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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927908/strategic-response-to-an-outbreak-of-circulating-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-type-2-syria-2017-2018
#1
Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Zubair Mufti Wadood, Thomas Moran, Fazal Ather, Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Joanna Nikulin, Mohammad Al Safadi, Jane Iber, Laurel Zomahoun, Nidal Abourshaid, Hong Pang, Nikki Collins, Humayun Asghar, Obaid Ul Islam Butt, Cara C Burns, Derek Ehrhardt, Magdi Sharaf
Since the 1988 inception of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), progress toward interruption of wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has occurred mostly through extensive use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in mass vaccination campaigns and through routine immunization services (1,2). However, because OPV contains live, attenuated virus, it carries the rare risk for reversion to neurovirulence. In areas with very low OPV coverage, prolonged transmission of vaccine-associated viruses can lead to the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), which can cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis...
June 22, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925656/murine-pneumonia-virus-mpv-expressing-the-fusion-f-glycoprotein-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-from-an-added-gene-is-highly-attenuated-and-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques
#2
Linda G Brock, Xiang Liu, Bo Liang, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Richard Herbert, Ashley D Hackenberg, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) continues to be the leading viral cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children worldwide. A licensed vaccine or antiviral drug suitable for routine use remains unavailable. Like RSV, murine pneumonia virus (MPV) is a member of the genus Orthopneumovirus , family Pneumoviridae Humans are not normally exposed to MPV and MPV is not cross-protective with RSV. We evaluated MPV as an RSV vaccine vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925108/febrile-neutropenia-following-parvovirus-b19-infection-and-cross-anti-kell-reaction-to-e-coli-in-pregnancy
#3
Pedro Brandão, Marília Freixo, Elisa Soares, Catarina Estevinho, Ana Sofia Portela Carvalho, Anabela Melo
Parvovirus B19 has tropism for red line blood cells, causing immune hydrops during pregnancy. A positive anti-Kell Coombs reaction usually happens during pregnancy when there is production of antibodies that target Kell antigens, but cross reactions to other antigens may occur. A 24-year-old Gypsy primigravida, 0 Rhesus positive, presented with persistent isolated hyperthermia for 2 weeks and a positive indirect Coombs test result with anti-Kell antibodies at routine tests. She had a 19-week live fetus. The blood tests revealed bicytopenia with iron deficiency anemia, leucopoenia with neutropenia, and elevated C-reactive protein...
June 20, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914848/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-sub-saharan-african-countries
#4
Jason M Mwenda, Umesh D Parashar, Adam L Cohen, Jacqueline E Tate
By the end of 2017, 32 (68%) of 47 countries in the World Health Organization's African Region had introduced rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs, including 27 countries that received financial support from the Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Several early introducing African countries previously evaluated the impact, vaccine effectiveness, and/or cost effectiveness of their routine rotavirus vaccination programs and found that rotavirus vaccine was effective and resulted in substantial declines in hospitalizations due to rotavirus...
June 15, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909700/the-significant-role-of-amino-acids-during-pregnancy-nutritional-support
#5
Penelope D Manta-Vogli, Kleopatra H Schulpis, Yannis Dotsikas, Yannis L Loukas
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and infant health outcome. Normal fetal growth and development depend on a continuous supply of nutrients via the placenta. The placenta transports, utilizes, produces and interconverts amino acids (AAs). FINDINGS: Concentrations of both nonessential and essential AAs in maternal plasma decrease in early pregnancy and persist at low concentrations throughout...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909693/a-decade-of-experience-with-rotavirus-vaccination-in-the-united-states-vaccine-uptake-effectiveness-and-impact
#6
Talia Pindyck, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
Prior to 2006, nearly every U.S child was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and rotavirus was the leading cause of severe childhood gastroenteritis. In February 2006 and June 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended a live attenuated pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) and a monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1), respectively, for routine vaccination of infants in the U.S. Areas covered: We reviewed U.S. data on coverage, vaccine effectiveness (VE), and vaccine impact from 2006-2017...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908808/short-communication-lymphocyte-proliferative-responses-in-cattle-naturally-infected-with-digital-dermatitis-consist-of-cd8-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-but-lack-cd4-t-cells
#7
Jennifer H Wilson-Welder, Jarlath E Nally, David P Alt, Samuel B Humphrey, Steven C Olsen
Digital dermatitis is an infectious disease of cattle and the leading cause of lameness. This disease is complicated by the reoccurrence of the lesions and the observation of lesions on more than one limb at different time points, indicating infection may not result in a protective immune response. The objective of this study was to characterize the peripheral blood cellular response in naturally infected and naïve cattle to bacterial antigens derived from pathogens associated with digital dermatitis lesions...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908287/characterization-of-nanomedicines-surface-coverage-using-molecular-probes-and-capillary-electrophoresis
#8
J-B Coty, F Varenne, A Benmalek, O Garsaa, I Le Potier, M Taverna, C Smadja, C Vauthier
A faithful characterization of nanomedicine (NM) is needed for a better understanding of their in vivo outcomes. Size and surface charge are studied with well-established methods. However, other relevant parameters for the understanding of NM behavior in vivo remain largely inaccessible. For instance, the reactive surface of nanomedicines, which are often grafted with macromolecules to decrease their recognition by the immune system, is excluded from a systematic characterization. Yet, it is known that a subtle modification of NM's surface characteristics (grafting density, molecular architecture and conformation of macromolecules) is at the root of major changes in the presence of biological components...
June 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908025/seroprevalence-and-social-determinants-of-varicella-in-turkey
#9
Can Hüseyin Hekimoğlu, Özgen Alpay Özbek, Mestan Emek, Mehmet Ali Öktem, Galip Köroğlu, Mustafa Sertel, Sevin Özdeniz, Ali Ceylan, Ayla Açikgöz, Belgin Ünal
Background: In Turkey, varicella vaccine was introduced into routine childhood immunization in 2013, with a single dose administered to children aged 12 months. However, there is limited information on the morbidity (incidence and seroprevalence), mortality and burden of disease of varicella in the overall Turkish population. Aim: To determine varicella seroprevalence and its social determinants in Manisa Province, Turkey in children aged > 2 years before single-dose varicella vaccination was introduced in 2013...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907485/assessment-of-vaccine-wastage-rates-missed-opportunities-and-related-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-during-introduction-of-a-second-dose-of-measles-containing-vaccine-into-cambodia-s-national-immunization-program
#10
Aaron S Wallace, Kong Krey, John Hustedt, Eleanor Burnett, Narin Choun, Danni Daniels, Margaret L Watkins, Sann Chan Soeung, Richard Duncan
INTRODUCTION: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) can result in inadequate protection against disease. Although healthcare provider reluctance to open multi-dose, lyophilized vaccine vials (particularly the measles-containing vaccine [MCV]) for every eligible child due to concerns about wasting vaccine is a known reason for MOV, little is known about providers' related attitudes and practices. METHODS: In 100 randomly selected health facilities and 24 districts of Cambodia, we surveyed healthcare providers and their district supervisors regarding routine vaccine administration and wastage knowledge and practices, and child caregivers (five per facility) regarding MOV...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907482/the-health-economics-of-cholera-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Amber Hsiao, Angela H Hall, Vittal Mogasale, Wilm Quentin
BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholera is a major contributor of diarrheal illness that causes significant morbidity and mortality globally. While there is literature on the health economics of diarrheal illnesses more generally, few studies have quantified the cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness of cholera-specific prevention and control interventions. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature specific to cholera as it pertains to key health economic measures...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907481/diversity-of-rotavirus-strains-circulating-in-children-under-five-years-of-age-who-presented-with-acute-gastroenteritis-before-and-after-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-university-teaching-hospital-lusaka-zambia-2008-2015
#12
J C Simwaka, Evans M Mpabalwani, Mapaseka Seheri, Ina Peenze, Mwaka Monze, Belem Matapo, Umesh D Parashar, Jacob Mufunda, Jeffrey M Mphahlele, Jacqueline E Tate, Jason M Mwenda
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the routine immunization schedule, the burden of rotavirus disease has significantly reduced in Zambia. Although rotavirus vaccines appear to confer good cross-protection against both vaccine and non-vaccine strains, concerns about strain replacement following vaccine implementation remain. We describe the diversity of the circulating rotavirus strains before and after the Rotarix® vaccine was introduced in Lusaka from January 2012...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905353/-immunotherapy-the-new-era-of-oncology
#13
Benjamin Kansy, Stephan Lang
In the field of immunotherapy, essential progress was achieved over the past years partially demonstrating long lasting therapeutic responses in different tumor entities. A better understanding of the interactions between the tumor and the immune system as well as the integration of immunotherapeutic approaches into clinical routine were the foundations for this development. The different approaches intervene on multiple levels of the immune response and directly or indirectly mount the patient's own immune defense against tumor cells...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905317/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subtypes-a-and-b-infection-among-children-attending-primary-and-secondary-health-care-facilities-in-ibadan-nigeria
#14
O Ogunsemowo, D O Olaleye, G N Odaibo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) causes high morbidity and mortality in infants and young children. Although a high prevalence of HRSV has been reported in Nigeria, the subtype of the virus circulating in the country is not known. This crosssectional study was therefore designed to determine the subtypes of HRSV circulating among children in Ibadan. Two hundred and thirty-one nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children presenting with respiratory infections in Secondary Health Facility (SHF) as well as those attending immunization centers in Primary Health Centers (PHCs) in Ibadan, Nigeria...
February 2018: Archives of basic and applied medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900673/dynamics-of-virus-specific-t-cell-immunity-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#15
R J Arasaratnam, I Tzannou, T Gray, P I Aguayo-Hiraldo, M Kuvalekar, S Naik, A Gaikwad, H Liu, T Miloh, J F Vera, R W Himes, F M Munoz, A M Leen
Immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation (SOT) has a deleterious effect on cellular immunity leading to frequent and prolonged viral infections. To better understand the relationship between post-transplant immunosuppression and circulating virus-specific T cells, we prospectively monitored the frequency and function of T cells directed to a range of latent (CMV, EBV, HHV6, BK) and lytic (AdV) viruses in 16 children undergoing liver transplantation for up to 1 year post-transplant. Following transplant, there was an immediate decline in circulating virus-specific T cells, which recovered post-transplant, coincident with the introduction and subsequent routine tapering of immunosuppression...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900005/mapping-biological-process-relationships-and-disease-perturbations-within-a-pathway-network
#16
Ruth Stoney, David L Robertson, Goran Nenadic, Jean-Marc Schwartz
Molecular interaction networks are routinely used to map the organization of cellular function. Edges represent interactions between genes, proteins, or metabolites. However, in living cells, molecular interactions are dynamic, necessitating context-dependent models. Contextual information can be integrated into molecular interaction networks through the inclusion of additional molecular data, but there are concerns about completeness and relevance of this data. We developed an approach for representing the organization of human cellular processes using pathways as the nodes in a network...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898478/-canine-hypoadrenocorticism-an-update-on-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Katja Kalenyak, Romy M Heilmann
Canine hypoadrenocorticism (HoAC) results from a loss of functional adrenal cortex, the most common etiology of which is an immune-mediated destruction leading to an inadequate production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The term "atypical" HoAC is used for a subgroup of dogs with either an isolated glucocorticoid deficiency or a combined glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency but normal electrolytes. Dogs with HoAC can present with a large variety of clinical signs, ranging from shaking, weakness, and mild gastrointestinal signs to seizures, hypovolemic shock, and collapse...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895573/the-mutation-associated-neoantigen-functional-expansion-of-specific-t-cells-manafest-assay-a-sensitive-platform-for-monitoring-antitumor-immunity
#18
Ludmila Danilova, Valsamo Anagnostou, Justina X Caushi, John-William Sidhom, Haidan Guo, Hok Yee Chan, Prerna Suri, Ada J Tam, Jiajia Zhang, Margueritta El Asmar, Kristen A Marrone, Jarushka Naidoo, Julie R Brahmer, Patrick M Forde, Alexander S Baras, Leslie Cope, Victor E Velculescu, Drew Pardoll, Franck Housseau, Kellie N Smith
Mutation-associated neoantigens (MANAs) are a target of antitumor T-cell immunity. Sensitive, simple, and standardized assays are needed to assess the repertoire of functional MANA-specific T cells in oncology. Assays analyzing in vitro cytokine production such as ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) have been useful but have limited sensitivity in assessing tumor-specific T-cell responses and do not analyze antigen-specific T-cell repertoires. The FEST (Functional Expansion of Specific T cells) assay described herein integrates TCR sequencing of short-term, peptide-stimulated cultures with a bioinformatic platform to identify antigen-specific clonotypic amplifications...
June 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895402/burn-wounds-in-the-young-versus-the-aged-patient-display-differential-immunological-responses
#19
Angel F Farinas, Ravinder Bamba, Alonda C Pollins, Nancy L Cardwell, Lillian B Nanney, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: Individuals in the geriatric age range are more prone than younger individuals to convert their partial thickness thermal burns into full thickness injuries. We hypothesized that this often observed clinical phenomenon is strongly related to differential local injury responses mediated by the immune system. MATERIALS & METHODS: Skin samples from areas with partial thickness thermal burns were obtained during routine excision and grafting procedures between post burn days 2-6...
June 9, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894817/in-vitro-models-for-immunogenicity-prediction-of-therapeutic-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Floriane Groell, Olivier Jordan, Gerrit Borchard
Immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins is routinely performed through various techniques during the drug development process: (i) in silico to design the least immunogenic protein possible, (ii) in vitro using mainly classic 2D assays with PBMC-derived cells or immune cell lines to follow protein uptake, immune cell maturation and pro-inflammatory cytokines released, (iii) in vitro using 3D models of the human immune lymphatic system or full-thickness skin, (iv) and finally in vivo with preclinical and clinical studies...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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