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Amy G Feldman, Chris Feudtner, Allison Kempe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Matt Nestander, Jay Dintaman, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
Background: Low birth weight (LBW) has been associated with underimmunization. We sought to understand the effect of LBW on immunization completion after controlling for previously hypothesized mediators, including prematurity, neonatal illness, well-child care, non-well-child visits, and provider consistency. Methods: We formed a retrospective cohort of infants born between 2008 and 2011 with ≥2 years of military healthcare follow-up. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify LBW, preterm birth, neonatal illnesses, well-child visits, non-well-child visits, provider consistency, and parental rank in the inpatient and outpatient records...
September 23, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Laina D Mercer, Rana M Safdar, Jamal Ahmed, Abdirahman Mahamud, M Muzaffar Khan, Sue Gerber, Aiden O'Leary, Mike Ryan, Frank Salet, Steve J Kroiss, Hil Lyons, Alexander Upfill-Brown, Guillaume Chabot-Couture
BACKGROUND: Pakistan is one of only three countries where poliovirus circulation remains endemic. For the Pakistan Polio Eradication Program, identifying high risk districts is essential to target interventions and allocate limited resources. METHODS: Using a hierarchical Bayesian framework we developed a spatial Poisson hurdle model to jointly model the probability of one or more paralytic polio cases, and the number of cases that would be detected in the event of an outbreak...
October 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
Santosh Gurung, Jennifer B Harris, Abu Obeida Eltayeb, Lee M Hampton, Sergey Diorditsa, Tigran Avagyan, W William Schluter
The World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) has maintained its polio-free status since 2000. The emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), however, remains a risk, as oral polio vaccine (OPV) is still used in many of the region's countries, and pockets of unimmunized or underimmunized children exist in some countries. From 2014 to 2016, the region participated in the globally coordinated efforts to introduce inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into all countries that did not yet include it in their national immunization schedules, and to "switch" from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries still using OPV in 2016...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elizabeth M Ward, Christopher R Flowers, Ted Gansler, Saad B Omer, Robert A Bednarczyk
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE A measles outbreak originating in California during 2014 and 2015 called attention to the potential for infectious disease outbreaks related to underimmunized populations in the United States and the potential risk to pediatric patients with cancer attending school when such outbreaks occur. Compliance with vaccine recommendations is important for the prevention of hepatitis B-related and human papillomavirus-related cancers and for protecting immunocompromised patients with cancer, and these points are often overlooked, resulting in the continued occurrence of vaccine-preventable neoplastic and infectious diseases and complications...
September 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Rohiverth Guarecuco, Jennifer Lu, Kevin J McHugh, James J Norman, Lavanya S Thapa, Emily Lydon, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
The World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization has led to a dramatic rise in worldwide vaccination rates over the past 40years, yet 19.4 million infants remain underimmunized each year. Many of these infants have received at least one vaccine dose but may remain unprotected because they did not receive subsequent booster doses due to logistical challenges. This study aimed to develop injectable controlled release microparticles with kinetics that mimic common vaccine dosing regimens consisting of large antigen doses administered periodically over the course of months in order to eliminate the need for boosters...
June 15, 2017: Vaccine
Sarah S Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Paul A Gastañaduy, Jeremy Budd, Nicholas Fisher, Susan B Redd, Jackie Fletcher, Julie Miller, Dwight J McFadden, Jennifer Rota, Paul A Rota, Carole Hickman, Brian Fowler, Lilith Tatham, Gregory S Wallace, Sietske de Fijter, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Mary DiOrio
BACKGROUND: Although measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, importations of the virus continue to cause outbreaks. We describe the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of measles that originated from two unvaccinated Amish men in whom measles was incubating at the time of their return to the United States from the Philippines and explore the effect of public health responses on limiting the spread of measles. METHODS: We performed descriptive analyses of data on demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory evaluations, and vaccination coverage...
October 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Jai K Das, Rehana A Salam, Ahmed Arshad, Zohra S Lassi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Vaccination strategies are among the most successful and cost-effective public health strategies for preventing disease and death. Until recently, most of the existing immunization programs targeted infants and children younger than 5 years which have successfully resulted in reducing global infant and child mortality. Adolescent immunization has been relatively neglected, leaving a quarter of world's population underimmunized and hence vulnerable to a number of preventable diseases. In recent years, a large number of programs have been launched to increase the uptake of different vaccines in adolescents; however, the recommended vaccination coverage among the adolescent population overall remains very low, especially in low- and middle-income countries...
October 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Suchitra Rao, Joshua T B Williams, Michelle R Torok, Maureen A Cunningham, Mary P Glodè, Karen M Wilson
OBJECTIVES: To identify the extent and characteristics of missed opportunities for influenza vaccination among children hospitalized with influenza at a tertiary children's hospital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza admitted to Children's Hospital Colorado from 2010 to 2014. We reviewed medical records for vaccination status and previous visits. The primary outcome was the proportion of underimmunized patients hospitalized with influenza with at least 1 missed opportunity visit (visit before influenza diagnosis in which an eligible patient did not receive the influenza vaccine)...
September 2016: Hospital Pediatrics
Elizabeth Wolf, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Azadeh Tasslimi, Jasmine Matheson, Chas DeBolt
BACKGROUND: Underimmunization of certain immigrant populations can place them at high risk of experiencing vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study between January 1, 2008, and May 1, 2013, among children included in the Washington State Immunization Information System. We assessed receipt of 1 or more doses of measles-containing, hepatitis A, pneumococcal, and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-containing vaccines between 12 and 23 months of age...
July 2016: Pediatrics
Edward T Walker, Christopher M Rea
OBJECTIVES: To understand contextual associations between medical care providers-pediatricians, family medical practitioners, and alternative medicine practitioners-and personal belief exemptions (PBEs) from mandated school entry vaccinations. METHODS: Data on kindergarten PBEs from the California Department of Public Health were analyzed for 2010, 2011, and 2012, with each school sorted into Primary Care Service Areas (PCSAs). Provider data from federal sources and state records of alternative medicine providers, alongside controls for school factors, were used to estimate panel models...
July 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Charity Warigon, Pascal Mkanda, Ado Muhammed, Andrew Etsano, Charles Korir, Samuel Bawa, Emmanuel Gali, Peter Nsubuga, Tesfaya B Erbeto, George Gerlong, Richard Banda, Yared G Yehualashet, Rui G Vaz
INTRODUCTION: Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs)...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Louise-Anne McNutt, Cristina Desemone, Erica DeNicola, Hassan El Chebib, Jessica A Nadeau, Robert A Bednarczyk, Jana Shaw
BACKGROUND: Non-medical vaccine exemption rates in California private schools far exceed those of public schools, but little is known about specific factors which may be associated with high exemption rates in private schools. METHODS: The percent of personal-belief exemptions (PBEs) among California public and private kindergartens were computed for 2000-2001 to 2014-2015 academic years. For the 2014-2015 academic year, a random sample of private schools was selected to investigate associations between kindergarten characteristics (tuition amount, religious affiliation) and vaccine profile (non-medical vaccine exemptions, vaccine coverage)...
March 29, 2016: Vaccine
Sarah E Williams, Ashley Morgan, Douglas Opel, Kathryn Edwards, Stuart Weinberg, Russell Rothman
The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) survey for identifying vaccine-hesitant parents was recently validated in Washington State but did not include all recommended childhood vaccines. The current study compares vaccination rates for all recommended childhood vaccines and PACV scores at one pediatric practice in Tennessee. Children were enrolled at the 2-week well visit, and vaccination rates were assessed at 19 months of age. Outcomes at 19 months of age included mean percentage of days underimmunized and up-to-date status (yes/no) compared with PACV scores...
June 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Svapna S Sabnis, James H Conway
Vaccines are one of the greatest public health achievements, preventing both mortality and morbidity. However, overall immunization rates are still below the 90% target for Healthy People 2020. There remain significant disparities in immunization rates between children of different racial/ethnic groups, as well as among economically disadvantaged populations. There are systemic issues and challenges in providing access to immunization opportunities. In addition, vaccine hesitancy contributes to underimmunization...
October 2015: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Kevin J McHugh, Rohiverth Guarecuco, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
Currently, vaccination is the most efficient and cost-effective medical treatment for infectious diseases; however, each year 10 million infants remain underimmunized due to current vaccination schedules that require multiple doses to be administered across months or years. These dosing regimens are especially challenging in the developing world where limited healthcare access poses a major logistical barrier to immunization. Over the past four decades, researchers have attempted to overcome this issue by developing single-administration vaccines based on controlled-release antigen delivery systems...
December 10, 2015: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kimberly M Thompson, Kasper H Kisjes
Measles outbreaks in the United States continue to occur in subpopulations with sufficient numbers of undervaccinated individuals, with a 2014 outbreak in Amish communities in Ohio pushing the annual cases to the highest national number reported in the last 20 years. We adapted an individual-based model developed to explore potential poliovirus transmission in the North American Amish to characterize a 1988 measles outbreak in the Pennsylvania Amish and the 2014 outbreak in the Ohio Amish. We explored the impact of the 2014 outbreak response compared to no or partial response...
July 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Tracy A Lieu, G Thomas Ray, Nicola P Klein, Cindy Chung, Martin Kulldorff
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parental refusal and delay of childhood vaccines has increased in recent years and is believed to cluster in some communities. Such clusters could pose public health risks and barriers to achieving immunization quality benchmarks. Our aims were to (1) describe geographic clusters of underimmunization and vaccine refusal, (2) compare clusters of underimmunization with different vaccines, and (3) evaluate whether vaccine refusal clusters may pose barriers to achieving high immunization rates...
February 2015: Pediatrics
Linda Y Fu, Kathleen Zook, Janet Gingold, Catherine W Gillespie, Christine Briccetti, Denice Cora-Bramble, Jill G Joseph, Rachel Y Moon
OBJECTIVE: To examine missed opportunities to administer an eligible vaccination (MOs) and their contribution to underimmunization in contemporary pediatric practices. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective analysis from 42 diverse pediatric practices located throughout the US. Medical records of 50 randomly selected children 3-18 months of age per practice were reviewed in Spring 2013. Immunization status for age and MOs were assessed as of each encounter and as of March 1, 2013...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
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