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Jeroen Van Dessel, Sarah Morsink, Saskia Van der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Matthijs Moerkerke, Margaux Grandelis, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts
Impulsivity is a core feature of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been conceptualized in a number of different ways. In the current article, we examine how the new concept of "waiting impulsivity", which refers to premature responding before a scheduled target appears, adds to our understanding of impulsivity in ADHD. Sixty children (8-12 years old; 30 ADHD; 30 typically developing controls) completed the 4-choice serial reaction time task, a measure of waiting impulsivity, alongside tasks measuring inhibitory control and temporal discounting and questionnaires measuring behavioral disorder symptoms, delay aversion, and various aspects of impulsivity...
February 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Jutta S Mayer, Katharina Hees, Juliane Medda, Oliver Grimm, Philip Asherson, Mariano Bellina, Michael Colla, Pol Ibáñez, Elena Koch, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Adrià Muntaner-Mas, Anna Rommel, Nanda Rommelse, Saskia de Ruiter, Ulrich W Ebner-Priemer, Meinhard Kieser, Francisco B Ortega, Johannes Thome, Jan K Buitelaar, Jonna Kuntsi, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Andreas Reif, Christine M Freitag
BACKGROUND: The risk for major depression and obesity is increased in adolescents and adults with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescent ADHD predicts adult depression and obesity. Non-pharmacological interventions to treat and prevent these co-morbidities are urgently needed. Bright light therapy (BLT) improves day-night rhythm and is an emerging therapy for major depression. Exercise intervention (EI) reduces obesity and improves depressive symptoms. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been performed to establish feasibility and efficacy of these interventions targeting the prevention of co-morbid depression and obesity in ADHD...
February 26, 2018: Trials
Ida Emilia Aasen, Geir Øgrim, Juri Kropotov, Jan Ferenc Brunner
Methylphenidate (MPH) has been shown to modulate the amplitude of the no-go P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP; Øgrim, Aasen, & Brunner, 2016). Using group independent component analysis, the no-go P3 from a cued go/no-go task has been separated into two sub-components (Brunner et al., 2013). This study investigated whether sub-components of the no-go P3 could be identified in children with ADHD, and how MPH modulates their amplitudes. ERPs were registered twice (on/off MPH) in 57 children with ADHD classified as medication responders in a four-week medication trial...
February 21, 2018: Biological Psychology
Filiz Ozdemiroglu, Kadir Karakus, Cagdas Oyku Memis, Levent Sevincok, Sanem Mersin
Objective: We examined whether some temperamental traits would be associated with persistence of attention deficit-hyperacitivty disorder (ADHD) in adulthood independent from bipolar disorder (BD). Methods: Eighty-one ADHD patients without a comorbid diagnosis of BD were divided into two groups, those with childhood ADHD (n=46), and those with Adulthood ADHD (n=35). The severity of childhood and adulthood ADHD were assessed by using the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS-25) and Turgay's Adult ADD/ADHD Diagnosis and Evaluation Scale (DES)...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Alireza Ghajar, Farinaz Aghajan-Nashtaei, Mohsen Afarideh, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of l-carnosine as an add-on to methylphenidate in management of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This was an 8-week, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Fifty-six drug-free children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old with a diagnosis of ADHD entered the study. The patients were randomly assigned to l-carnosine (800 mg/d in two divided doses) or placebo plus methylphenidate (0...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Renata Markiewcz
The aim of the systematic review was to evaluate the use of EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback in patients treated for mental disorders. The review covered publications analyzing influences and effects of therapy in patients receiving psychiatric treatment based on EEG Biofeedback/Neurofeedback. Selection of publications was made by searching PubMed and Scopus databases. 328 records concerning applications of the presented method were identified in total, including 84 records for patients diagnosed with mental disorders...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Guillermo Montes
Objective Within the social determinants of mental health framework, this article investigated whether children with ASD who have older siblings are less likely to experience depression, anxiety, behavior problems or have ADD/ADHD after controlling for standard social determinants of mental health such as household income, parental education and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Methods Using the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012, children with ASD spectrum disorders (n = 1624) were categorized into three groups: only child, oldest child and has older siblings...
February 10, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Annet Bluschke, Jacqueline Schuster, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
It is far from conclusive what distinguishes the inattentive (ADD) and the combined (ADHD-C) subtype of ADHD on the neuronal level. Theoretical considerations suggest that especially interval timing processes may dissociate these subtypes from each other. Combining high-density EEG recordings with source localization analyses, we examine whether there are ADHD-subtype specific modulations of neurophysiological processes subserving interval timing in matched groups of ADD (n = 16), ADHD-C (n = 16) and controls (n = 16)...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Olof Arvidsson, Christopher Gillberg, Paul Lichtenstein, Sebastian Lundström
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of autism has been reported to have increased worldwide. A decrease over time in the number of autism symptoms required for a clinical autism diagnosis would partly help explain this increase. This study aimed to determine whether the symptom level of clinically diagnosed autism cases below age 13 had changed over time. METHODS: Parents of Swedish 9-year old twins (n = 28,118) participated in a telephone survey, in which symptoms and dysfunction/suffering related to neurodevelopmental disorders [including autism, but also attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), and Learning Disabilities (LD)] in their children were assessed over a 10-year period...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Bülent Bilgi, Umut Mert Aksoy, Özge Şahmelikoğlu Onur, Ayşe Fulya Maner
Introduction: The aim of this study is to assess clinical characteristics and smoking profiles of individuals diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compare their nicotine dependence status with healthy controls for better understanding the mutual and complex relationship between ADHD and smoking. Methods: We included the following participants in the study: 40 adults with the diagnosis of ADHD, 40 participants who visited the smoking cessation polyclinic without any psychiatric disorders, and 40 healthy controls...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Mahesh Desai, Mrunal Bandawar, Arun Kandasamy, Vivek Benegal
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance-use disorders often co-occur. Aim: Aim of this study was to look at the family loading of ADHD (in adults and children) in patients with alcohol-dependence syndrome (ADS) along with the estimation of morbidity risk (MR) for developing ADHD. Methods: Thirty-five male patients with ADS along with their 369 first-degree relatives (FDRs) - both children and adults - were recruited...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Anselm B M Fuermaier, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts, Marah Butzbach, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Lara Tucha
OBJECTIVE: A growing body of research questions the reliance of symptom self-reports in the clinical evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. A recent study suggested that also impairment reports are vulnerable to noncredible responses, as derived from a simulation design using a global functional impairment scale. The present study aims to add evidence to this issue, by using an ADHD specific impairment scale in a simulation design on large samples...
November 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Tiffani A Fordyce, Megan J Leonhard, Ellen T Chang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (ADD/ADHD) are key focuses of current health research due to their increasing prevalence. The objective of this systematic literature search and critical review was to evaluate whether the human epidemiologic data indicate a pattern of association between ASD or ADD/ADHD and developmental exposure to particulate matter (PM), with a focus on exposures encountered before the age of three. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search was conducted; following preliminary and full-text screening, 14 relevant articles were identified for review...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Chaney G Stewman, Catherine Liebman, Laura Fink, Brad Sandella
CONTEXT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric condition in the general population, with evidence suggesting that it may be more common among athletes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature searches were performed on PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 2000 to 2016 utilizing the following key search terms: ADHD, ADD, guidelines, diagnosis, athlete, sports, treatment, pharmacotherapy, stimulants, risk, cardiovascular effects, concussion, and traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
January 2018: Sports Health
James M Swanson, Timothy Wigal, Peter S Jensen, John T Mitchell, Thomas S Weisner, Desiree Murray, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Brooke S G Molina, Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw, Katherine Belendiuk, Andrea Howard, Sharon B Wigal, Page Sorensen, Annamarie Stehli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate participants' perceptions about frequent use and reasons for substance use (SU) in the qualitative interview study, an add-on to the multimodal treatment study of ADHD (MTA). METHOD: Using the longitudinal MTA database, 39 ADHD cases and 19 peers with Persistent SU, and 86 ADHD cases and 39 peers without Persistent SU were identified and recruited. In adulthood, an open-ended interview was administered, and SU excerpts were indexed and classified to create subtopics (frequent use and reasons for use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jungkyun Oh, Jun Seop Lee, Jaemoon Jun, Sung Gun Kim, Jyongsik Jang
Dopamine (DA), a catecholamine hormone, is an important neurotransmitter that controls renal and cardiovascular organizations and regulates physiological activities. Abnormal concentrations of DA cause unfavorable neuronal illnesses such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attention deficit disorder. However, the DA concentration is exceedingly low in patients and difficult to detect with existing biosensors. In this study, we developed an organic field-effect-transistor-type (OFET) nonenzyme biosensor using platinum nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) for ultrasensitive and selective DA detection...
November 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Frederica P Perera, Kylie Wheelock, Ya Wang, Deliang Tang, Amy E Margolis, Gladys Badia, Whitney Cowell, Rachel L Miller, Virginia Rauh, Shuang Wang, Julie B Herbstman
IMPORTANCE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogenic and neurotoxic combustion by-products commonly found in urban air. Exposure to PAH is disproportionately high in low income communities of color who also experience chronic economic stress. OBJECTIVE: In a prospective cohort study in New York City (NYC) we previously found a significant association between prenatal PAH exposure and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) behavior problems at age 9...
January 2018: Environmental Research
Jessica L King, Beth A Reboussin, John Spangler, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Erin L Sutfin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental health conditions represent a priority population for tobacco control. This population smokes cigarettes at disproportionately higher rates than the general population, but less is known about the relationship between non-cigarette tobacco use and mental health status. METHOD: In 2013, 2370 young adults recruited from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia completed an online survey on tobacco use. We compared past 6-month self-reported mental health diagnosis, past 30-day depression score, and past 7-day stress score to past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, waterpipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use...
February 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Carlos F Aparicio, Paul J Hennigan, Laurel J Mulligan, Benigno Alonso-Alvarez
Indications of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) are not consistent across different tests of impulsivity, questioning the SHR's validity as a rodent model of ADHD. This study used a concurrent-chains procedure to examine possible differences in impulsive choice between SHRs and control-normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. The aim was to extend the generality of findings showing regularities between the hyperbolic-decay model and the generalized matching law fitting delay discounting data from nonhuman animals...
September 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Monika Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Katja Becker
The multiple causal pathways model on the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. However, developmental implications of the model are not yet sufficiently analyzed. The model implies that critical neural and neuropsychological deviations from normative development precede secondarily developing ADHD symptoms. Cognitive, "cool" inhibitory control (CIC) and reward-related, "hot" functions (RRF) are regarded as neuropsychological basic deficits that indicate independent causal pathways...
September 28, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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