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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926825/mycobacterium-malmesburyense-sp-nov-a-novel-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-species-revealed-by-multiple-gene-sequence-characterization
#1
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita Michel
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and an increasing number of NTM species have been isolated and characterized from both humans and animals, highlighting the zoonotic potential of these bacteria. Host exposure to NTM may impact on cross-reactive immune responsiveness which may affect diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and may also play a role in the variability of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis. In this study we characterized 10 NTM isolates originating from water, soil, nasal swabs of cattle and African buffalo as well as bovine tissue samples...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925318/total-synthesis-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dideoxymycobactin-838-and-stereoisomers-diverse-cd1a-restricted-t-cells-display-a-common-hierarchy-of-lipopeptide-recognition
#2
Janice Cheng, Ligong Liu, Daniel Pellicci, Scott Jj Reddiex, Rachel Cotton, Tan-Yun Cheng, David Young, Ildiko Van Rhijn, Branch Moody, Jamie Rossjohn, David Fairlie, Dale Godfrey, Spencer John Williams
Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces dideoxymycobactin-838 (DDM-838), a lipopeptide that potently activates T cells upon binding to the MHC-like antigen-presenting molecule CD1a. M. tuberculosis produces DDM-838 in only trace amounts and a previous solid-phase synthesis provided sub-milligram quantities. We describe a high yielding solution-phase synthesis of DDM-838 that features a Mitsunobu substitution that avoids yield-limiting epimerization at lysine during esterification, and amidation conditions that prevent double-bond isomerization of the Z-C20:1 acyl chain, and provides material with equivalent antigenicity to natural DDM-838...
December 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924983/detection-of-the-tuberculosis-antigenic-marker-mannose-capped-lipoarabinomannan-in-pretreated-serum-by-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#3
Alexis C Crawford, Lars B Laurentius, Timothy S Mulvihill, Jennifer H Granger, John S Spencer, Delphi Chatterjee, Kimberly E Hanson, Marc D Porter
The ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global health care priority. This paper describes the development and preliminary assessment of the clinical accuracy of a heterogeneous immunoassay that integrates a serum pretreatment process with readout by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the low-level detection of mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM). ManLAM is a major virulence factor in the infectious pathology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that has been found in the serum and other body fluids of infected patients...
December 7, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924822/il-21-dependent-expansion-of-memory-like-nk-cells-enhances-protective-immune-responses-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#4
S Venkatasubramanian, S Cheekatla, P Paidipally, D Tripathi, E Welch, A R Tvinnereim, R Nurieva, R Vankayalapati
Natural killer (NK) cells are traditionally considered as innate cells, but recent studies suggest that NK cells can distinguish antigens, and that memory NK cells expand and protect against viral pathogens. Limited information is available about the mechanisms involved in memory-like NK cell expansion, and their role in bacterial infections and vaccine-induced protective immune responses. In the current study, using a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB) infection, we found that interferon-gamma producing CD3-NKp46+CD27+KLRG1+ memory-like NK cells develop during Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination, expand, and provide protection against challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M...
December 7, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923223/intestinal-pneumatosis-associated-with-tuberculosis-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#5
Vivek Venkataramani, Ali Seif Amir Hosseini, Marco H Schulze, Lorenz Trümper, Gerald Wulf, Ulrike Bacher, Wolfram Jung
Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), defined as intestinal intra- and extramural gas accumulation, is a rare radiographic finding in conditions of intestinal wall damage of varied etiology. Here, we report on a 56-year-old female with multiple myeloma who presented with undulating fever, fluctuating abdominal symptoms, and a distended abdomen 5 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Abdominal X-ray and CT scan documented PI with gas accumulation both in the intestinal and colonic bowel walls...
December 7, 2016: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920569/does-calcium-channel-blockade-have-a-role-in-prevention-of-expression-of-sepsis-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
John A D'Elia, Ray E Gleason, Anthony P Monaco, Larry A Weinrauch
Many antihypertensive agents have been demonstrated to assist in preservation of kidney function, among them those that modulate calcium channels. Calcium channel blockers may also be of value in protecting hemodialysis patients from complications of sepsis. In diabetic recipients of kidney transplant allografts treated with cyclosporine, calcium channel blockade has been retrospectively linked to improved graft preservation and to fewer episodes of sepsis. This brief review outlines clinical and experimental publications on potential protection from sepsis by addition of calcium channel blockers to standard antibiotic therapy in individuals who may or may not have normal kidney function, or in the presence or absence of immunosuppression...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920294/effects-of-increasing-the-affinity-of-card-for-rna-polymerase-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growth-rrna-transcription-and-virulence
#7
Ashley L Garner, Jayan Rammohan, Jeremy P Huynh, Lucas M Onder, James Chen, Brian Bae, Drake Jensen, Leslie A Weiss, Ana Ruiz Manzano, Seth A Darst, Elizabeth A Campbell, Bryce E Nickels, Eric A Galburt, Christina L Stallings
: CarD is an essential RNA polymerase (RNAP) interacting protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that stimulates formation of RNAP-promoter open complexes. CarD plays a complex role in Mtb growth and virulence that is not fully understood. Therefore, to gain further insight into the role of CarD in Mtb growth and virulence we determined the effect of increasing the affinity of CarD for RNAP. Using site-directed mutagenesis guided by crystal structures of CarD bound to RNAP, we identified amino acid substitutions that increase the affinity of CarD for RNAP...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920273/divergent-functions-of-tlr2-on-hematopoietic-and-nonhematopoietic-cells-during-chronic-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Jill Konowich, Archana Gopalakrishnan, Jillian Dietzold, Sheetal Verma, Kamlesh Bhatt, Wasiulla Rafi, Padmini Salgame
We have reported that TLR2 is crucial for host resistance against chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; however, which cell types are key players in this response remain unknown. This led us to decipher the relative contribution of TLR2 on nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells in resistance against chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice infected with M. tuberculosis Erdman. Consistent with our previous report, at 8 wk of infection, TLR2 knockout (TLR2KO)→TLR2KO bone marrow chimeric mice exhibited increased bacterial burden, disorganized accumulation of lymphocytes and mononuclear cells, and extensive pulmonary immunopathology compared with wild-type (WT)→WT chimeric mice...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919887/genotyping-and-prevalence-of-pyrazinamide-and-moxifloxacin-resistant-tuberculosis-in-china-2000-2010-findings-from-the-national-survey-data
#9
Yu Pang, Zhijian Zhang, Yufeng Wang, Shengfen Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Bing Zhao, Yang Zhou, Xichao Ou, Qiang Li, Hui Xia, Yang Zheng, Xiangqun Fang, Yanlin Zhao
We investigated the prevalence, trends and risk factors for pyrazinamide (PZA) and moxifloxacin (MOX) resistance among TB cases in China, and also analyzed the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.All the M. tuberculosis strains enrolled in this study were collected from the national TB prevalence surveys. Each strain was genotyped by analyzing the regions of RD105 and the IS6110 in the NTF region. The BACTEC MGIT 960 system was used to detect the drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates against PZA and MOX...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919742/refugees-and-antimicrobial-resistance-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Allard Willem de Smalen, Hatem Ghorab, Moataz Abd El Ghany, Grant A Hill-Cawthorne
BACKGROUND: There is a large increase in the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers worldwide and a lack of data on the carriage of antimicrobial resistance in refugee/asylum seeking groups. METHODS: This article aims to identify the impact of refugees and asylum seekers on the acquisition and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through a literature search. The databases Embase, Medline, Pubmed, and Web of Science Core Collection were utilised and covered all articles before the 1st of October 2016...
December 2, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919693/performance-evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-a-moderate-tuberculosis-incidence-compared-with-taqman-mtb-and-trcrapid-m-tb
#11
Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Hideaki Nagai, Kenji Ogawa, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Kozo Morimoto, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) that can detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in clinical specimens as well as rifampicin (RIF) resistance resulting from rpoB mutation. Despite its high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) with or without RIF resistance, the clinical performance of the test is variable. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in a setting of moderate TB burden and high medical resources...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919643/transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-shanghai-china-a-retrospective-observational-study-using-whole-genome-sequencing-and-epidemiological-investigation
#12
Chongguang Yang, Tao Luo, Xin Shen, Jie Wu, Mingyu Gan, Peng Xu, Zheyuan Wu, Senlin Lin, Jiyun Tian, Qingyun Liu, ZhengAn Yuan, Jian Mei, Kathryn DeRiemer, Qian Gao
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistance is a substantial threat to global elimination of tuberculosis. Understanding transmission patterns is crucial for control of the disease. We used a genomic and epidemiological approach to assess recent transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and identify potential risk factors for transmission. METHODS: We did a population-based, retrospective study of patients who tested positive for tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2012, in Shanghai, China...
December 2, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#13
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918526/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esxh-inhibits-escrt-dependent-cd4-t-cell-activation
#14
Cynthia Portal-Celhay, JoAnn M Tufariello, Smita Srivastava, Aleena Zahra, Thais Klevorn, Patricia S Grace, Alka Mehra, Heidi S Park, Joel D Ernst, William R Jacobs, Jennifer A Philips
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes a persistent infection, despite inducing antigen-specific T-cell responses. Although T cells arrive at the site of infection, they do not provide sterilizing immunity. The molecular basis of how Mtb impairs T-cell function is not clear. Mtb has been reported to block major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation; however, no bacterial effector or host-cell target mediating this effect has been identified. We recently found that Mtb EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 type VII secretion system, directly inhibits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917833/crystal-structure-of-the-toxin-msmeg_6760-the-structural-homolog-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-rv2035-a-novel-type-ii-toxin-involved-in-the-hypoxic-response
#15
R Alexandra Bajaj, Mark A Arbing, Annie Shin, Duilio Cascio, Linda Miallau
The structure of Msmeg_6760, a protein of unknown function, has been determined. Biochemical and bioinformatics analyses determined that Msmeg_6760 interacts with a protein encoded in the same operon, Msmeg_6762, and predicted that the operon is a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Structural comparison of Msmeg_6760 with proteins of known function suggests that Msmeg_6760 binds a hydrophobic ligand in a buried cavity lined by large hydrophobic residues. Access to this cavity could be controlled by a gate-latch mechanism...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917375/recombinant-lipoprotein-rv1016c-derived-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-a-tlr-2-ligand-that-induces-macrophages-apoptosis-and-inhibits-mhc-ii-antigen-processing
#16
Haibo Su, Shenglin Zhu, Lin Zhu, Wei Huang, Honghai Wang, Zhi Zhang, Ying Xu
TLR2-dependent cellular signaling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages causes apoptosis and inhibits class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules antigen processing, leading to evasion of surveillance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lipoproteins are an important class of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand, and identified as specific components that mediate these effects. In this study, we identified and characterized MTB lipoprotein Rv1016c (lpqT) as a cell wall associated-protein that was exposed on the cell surface and enhanced the survival of recombinants M...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915106/insights-gained-from-ancient-biomolecules-into-past-and-present-tuberculosis-a-personal-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Helen D Donoghue
Ancient and historical tuberculosis (TB) can be recognized by its typical paleopathology in human remains. Using paleomicrobiology, it is possible to detect many more individuals infected with TB but with no visible lesions. Due to advances in molecular analysis over the past two decades, it is clear that TB was widespread in humans from the Neolithic period until the present day. Past human populations were associated with different lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex, thereby elucidating early human migrations...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914798/antimycobacterial-activity-of-novel-hydrazide-hydrazone-derivatives-with-2h-chromene-and-coumarin-scaffold
#18
Violina T Angelova, Violeta Valcheva, Nikolay G Vassilev, Rosen Buyukliev, Georgi Momekov, Ivan Dimitrov, Luciano Saso, Mirjana Djukic, Boris Shivachev
This study reports the synthesis of new 2H-chromene or coumarin based acylhydrazones, which were evaluated for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against reference strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and compared to the first-line antituberculosis drugs, isoniazid (INH) and ethambutol (EMB). The most active compounds 7m (MIC 0.13μM), 7o (MIC 0.15μM) and 7k (MIC 0.17μM) demonstrated antimycobacterial activity at submicromolar concentration level and remarkably minimal associated cytotoxicity in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293T...
November 25, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914741/maternal-bcg-scar-is-associated-with-increased-infant-proinflammatory-immune-responses
#19
Patrice Akusa Mawa, Emily L Webb, Abdelali Filali-Mouhim, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly, Swaib Abubaker Lule, Sarah Prentice, Stephen Nash, Hazel M Dockrell, Alison M Elliott, Stephen Cose
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposures such as infections and immunisation may influence infant responses. We had an opportunity to undertake an analysis of innate responses in infants within the context of a study investigating the effects of maternal mycobacterial exposures and infection on BCG vaccine-induced responses in Ugandan infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal and cord blood samples from 29 mother-infant pairs were stimulated with innate stimuli for 24h and cytokines and chemokines in supernatants were measured using the Luminex® assay...
November 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914739/infection-by-mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-dog-from-brazil
#20
Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo Rocha, Salomão Cambuí de Figueiredo, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales, Camila Dias Porto, Julio Lopes Sequeira, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Antônio Carlos Paes, Vanessa Riesz Salgado
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC). This disease rarely affects dogs. Canine infections are usually caused by M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis infections are rare in dogs and associated with consumption of raw milk or contaminated products. Here, we report a Boxer dog who had a M. bovis infection and was admitted to a Brazilian veterinary hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic ehrlichiosis. Despite receiving treatment for chronic ehrlichiosis, it progressed to death...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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