts) and pay attention to discourse status (i.e., prior mention vs. newness) of referents in interactions with caregivers. Data based on semi-naturalistic interactions with caregivers of four children, at ages 1;00, 1;05, and 1;09, are analyzed. We report that children employ different types of non-verbal devices to supplement their inadequate referential forms before gaining mastery in language...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602134/the-effects-of-early-auditory-based-intervention-on-adult-bilateral-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#17
Stacey R Lim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this exploratory study was to determine the types of improvement that sequentially implanted auditory-verbal and auditory-oral adults with prelingual and childhood hearing loss received in bilateral listening conditions, compared to their best unilateral listening condition. METHODS: Five auditory-verbal adults and five auditory-oral adults were recruited for this study. Participants were seated in the center of a 6-loudspeaker array. BKB-SIN sentences were presented from 0° azimuth, while multi-talker babble was presented from various loudspeakers...
June 12, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596958/circulating-cellular-adhesion-molecules-and-cognitive-function-the-coronary-artery-risk-development-in-young-adults-study
#18
Cynthia Yursun Yoon, Lyn M Steffen, Myron D Gross, Lenore J Launer, Andrew Odegaard, Alexander Reiner, Otto Sanchez, Kristine Yaffe, Stephen Sidney, David R Jacobs
OBJECTIVE: Higher circulating concentrations of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) can be used as markers of endothelial dysfunction. Given that the brain is highly vascularized, we assessed whether endothelial function is associated with cognitive performance. METHOD: Within the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, excluding N = 54 with stroke before year 25, we studied CAMs among N = 2,690 black and white men and women in CARDIA year 7 (1992-1993, ages 25-37) and N = 2,848 in CARDIA year 15 (2000-2001, ages 33-45)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595749/negative-emotional-verbal-memory-biases-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-late-onset-depression
#19
Linda Mah, Nicole D Anderson, Nicolaas Paul L G Verhoeff, Bruce G Pollock
OBJECTIVE: Early and preferential targeting of limbic structures by Alzheimer disease (AD)-related pathology suggests emotion dysregulation may serve as a marker of AD risk. We studied emotional verbal memory in two groups at risk for AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-onset depression (LOD), to test the hypothesis that aMCI and LOD would be characterized by a negative bias in emotional memory, whereas cognitively normal (CN) adults would show the "positivity effect" associated with healthy aging...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595181/informant-reported-cognitive-decline-and-activity-engagement-across-four-years-in-a-community-sample
#20
Diane E Hosking, Da Jiang, Kerry A Sargent-Cox, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Subtle age-related cognitive decline may be associated with the capacity to remain engaged in mental, physical, and social activities. Informant reports of cognitive decline potentially provide additional information to psychometric tests on change in everyday cognitive function relevant to activity engagement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate relations between decline in everyday cognitive function as assessed by informant report and activity engagement in community-dwelling older adults...
June 9, 2017: Gerontology
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