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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351038/early-reading-abilities-of-bilingual-children-with-nonsyndromic-orofacial-clefts
#1
Michelle Heng Yue Cheong, Selena Ee-Li Young, Dawn Patricia Chuan Yu Young, Mary Lay Choo Lee, Susan Jane Rickard Liow
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early reading abilities, and related cognitive-linguistic processes, in bilingual children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to identify deficits that might be amenable to intervention. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Bilingual participants with CL/P aged 5 to 6 years who were English-dominant ( n=17) or Mandarin-dominant ( n=18) were recruited using consecutive sampling from a national cleft treatment center and matched pairwise to a sample of typically developing (TD) children on language dominance, age, and socioeconomic status...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344925/translating-visual-information-into-action-predictions-statistical-learning-in-action-and-nonaction-contexts
#2
Claire D Monroy, Sarah A Gerson, Sabine Hunnius
Humans are sensitive to the statistical regularities in action sequences carried out by others. In the present eyetracking study, we investigated whether this sensitivity can support the prediction of upcoming actions when observing unfamiliar action sequences. In two between-subjects conditions, we examined whether observers would be more sensitive to statistical regularities in sequences performed by a human agent versus self-propelled 'ghost' events. Secondly, we investigated whether regularities are learned better when they are associated with contingent effects...
January 17, 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342226/don-t-judge-a-book-by-its-cover-examiner-expectancy-effects-predict-neuropsychological-performance-for-individuals-judged-as-chronic-cannabis-users
#3
Louise M Sodos, Rayna B Hirst, Jessica Watson, Dylan Vaughn
Objective: The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Method: Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340965/emotional-and-social-characteristics-of-stroke-patients-with-low-verbal-memory
#4
Ewa Zawadzka, Łucja Domańska
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits, especially problems with memory observed after stroke often coexist with patients' experience of difficulties in everyday life situations. AIMS: The purposes of the study were to explore the relationships between verbal memory, emotional functioning and social competence in stroke patients, and to examine the emotional and social condition of stroke patients with low verbal memory. METHODS: Ninety-five participants were assessed with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, the Neuropsychology Behavior and Affect Profile, and the Social Competency Questionnaire...
January 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339837/validation-of-the-brief-international-cognitive-assessment-for-multiple-sclerosis-in-japan
#5
Masaaki Niino, Toshiyuki Fukazawa, Jun-Ichi Kira, Tatsusada Okuno, Masahiro Mori, Nobuo Sanjo, Takashi Ohashi, Hikoaki Fukaura, Juichi Fujimori, Yuko Shimizu, Nobuhiro Mifune, Yusei Miyazaki, Eri Takahashi, Seiji Kikuchi, Dawn Langdon, Ralph Hb Benedict, Makoto Matsui
Background: The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) is a practical battery for measuring cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives: We aimed to validate a Japanese version of the BICAMS in patients with MS and healthy controls. Methods: The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT2) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR) were administered to 156 patients with MS and 126 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339561/prepared-stimuli-enhance-aversive-learning-without-weakening-the-impact-of-verbal-instructions
#6
Lauren Y Atlas, Elizabeth A Phelps
Fear-relevant stimuli such as snakes and spiders are thought to capture attention due to evolutionary significance. Classical conditioning experiments indicate that these stimuli accelerate learning, while instructed extinction experiments suggest they may be less responsive to instructions. We manipulated stimulus type during instructed aversive reversal learning and used quantitative modeling to simultaneously test both hypotheses. Skin conductance reversed immediately upon instruction in both groups. However, fear-relevant stimuli enhanced dynamic learning, as measured by higher learning rates in participants conditioned with images of snakes and spiders...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333085/next-generation-sequencing-expression-profiling-of-mitochondrial-subunits-in-men-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#7
Michele Salemi, Laura Cimino, Marika Marino, Rossella Cannarella, Rosita A Condorelli, Corrado Romano, Sandro La Vignera, Aldo E Calogero
Objectives: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common sex-chromosome disorders as it affects up to 1 in every 600-1000 newborn males. Men with KS carry one extra X chromosome and they usually present a 47,XXY karyotype, but less frequent variants have also been reported in literature. KS typical symptoms include tall stature, gynecomastia, broad hips, hypogonadism and absent spermatogenesis. The syndrome is also related to a wide range of cognitive deficits, among which language-based learning disabilities and verbal cognition impairment are frequently diagnosed...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332038/sex-influences-the-accuracy-of-subjective-memory-complaint-reporting-in-older-adults
#9
Erin E Sundermann, Emily C Edmonds, Lisa Delano-Wood, Douglas R Galasko, David P Salmon, Leah H Rubin, Mark W Bondi
Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are required when diagnosing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), although their relationship with objective memory performance and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology remains unclear. We investigated whether the sex of the patient/participant moderates these associations. Participants were 940 normal control (NC) and aMCI participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SMC were assessed via the memory scale of the Everyday Cognition questionnaire. Discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-reports and categorized into "overestimates," "comparable estimates", and "underestimates" of SMC...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#10
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#11
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#12
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325436/patient-predictors-of-response-to-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-and-schema-therapy-for-depression
#13
Janet D Carter, Virginia Vw McIntosh, Jennifer Jordan, Richard J Porter, Katie Douglas, Christopher M Frampton, Peter R Joyce
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined differential predictors of response to psychotherapy for depression. Greater understanding about the factors associated with therapeutic response may better enable therapists to optimise response by targeting therapy for the individual. The aim of the current exploratory study was to examine patient characteristics associated with response to cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy for depression. METHODS: Participants were 100 outpatients in a clinical trial randomised to either cognitive behaviour therapy or schema therapy...
January 1, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317606/corticotropin-releasing-factor-1-receptor-haplotype-and-cognitive-features-of-major-depression
#14
REVIEW
Elena Goetz Davis, Jennifer Keller, Joachim Hallmayer, Heather Ryan Pankow, Greer M Murphy, Ian H Gotlib, Alan F Schatzberg
Corticotropin-releasing factor signaling through CRF receptor type 1 (CRF1) has been shown to contribute to learning and memory function. A haplotype of alleles T-A-T in a set of common polymorphisms in the gene encoding for CRF1 (CRHR1) has been associated with both depression vulnerability and alterations in cognitive functioning. The present study investigated the relations between the TAT haplotype and specific symptoms of depression, self-reported ruminative behaviors, and neuropsychological performance on a learning and memory task...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317186/perturbation-of-theta-gamma-coupling-at-the-temporal-lobe-hinders-verbal-declarative-memory
#15
Gabriel Amador de Lara, Ivan Alekseichuk, Zsolt Turi, Albert Lehr, Andrea Antal, Walter Paulus
BACKGROUND: Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) is characterized by the modulation of the power of a fast brain oscillation (e.g., gamma) by the phase of a slow rhythm (e.g., theta). PAC in different sub- and neocortical regions is known to underlie effective neural communication and correlates with successful long-term memory formation. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The present work aims to extend earlier observational data, by probing the functional role of theta-gamma PAC in the left temporal cortex in humans during verbal long-term memory encoding...
December 25, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313729/linguistic-factors-associated-with-phonemic-fluency-performance-in-a-sample-of-bilingual-hispanic-undergraduate-students
#16
Jennifer Bennett, Steven P Verney
Research has demonstrated that bilingualism impacts neuropsychological performance, but the findings on its effects on verbal fluency have been mixed. This study compared the verbal fluency performance of non-Hispanic White monolingual speakers with a Hispanic bilingual population. Ninety-nine Spanish-English bilingual Hispanic and thirty English-speaking monolingual non-Hispanic White undergraduates completed the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Students also completed a general cognitive and English reading measure...
January 9, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309525/cerebral-structure-and-cognitive-performance-in-african-americans-and-european-americans-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Fang-Chi Hsu, Kaycee M Sink, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Jeff D Williamson, Timothy M Hughes, Nicholette D Palmer, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Benjamin C Wagner, Christopher T Whitlow, Donald W Bowden, Joseph A Maldjian, Jasmin Divers, Barry I Freedman
Background: African Americans typically perform worse than European Americans on cognitive testing. Contributions of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and educational quality to cognitive performance and brain volumes were compared in European Americans and African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Association between MRI-determined cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions (WMLV), hippocampal GMV, and modified mini mental state exam (3MSE), digit symbol coding (DSC), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Stroop, and verbal fluency performance were assessed in Diabetes Heart Study Memory IN Diabetes participants...
January 4, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309370/how-do-you-feel-subjective-perception-of-recovery-as-a-reliable-surrogate-of-cognitive-and-functional-outcome-in-cardiac-arrest-survivors
#18
Elsa Juan, Marzia De Lucia, Valérie Beaud, Mauro Oddo, Marco Rusca, Dragana Viceic, Stephanie Clarke, Andrea O Rossetti
OBJECTIVES: To show that subjective estimate of patient's condition is related to objective cognitive and functional outcome in cardiac arrest survivors. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: ICU and Neuropsychology Service in two hospitals in Switzerland. PATIENTS: Fifty survivors included from a prospective cohort of 138 patients admitted at the ICU for cardiopulmonary arrest. INTERVENTIONS: Comprehensive cognitive and functional evaluation at 6 months follow-up...
January 5, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309294/speed-of-language-comprehension-at-18-months-old-predicts-school-relevant-outcomes-at-54-months-old-in-children-born-preterm
#19
Virginia A Marchman, Elizabeth C Loi, Katherine A Adams, Melanie Ashland, Anne Fernald, Heidi M Feldman
OBJECTIVE: Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307324/evaluation-of-cognition-and-cortical-excitability-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
Nitish Kamble, M Netravathi, B C Nagaraju, Abhishek Lenka, Keshav Kumar, V Sowmya, Sanjeev Jain, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Studies of the motor cortical excitability and central motor pathways have shown variable results. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to evaluate the cortical excitability changes in HD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and correlate the changes with cognitive impairment. METHODS: The study included 32 HD patients and 30 age- and gender-matched controls...
January 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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