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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738266/adhd-symptoms-impact-smoking-outcomes-and-withdrawal-in-response-to-varenicline-treatment-for-smoking-cessation
#1
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C Karoly, Kent E Hutchison, Angela D Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with nicotine dependence and difficulty quitting smoking. Few cessation trials specifically consider the impact of ADHD on treatment outcomes, including those testing established pharmacological therapies, such as varenicline. METHODS: The current study focused on the impact of pretreatment ADHD inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms on treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of varenicline [N=205, average age=34...
July 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701934/neuronal-intra-individual-variability-masks-response-selection-differences-between-adhd-subtypes-a-need-to-change-perspectives
#2
Annet Bluschke, Witold X Chmielewski, Moritz Mückschel, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Due to the high intra-individual variability in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there may be considerable bias in knowledge about altered neurophysiological processes underlying executive dysfunctions in patients with different ADHD subtypes. When aiming to establish dimensional cognitive-neurophysiological constructs representing symptoms of ADHD as suggested by the initiative for Research Domain Criteria, it is crucial to consider such processes independent of variability. We examined patients with the predominantly inattentive subtype (attention deficit disorder, ADD) and the combined subtype of ADHD (ADHD-C) in a flanker task measuring conflict control...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700036/computerized-cognitive-training-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-add-on-treatment-to-stimulants-feasibility-study-and-protocol-description
#3
Virginia de Oliveira Rosa, Marcelo Schmitz, Carlos Roberto Moreira-Maia, Flavia Wagner, Igor Londero, Caroline de Fraga Bassotto, Guilherme Moritz, Caroline Dos Santos de Souza, Luis Augusto Paim Rohde
Background: Cognitive training has received increasing attention as a non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Few studies have assessed cognitive training as add-on treatment to medication in randomized placebo controlled trials. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the feasibility of implementing a computerized cognitive training program for ADHD in our environment, describe its main characteristics and potential efficacy in a small pilot study...
April 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693369/subjective-health-complaints-and-exposure-to-peer-victimization-among-disabled-and-non-disabled-adolescents-a-population-based-study-in-sweden
#4
Maria Fridh, Marie Köhler, Birgit Modén, Martin Lindström, Maria Rosvall
AIMS: To investigate subjective health complaints (SHCs) (psychological and somatic, respectively) among disabled and non-disabled adolescents, focusing on the impact of traditional bullying and cyber harassment, and furthermore to report psychological and somatic SHCs across different types of disability. METHODS: Data from the public health survey of children and adolescents in Scania, Sweden, 2012 was used. A questionnaire was answered anonymously in school by 9791 students in the 9th grade (response rate 83%), and 7533 of these with valid answers on key questions were included in this study...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682784/the-theoretical-underpinnings-of-internet-addiction-and-its-association-with-psychopathology-in-adolescence
#5
Shawn Taylor, Sirirada Pattara-Angkoon, Schwanagorn Sirirat, Damith Woods
This paper reviews the psychological and theoretical underpinnings that might help to explain the reported relationship between Internet addiction (IA) and psychopathology in both children and adolescents. Drawing on cognitive-behavioural models and social-skills theory, IA shows a strong relationship with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and time spent using the Internet use. Mixed findings are reported for social anxiety. Loneliness and hostility were also found to be associated with IA...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641216/psychoeducational-groups-for-adults-with-adhd-and-their-significant-others-pegasus-a-pragmatic-multicenter-and-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
T Hirvikoski, T Lindström, J Carlsson, E Waaler, J Jokinen, S Bölte
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and effectiveness of PEGASUS, a group-based structured psychoeducation for adults with ADHD and their significant others. METHOD: A pragmatic parallel group add-on design multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing an 8-session treatment with PEGASUS (allocated n=97; 48 with ADHD and 49 with significant others) to treatment as usual (TAU, allocated n=82; 39 with ADHD and 43 significant others)...
May 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566963/the-investigation-of-symptoms-and-diagnoses-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-women-with-iron-deficiency-anemia
#7
Kadir Demirci, Funda Yildirim Baş, Bahriye Arslan, Zeliha Salman, Abdullah Akpinar, Arif Demirdaş
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms and diagnoses of Adult-Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in women with iron deficiency anemia, to evaluate relationship between ADHD with clinical features and to compare with the women without iron deficiency anemia. METHODS: Eighty-three newly diagnosed iron deficiency anemia patients and 70 healthy controls were included in this study. All participants were assessed using a sociodemographic form, Structured Clinical Interview I (SCID-I), Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS); Moreover, participants having WURS scores 36 and above were also assessed using the Adult ADD/ADHD Evaluation Scale and interviewed according to DSM-5 criteria...
March 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539852/abnormal-brain-connectivity-spectrum-disorders-following-thimerosal-administration-a-prospective-longitudinal-case-control-assessment-of-medical-records-in-the-vaccine-safety-datalink
#8
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), tic disorder (TD), and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (attention deficit disorder [ADD]/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) are disorders recently defined as abnormal connectivity spectrum disorders (ACSDs) because they show a similar pattern of abnormal brain connectivity. This study examines whether these disorders are associated with exposure to thimerosal, a mercury (Hg)-based preservative. METHODS: A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated the Vaccine Safety Datalink for the potential dose-dependent odds ratios (ORs) for diagnoses of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD compared to controls, following exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administrated within the first 15 months of life...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457852/identification-of-a-novel-de-novo-nonsense-mutation-of-the-nsd1-gene-in-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-sotos-syndrome
#9
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee, Woori Jang, Soyoung Shin, Joonhong Park, Myungshin Kim
INTRODUCTION: Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth disorder characterized by facial gestalt, excessively rapid growth, acromegalic features and a non-progressive cerebral disorder with intellectual disability. METHODOLOGY: The identical male twins showed somewhat different clinical, cognitive and behavioural phenotypes. Abnormal clinical manifestations including seizures, scoliosis, enlarged ventricles, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were found in the proband (first twin), but not in the sibling (second twin)...
July 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436115/genetic-and-environmental-contributions-to-the-association-between-adhd-and-affective-problems-in-early-childhood-a-swedish-population-based-twin-study
#10
Mina Rydell, Mark J Taylor, Henrik Larsson
Few twin studies have explored the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and affective problems, and no study has focused on preschool children. We used the classical twin design to explore the genetic and environmental overlap between ADHD symptoms and affective problems in preschool children, based on 879 five-year-old twin pairs born in Sweden 2004-2005. Questionnaire-based parent-ratings were used to measure ADHD symptoms and affective problems...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433949/the-dimensional-structure-of-psychopathology-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#11
Maria Niarchou, Tyler M Moore, Sunny X Tang, Monica E Calkins, Donna M McDonald-McGuinn, Elaine H Zackai, Beverly S Emanuel, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the strongest known genetic risk factors for developing schizophrenia. Individuals with 22q11.2DS have high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood, while in adulthood ∼25% develop schizophrenia. Similar to the general population, high rates of comorbidity are common in 22q11.2DS. Employing a dimensional approach where psychopathology is examined at the symptom-level as complementary to diagnostic categories in a population at such high genetic risk for schizophrenia can help gain a better understanding of how psychopathology is structured as well as its genetic underpinnings...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411411/maternal-hypothyroxinaemia-in-early-pregnancy-and-problem-behavior-in-5-year-old-offspring
#12
Maurits H W Oostenbroek, Remco H J Kersten, Benjamin Tros, Anton E Kunst, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Martijn J J Finken
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence, though not consistent, that offspring born to mothers with subtle decreases in thyroid function early in their pregnancies may be at risk of cognitive impairments and attention problems. However, other types of problem behavior have not been addressed thus far. We tested whether maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy is associated with several types of problem behavior in offspring at age 5-6 years. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study that included the data of 2000 mother-child pairs from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study...
March 25, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374193/relationship-of-self-mutilative-behaviour-with-history-of-childhood-trauma-and-adult-adhd-symptoms-in-a-sample-of-inpatients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#13
Cuneyt Evren, Gokhan Umut, Bilge Evren
The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of self-mutilative behaviour (SMB) with the severity of childhood trauma and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants included 188 inpatients with AUD. Participants were evaluated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (Adult ADHD Scale)...
April 3, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351412/effect-of-pycnogenol%C3%A2-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Annelies A J Verlaet, Berten Ceulemans, Helene Verhelst, Dirk Van West, Tess De Bruyne, Luc Pieters, Huub F J Savelkoul, Nina Hermans
BACKGROUND: Methylphenidate (MPH), the first choice medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with serious adverse effects like arrhythmia. Evidence on the association of ADHD with immune and oxidant-antioxidant imbalances offers potential for antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory nutritional supplements as ADHD therapy. One small randomised trial in ADHD suggests, despite various limitations, therapeutic benefit from Pycnogenol®, a herbal, polyphenol-rich extract...
March 28, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351374/working-memory-training-in-children-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-and-mild-to-borderline-intellectual-functioning-the-role-of-coaching-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sammy Roording-Ragetlie, Helen Klip, Jan Buitelaar, Dorine Slaats-Willemse
BACKGROUND: Working memory training (WMT) has been shown to offer therapeutic benefits to both patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and patients with mild to borderline Intellectual Disabilities (MBID; 60 < IQ < 85). However, robust evidence for transfer effects and treatment benefits of WMT over placebo training are lacking. Owing to the nature of double-blind research designs in RCTs, children have received non-specific coaching not based on their actual training performance...
March 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351351/the-influence-of-participation-in-target-shooting-sport-for-children-with-inattentive-hyperactive-and-impulsive-symptoms-a-controlled-study-of-best-practice
#16
Annegrete Gohr Månsson, Mette Elmose, Søren Dalsgaard, Kirsten K Roessler
BACKGROUND: Practising target-shooting sport requires focused attention and motoric steadiness. A previous non-controlled pilot study suggests that children with impairing symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) benefit from participating in target-shooting sport in local shooting associations, as rated by parents and teachers. This study aims at examining if, and to which extent, target-shooting sport reduces parent- and teacher-reported severity of inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in children with attention difficulties, and if, and to which extend, target-shooting sport improves the children's wellbeing and quality of life...
March 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254649/altered-perceptual-pseudoneglect-in-adhd-evidence-for-a-functional-disconnection-from-early-visual-activation
#17
Jiaqing Chen, Matthias Niemeier
Novel insights into the right-brain dominant functions of spatial attention and visual awareness may come from the peculiar observation that the attentional bias to the left in healthy individuals, called "pseudoneglect," increases with visual noise superimposed onto test stimuli. However, it is unclear if this effect originates from noise activating early visual areas or causing higher-level cognitive interference. Cognitive distraction and load are known to induce neglect-like rightward biases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219628/subcortical-brain-volume-differences-in-participants-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adults-a-cross-sectional-mega-analysis
#18
Martine Hoogman, Janita Bralten, Derrek P Hibar, Maarten Mennes, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne S J Schweren, Kimm J E van Hulzen, Sarah E Medland, Elena Shumskaya, Neda Jahanshad, Patrick de Zeeuw, Eszter Szekely, Gustavo Sudre, Thomas Wolfers, Alberdingk M H Onnink, Janneke T Dammers, Jeanette C Mostert, Yolanda Vives-Gilabert, Gregor Kohls, Eileen Oberwelland, Jochen Seitz, Martin Schulte-Rüther, Sara Ambrosino, Alysa E Doyle, Marie F Høvik, Margaretha Dramsdahl, Leanne Tamm, Theo G M van Erp, Anders Dale, Andrew Schork, Annette Conzelmann, Kathrin Zierhut, Ramona Baur, Hazel McCarthy, Yuliya N Yoncheva, Ana Cubillo, Kaylita Chantiluke, Mitul A Mehta, Yannis Paloyelis, Sarah Hohmann, Sarah Baumeister, Ivanei Bramati, Paulo Mattos, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Pamela Douglas, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Jonna Kuntsi, Philip Asherson, Katya Rubia, Clare Kelly, Adriana Di Martino, Michael P Milham, Francisco X Castellanos, Thomas Frodl, Mariam Zentis, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Paul Pauli, Terry L Jernigan, Jan Haavik, Kerstin J Plessen, Astri J Lundervold, Kenneth Hugdahl, Larry J Seidman, Joseph Biederman, Nanda Rommelse, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jaap Oosterlaan, Georg von Polier, Kerstin Konrad, Oscar Vilarroya, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Joan Carles Soliva, Sarah Durston, Jan K Buitelaar, Stephen V Faraone, Philip Shaw, Paul M Thompson, Barbara Franke
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies have shown structural alterations in several brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Through the formation of the international ENIGMA ADHD Working Group, we aimed to address weaknesses of previous imaging studies and meta-analyses, namely inadequate sample size and methodological heterogeneity. We aimed to investigate whether there are structural differences in children and adults with ADHD compared with those without this diagnosis...
April 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132125/does-the-presence-of-anxiety-and-adhd-symptoms-add-to-social-impairment-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Reina S Factor, Sarah M Ryan, Julee P Farley, Thomas H Ollendick, Angela Scarpa
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience internalizing and externalizing problems at higher rates than typically developing children, which could worsen social impairment. The present study compared impairment scores (social responsiveness scale, 2nd edition; SRS-2 scores) in 57 children (3-17 years, 82.5% male) with ASD, either with or without heightened levels of anxiety or ADHD symptoms, all per parent report. Children with heightened anxiety problems showed higher scores on four SRS-2 subscales (Social Cognition, Social Communication, Social Motivation, and Restricted Interests and Repetitive Behavior)...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052720/comparative-efficacy-and-safety-of-methylphenidate-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents-meta-analysis-based-on-head-to-head-trials
#20
Qiang Liu, Hong Zhang, Qingqing Fang, Lili Qin
INTRODUCTION: Comparative efficacy and safety are important issues for appropriate drug selection for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment. Therefore we conducted a meta-analysis, where we compared atomoxetine (ATX) and methylphenidate (MPH) for ADHD treatment in children and adolescents. METHOD: Literature retrieval was conducted in relevant databases from their inception to April 2016 to select head-to-head trials that compared ATX and MPH in children and adolescents...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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