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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542124/virologic-monitoring-of-poliovirus-type-2-after-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-type-2-withdrawal-in-april-2016-worldwide-2016-2017
#1
Ousmane M Diop, Humayun Asghar, Evgeniy Gavrilin, Nicksy Gumede Moeletsi, Gloria Rey Benito, Fem Paladin, Sirima Pattamadilok, Yan Zhang, Ajay Goel, Arshad Quddus
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has made substantial progress since its launch in 1988; only 37 wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were detected in 2016, the lowest annual count ever. Wild poliovirus type 3 has not been detected since November 2012, and wild poliovirus type 2 was officially declared eradicated in September 2015. This success is attributable to the wide use of live oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Since 2001, numerous outbreaks were caused by the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) whose genetic drift from the parental OPV strains indicates prolonged replication or circulation (1)...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539254/prevalence-of-primary-resistance-among-acutely-recently-hiv-infected-patients-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#2
Ana Cristina G Ferreira, Lara E Coelho, Eduarda Grinsztejn, Carlos S de Jesus, Monick L Guimarães, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Sandra W Cardoso
INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. ART initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) may jeopardize the early goals of early ART among acute/recent HIV infected patients. METHODS: Patients with acute/recent HIV infection who underwent resistance test before ART initiation were included in this analysis...
May 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538501/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#3
Pournima Navalkele, Bülent Özgönenel, Eric McGrath, Paul Lephart, Sharada Sarnaik
BACKGROUND: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk of fatal sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, because of the inherent autosplenectomy that occurs in SCD. This risk is thwarted with oral penicillin prophylaxis during the first 5 years of life, and with stringent vaccination against S. pneumoniae alongside routine childhood immunization. But compared with the general African American pediatric population, the rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with SCD still remains high, resulting in hospitalization and fatality...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538494/committee-opinion-no-704-summary-human-papillomavirus-vaccination
#4
(no author information available yet)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with anogenital cancer (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and anal), oropharyngeal cancer, and genital warts. The HPV vaccination significantly reduces the incidence of anogenital cancer and genital warts. Despite the benefits of HPV vaccines, only 41.9% of girls in the recommended age group, and only 28.1% of males in the recommended age group have received all recom-mended doses. Compared with many other countries, HPV vaccination rates in the United States are unacceptably low...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536030/lot-to-lot-consistency-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-3-lots-of-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-conjugate-vaccine-results-from-a-phase-iii-randomized-multicenter-study-in-infants
#5
Nicola P Klein, Remon Abu-Elyazeed, Matthew Cornish, Michael L Leonardi, Leonard B Weiner, Peter E Silas, Stanley E Grogg, Meera Varman, Robert W Frenck, Brigitte Cheuvart, Yaela Baine, Jacqueline M Miller, Maarten Leyssen, Narcisa Mesaros, Sumita Roy-Ghanta
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is included in routine pediatric immunization schedule in the United States. Previous vaccine shortages have created the need for additional options for Hib vaccination. METHODS: This phase III, randomized, multi-centered study (NCT01000974) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a monovalent tetanus toxoid-conjugate Hib vaccine (Hib-TT) compared to a monovalent (Hib-TT control) and a combination Hib-TT vaccine...
May 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534071/cloning-of-helicobacter-suis-cholesterol-%C3%AE-glucosyltransferase-and-production-of-an-antibody-capable-of-detecting-it-in-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-gastric-tissue-sections
#6
Masatomo Kawakubo, Kazuki Horiuchi, Hitomi Komura, Yoshiko Sato, Masayoshi Kato, Meguru Ikeyama, Mana Fukushima, Shigenori Yamada, Satoshi Ishizone, Takehisa Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi Ota, Junji Sagara, Jun Nakayama
Helicobacter suis (H. suis), formerly called Helicobacter heilmannii type 1 (H. heilmannii), is a gram-negative bacterium of the Helicobacter species. This pathogen infects the stomach of humans and animals such as dogs, cats, pigs, and rodents, the latter giving rise to zoonotic infection. Here, we generated a H. suis-specific antibody useful for immunohistochemistry with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. To do so, we began by cloning the gene encoding H. suis cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase (αCgT)...
May 22, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531259/guideline-adherence-for-diagnostic-faeces-testing-in-primary-care-patients-with-gastroenteritis
#7
Alwin Schierenberg, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Martine D Nipshagen, Maarten B J Kommer, Patricia C J Bruijning-Verhagen, Sanne van Delft, Alma C van de Pol, Marc J M Bonten, Niek J de Wit
Background.: Gastroenteritis (GE) is a common reason for primary care consultation. Dutch clinical practice guidelines (CPG) recommend diagnostic faeces testing (DFT) only in primary care patients with severe illness, comprised immunity or increased transmission risk. For its superior accuracy, shorter turnaround time and ease of use, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DFT has largely replaced conventional techniques. It is unknown whether this changed CPG adherence. Objective...
May 20, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527810/hif-1%C3%AE-stabilizing-agent-fg-4997-rescues-human-cd34-cell-mobilization-in-response-to-g-csf-in-immuno-deficient-mice
#8
Bianca Nowlan, Katarzyna Futrega, Marion E Brunck, Gail Walkinshaw, Lee E Flippin, Michael R Doran, Jean-Pierre Levesque
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is routinely used in the clinic to mobilize hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPC) into the patient's blood for collection and subsequent transplantation. However a significant proportion of patients who have previously received chemotherapy or radiotherapy and requiring autologous HSPC transplantation, cannot mobilize the minimal threshold of mobilized HSPC to achieve rapid and successful hematopoietic reconstitution. Although several alternatives to the G-CSF regime have been tested, few are in use in the clinic...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527251/-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-and-lymphadenopathies
#9
Federico Rodríguez-Vega, Miguel Botero, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ángela Tobón
INTRODUCTION: Lymphadenopathy is a frequent clinical finding in HIV-infected patients. The differential diagnosis includes infection, malignancy or reactive changes. Currently, there are no data on this topic in the region. OBJECTIVES: To describe the etiology of lymph node pathology in HIV-infected patients from the Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of HIV-infected patients with lymphadenopathy who underwent excisional lymph node biopsy between June 2009 and October 2011 were retrospectively evaluated...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520708/hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-screening-among-pregnant-women-and-care-of-infants-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-positive-mothers-guam-2014
#10
Winston E Abara, Susan Cha, Tasneem Malik, Mia S DeSimone, Bernadette Schumann, Esther Mallada, Michael Klemme, Vince Aguon, Anne Marie Santos, Melissa Collier, Mary Kamb
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic among adults in the U.S. territory of Guam (1,2). Perinatal HBV transmission, which occurs at birth from an infected mother to her newborn infant, is a major mode of HBV transmission and maintains HBV endemicity (3). Approximately 90% of HBV-infected infants will develop chronic HBV infection, and approximately 25% of those will die prematurely from liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (4,5). Since 1988, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that all pregnant women be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), an indicator of HBV infection, and that infants of women who screen positive (HBsAg-positive women) receive postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) (hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin [HBIG])...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516152/cdk4-6-inhibitors-in-cancer-therapy-a%C3%A2-novel-treatement-strategy-for-bladder-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Qi Pan, Anuja Sathe, Peter C Black, Peter J Goebell, Ashish M Kamat, Bernd Schmitz-Draeger, Roman Nawroth
Patients with metastatic bladder cancer (mBC) treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy have a limited median survival of only around 14 months [1]. Despite over 30 years of basic and clinical research, until recently no therapeutic options beyond cisplatin-based therapy had entered clinical routine and, at least in the US, none of the tested agents had been approved for second-line treatment. This has changed with the advent of immune checkpoint blockade, including especially PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. The high response rates of 24% over a 14...
April 27, 2017: Bladder Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515627/frequently-asked-questions-on-seven-rare-adverse-events-following-immunization
#13
REVIEW
G L D'alò, E Zorzoli, A Capanna, G Gervasi, E Terracciano, L Zaratti, E Franco
Routine mass immunization programs have contributed greatly to the control of infectious diseases and to the improvement of the health of populations. Over the last decades, the rise of antivaccination movements has threatened the advances made in this field to the point that vaccination coverage rates have decreased and outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases have resurfaced. One of the critical points of the immunization debate revolves around the level of risk attributable to vaccination, namely the possibility of experiencing serious and possibly irreversible adverse events...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513461/the-importance-of-bordetella-pertussis-strains-which-do-not-produce-virulence-factors-in-the-epidemiology-of-pertussis
#14
Maciej Polak, Anna Lutyńska
Bordetella pertussis strains, which have lost the ability to produce antigens, such as pertactin - Prn, pertussis toxin - Ptx, filamentous haemagglutinin - FHA, fimbriae type 2 and 3 - Fim 2 and 3, tracheal colonization factor - TcfA, have recently been isolated in countries with a high vaccination coverage. The emergence of such isolates might have resulted from B. pertussis natural evolution course or adaptive mechanisms, allowing increased circulation of the pathogen in vaccinated populations. So far, the majority of described mutants were deficient in the Prn production...
May 9, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513001/the-frequency-of-urinary-tract-infection-and-subclinical-bacteriuria-in-dogs-with-allergic-dermatitis-treated-with-oclacitinib-a-prospective-study
#15
Andrew C Simpson, Jennifer R Schissler, Rod A W Rosychuk, A Russell Moore
BACKGROUND: Oclacitinib is a selective Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of canine allergic pruritus and atopic dermatitis in dogs. Glucocorticoids and ciclosporin increase urinary tract infection (UTI) frequency in dogs with inflammatory skin disease. OBJECTIVE: Prospective study to evaluate the frequency of UTI and subclinical bacteriuria in dogs with allergic dermatitis receiving oclacitinib. METHODS: Client-owned dogs ≥2 years of age with a history of allergic dermatitis without apparent history of urinary tract disease or predisposition to UTI were included...
May 17, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510067/immunization-during-pregnancy-impact-on-the-infant
#16
REVIEW
Kirsten P Perrett, Terry M Nolan
Maternal immunization has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, as women and healthcare providers accept and recognize the benefits of this strategy not only for the pregnant woman but also for the developing fetus and young infant. This article reviews the evidence for active immunization during pregnancy, with an emphasis on perinatal and infant outcomes. Current recommendations for immunization during pregnancy are presented, with particular focus on the routinely recommended vaccines during pregnancy: influenza and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis)...
May 16, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509605/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-bio-pox%C3%A2-a-live-varicella-vaccine-oka-strain-in-indian-children-a-comparative-multicentric-randomized-phase-ii-iii-clinical-trial
#17
Anand Prakash Dubey, Mohammad Moonis Akbar Faridi, Monjori Mitra, Iqbal Rajinder Kaur, Aashima Dabas, Jaydeep Choudhury, Mallar Mukherjee, Devendra Mishra
Varicella or chickenpox is a highly contagious disease with a high secondary attack rate. Almost 30% of Indian adolescents lack protective antibodies against varicella, emphasising the need of routine varicella immunization. The Oka VZV is a well-established, safe and efficacious vaccine strain that is highly immunogenic and produces lifelong protective immunity. The present multicentric, open label, randomized, controlled Phase II/III study, compared the Bio Pox™ (indigenous investigational vaccine) with a licensed vaccine, Varivax™, for its safety and immunogenicity profile in 252 healthy subjects in the age group of 1-12 years (cohort I: 6-12 years, II:1-6 years) in three tertiary medical institutions...
May 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509601/the-unattainable-criteria-for-new-infant-vaccines
#18
Christopher J Gill, Lauren Hodsdon, Mathuram Santosham, Katherine L O'Brien
Background In 2013, the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) opted against adding meningococcal vaccines to the infant schedule due to poor cost-effectiveness. This raises a policy question: if meningococcal disease is too rare to justify routine vaccination, are there other vaccine-preventable causes of US infant deaths that could be supported? Methods We tabulated US infant deaths from 2009-2013 using the CDC WONDER database. These causes of death were then categorized into one of three categories: 1) vaccine-preventable using currently available interventions; 2) potentially vaccine-preventable within the next 10 years; and 3) not preventable...
May 16, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508413/serological-weak-d-phenotypes-a-review-and-guidance-for-interpreting-the-rhd-blood-type-using-the-rhd-genotype
#19
REVIEW
S Gerald Sandler, Leonard N Chen, Willy A Flegel
Approximately 0·2-1% of routine RhD blood typings result in a "serological weak D phenotype." For more than 50 years, serological weak D phenotypes have been managed by policies to protect RhD-negative women of child-bearing potential from exposure to weak D antigens. Typically, blood donors with a serological weak D phenotype have been managed as RhD-positive, in contrast to transfusion recipients and pregnant women, who have been managed as RhD-negative. Most serological weak D phenotypes in Caucasians express molecularly defined weak D types 1, 2 or 3 and can be managed safely as RhD-positive, eliminating unnecessary injections of Rh immune globulin and conserving limited supplies of RhD-negative RBCs...
May 16, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508256/the-role-of-micronutrients-in-alopecia-areata-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Jordan M Thompson, Mehwish A Mirza, Min Kyung Park, Abrar A Qureshi, Eunyoung Cho
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring form of hair loss caused by immune-mediated attack of the hair follicle. As with other immune-mediated diseases, a complex interplay between environment and genetics is thought to lead to the development of AA. Deficiency of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with development of AA. Given the role of these micronutrients in normal hair follicle development and in immune cell function, a growing number of investigations have sought to determine whether serum levels of these nutrients might differ in AA patients, and whether supplementation of these nutrients might represent a therapeutic option for AA...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
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