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Cardiac arrhythmias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108860/early-cardioversion-in-atrial-fibrillation-earlier-is-better-but-not-always-and-maybe-not-immediately
#1
REVIEW
Paloma G Piña, Alexandru B Chicos
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in humans. One of its important features is the tendency to become more persistent over time, even in the absence of underlying progressive heart disease. Conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm by pharmacological or electrical methods become increasingly difficult the longer the arrhythmia persists. Electrical, mechanical, structural, and autonomic remodeling processes have been implicated in the mechanisms of AF initiation, perpetuation, and progression...
January 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108756/left-ventricular-noncompaction-cardiomyopathy-in-pediatric-patients-a-case-series-of-a-clinically-heterogeneous-disease
#2
Umang Gupta, Pooja Makhija
Left ventricular noncompaction is a rare form of cardiomyopathy, which results from multiple trabeculations in the left ventricular myocardium. The clinical presentation is highly variable, and spectrum includes asymptomatic patients diagnosed during family screening on one end to patients with depressed systolic function, heart failure, thromboembolic complications, and cardiac arrhythmias on the other (Kim et al in J Am Coll Cardiol 53: 2009, 2009). Further, the progression of the condition is highly variable...
January 21, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108302/biomarkers-associated-with-clinical-manifestations-in-fabry-disease-patients-with-a-late-onset-cardiac-variant-mutation
#3
Christiane Auray-Blais, Pamela Lavoie, Michel Boutin, Aimé Ntwari, Ting-Rong Hsu, Chun-Kai Huang, Dau-Ming Niu
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder with an incidence of 1:1600 for the late-onset IVS4+919G>A cardiac variant mutation in Taiwan. Signs and symptoms of this cardiac variant include left ventricular hypertrophy, mitral insufficiency and/or arrhythmias. The search for biomarkers that might predict the clinical outcomes and guide treatment options is important. We thus investigated relationships between Fabry disease biomarkers (such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3)/related analogues) and age, gender, enzyme activity, clinical manifestations and severity of the disease in these patients...
January 17, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107890/affective-impairment-in-chronic-low-blood-pressure
#4
Stefan Duschek, Alexandra Hoffmann, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
OBJECTIVE: Physical complaints such as faintness, dizziness, cold limbs and headaches have been well-established in chronic low blood pressure (hypotension). This study investigated the occurrence of adverse emotional states and the symptoms of depression in this condition. As autonomic dysregulation, particularly diminished sympathetic tone, is believed to be involved in the etiology of hypotension, the impact of different facets of autonomic cardiovascular control on mood and depressive symptoms was also explored...
February 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106485/management-strategies-for-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Peysh A Patel, Noman Ali, Andrew Hogarth, Muzahir H Tayebjee
Atrial fibrillation is the most prevalent cardiac arrhythmia, affecting 10% of those aged over 80 years. Despite multiple treatment options, it remains an independent prognostic marker of mortality due to its association with clinical sequelae, particularly cerebrovascular events. Management can be broadly divided into treatment of the arrhythmia, via rhythm or rate control, and stroke thromboprophylaxis via anticoagulation. Traditional options for pharmacotherapy include negatively chronotropic drugs such as β-blockers, and/or arrhythmia-modifying drugs such as amiodarone...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106124/effect-of-myocyte-fibroblast-coupling-on-the-onset-of-pathological-dynamics-in-a-model-of-ventricular-tissue
#6
S Sridhar, Nele Vandersickel, Alexander V Panfilov
Managing lethal cardiac arrhythmias is one of the biggest challenges in modern cardiology, and hence it is very important to understand the factors underlying such arrhythmias. While early afterdepolarizations (EAD) of cardiac cells is known to be one such arrhythmogenic factor, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of tissue level arrhythmias from cellular level EADs is not fully understood. Another known arrhythmogenic condition is fibrosis of cardiac tissue that occurs both due to aging and in many types of heart diseases...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105734/calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-mediates-the-intracellular-signaling-pathways-of-cardiac-apoptosis-in-mice-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#7
Marilen Federico, Enrique L Portiansky, Leandro Sommese, Francisco J Alvarado, Paula G Blanco, Carolina N Zanuzzi, John Dedman, Marcia Kaetzel, Xander H T Wehrens, Alicia Mattiazzi, Julieta Palomeque
Background The impact of cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetic stages of diabetic cardiomyopathy is unknown. We described that myocytes from fructose-rich diet (FRD) animals exhibit arrhythmias produced by exacerbated Ca(2+) /calmodulin-protein kinase (CaMKII) activity, ryanodine receptors (RyR2) phosphorylation and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. We tested the hypothesis that this mechanism also underlies cardiac apoptosis in pre-diabetes. Methods and Results We generated a pre-diabetic model in mice fed with FRD...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104669/sex-specific-outcomes-with-addition-of-defibrillation-to-resynchronisation-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#8
Sérgio Barra, Rui Providência, Rudolf Duehmke, Serge Boveda, Eloi Marijon, Christian Reitan, Rasmus Borgquist, Didier Klug, Pascal Defaye, Nicolas Sadoul, Jean-Claude Deharo, Iannish Sadien, Kiran Patel, Khang-Li Looi, David Begley, Anthony W Chow, Jean-Yves Le Heuzey, Sharad Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Among primary prevention patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT), the impact of additional implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment on outcomes and its interaction with sex remains uncertain. We aim to assess whether the addition of the ICD functionality to CRT devices offers a more pronounced survival benefit in men compared with women, as previous research has suggested. METHODS: Observational multicentre cohort study of 5307 consecutive patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy and no history of sustained ventricular arrhythmias having CRT implantation with (cardiac resynchronisation therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), n=4037) or without (cardiac resynchronisation therapy pacemaker (CRT-P), n=1270) defibrillator functionality...
January 19, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104549/mechanisms-of-silver_nanoparticles-induced-hypopigmentation-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#9
Lian Xu, Qin-Han Xu, Xin-Ying Zhou, Li-Yan Yin, Peng-Peng Guan, Ting Zhang, Jing-Xia Liu
Silver_nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification of erythroid cells and to induce spinal cord deformities and cardiac arrhythmia in vertebrates, but have not been implicated in development of neural crest (NC) and pigment cells in an in vivo model yet. In current study, down-regulated expressions of NC genes pax7 and foxd3, melanophore genes mitfa and dct, and xanthophore gene gch2 in AgNPs-exposed embryos were revealed by microarray, qRT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH)...
January 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103812/can-coefficient-of-variation-of-time-domain-analysis-be-valuable-for-detecting-cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy-in-young-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#10
Dovile Razanskaite-Virbickiene, Evalda Danyte, Giedre Mockeviciene, Rimante Dobrovolskiene, Rasa Verkauskiene, Rimantas Zalinkevicius
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) increases morbidity and mortality in diabetes through association with a high risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death, possibly related to silent myocardial ischemia. During the sub-clinical stage, CAN can be detected through reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of our study was to estimate if the time and frequency-domain analysis can be valuable for detecting CAN in young patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102901/risk-of-arrhythmic-death-in-ischemic-heart-disease-a-prospective-controlled-observer-blind-investigation-over-10-years
#11
Thomas Pezawas, André Diedrich, David Robertson, Robert Winker, Bernhard Richter, Li Wang, Herwig Schmidinger
BACKGROUND: Risk of arrhythmic death is considered highest in ischemic heart disease with severe left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction. Non-invasive testing should improve decision-making of prophylactic defibrillator (ICD) implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 120 patients with ischemic heart disease and LVEF <50% and 30 control subjects without ischemic heart disease and normal LVEF. An initial assessment, a second assessment after 3 years, and a final follow-up comprised of: pharmacological baroreflex testing (BRS), short-term spectral (low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) ratio) and long-term time domain analysis of heart rate variability (SDNN), exercise Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) and others...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102477/potential-new-mechanisms-of-pro-arrhythmia-in-arrhythmogenic-cardiomyopathy-focus-on-calcium-sensitive-pathways
#12
REVIEW
C J M van Opbergen, M Delmar, T A B van Veen
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, or its most well-known subform arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), is a cardiac disease mainly characterised by a gradual replacement of the myocardial mass by fibrous and fatty tissue, leading to dilatation of the ventricular wall, arrhythmias and progression towards heart failure. ARVC is commonly regarded as a disease of the intercalated disk in which mutations in desmosomal proteins are an important causative factor. Interestingly, the Dutch founder mutation PLN R14Del has been identified to play an additional, and major, role in ARVC patients within the Netherlands...
January 19, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102233/arrhythmias-optogenetic-control-of-cardiac-rhythm
#13
Dario Ummarino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101660/pocketecg-a-new-noninvasive-method-for-continuous-and-real-time-ecg-monitoring-initial-results-in-children-and-adolescents
#14
Katarzyna Bieganowska, Agnieszka Kaszuba, Maciej Bieganowski, Krzysztof Kaczmarek
Long-term ECG is widely used in diagnosis and assessment of many cardiac symptoms which may be caused by dangerous arrhythmias that sometimes can be difficult to document. The PocketECG system is a new technological solution for a long-term, noninvasive, continuous and real-time ECG monitoring that provides automatic diagnosis of dysrhythmias. ECG data transmission occurs over a mobile network. The goal of this study was to assess the reliability of long-term ECG recordings acquired with the PocketECG system...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101152/the-association-between-herg-gene-expression-and-cardiac-arrhythmia-disease-in-children
#15
Mingyu Fu, Chunli Li, Qingwen Wang, Yan Wang, Xinjiang An
We explored the possible link between the expression of HERG gene and cardiomyopathy in children. From April 2013 to April 2015, 73 children with cardiac arrhythmia who were treated were enrolled in the present study to serve as the observation group. At the same time, 76 normal individuals were also enrolled as the control group. HERG expression level in the observation group was compared with the control group. To determine the level of HERG gene expression we used fluorescent directional PCR, enzyme immunoassay and western blot analysis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100983/a-malignant-arrhythmia-cardiac-metastasis-and-ventricular-tachycardia
#16
Muthiah Vaduganathan, Nilay K Patel, Steven A Lubitz, Tomas G Neilan, David M Dudzinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100976/ventricular-tachycardia-in-fabry-disease-detected-in-a-50-year-old-woman-during-14-day-continuous-cardiac-monitoring
#17
Jaime Silva-Gburek, Laura Rochford, Robert Hopkin, John L Jefferies
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder. Female carriers were long thought to be asymptomatic; however, research has revealed the opposite. Cardiac conditions are the chief causes of death in women with Fabry disease. Although ventricular tachycardia has been reported in male patients with Fabry disease, it is not thought to be a frequent finding in females. We describe the case of a 50-year-old woman in whom we used 14-day continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to identify nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, after electrocardiograms and 24-hour Holter monitoring failed to detect the arrhythmia...
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100342/-the-effect-on-myocardial-perfusion-and-clinical-outcome-of-intracoronary-nicorandil-injection-prior-to-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#18
Z Q Wang, M X Chen, D L Liu, W X Zheng, X Z Cao, H Chen, M F Huang, Z R Luo
Objective: To investigate the effect of intracoronary administration of nicorandil prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) on myocardial perfusion and short-term clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: A total of 158 patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI from January 2014 to December 2015 in Fuzhou General Hospital were enrolled consecutively in this prospective controlled randomized trial. Patients were assigned into three groups with random number table: the nicorandil group (patients received intracoronary administration of 6 mg nicorandil after guide wire or balloon successfully crossed the target lesion, n=53), the nitroglycerin group (patients received intracoronary administration of 300 μg nitroglycerin after after guide wire or balloon successfully crossed the target lesion, n=52) and the control group(patients received routine treatment, n=53)...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099588/dobutamine-stress-echocardiography-safety-in-chagas-disease-patients
#19
Daniela do Carmo Rassi, Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira, Rogerio Gomes Furtado, Fabio de Paula Turco, Luciano Henrique Melato, Viviane Tiemi Hotta, Colandy Godoy de Oliveira Nunes, Luiz Rassi, Salvador Rassi
Background: A few decades ago, patients with Chagas disease were predominantly rural workers, with a low risk profile for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). As urbanization has increased, they became exposed to the same risk factors for CAD of uninfected individuals. Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has proven to be an important tool in CAD diagnosis. Despite being a potentially arrhythmogenic method, it is safe for coronary patients without Chagas disease. For Chagas disease patients, however, the indication of DSE in clinical practice is uncertain, because of the arrhythmogenic potential of that heart disease...
January 16, 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098356/mechano-chemo-transduction-in-cardiac-myocytes
#20
Ye Chen-Izu, Leighton T Izu
The heart has the ability to adjust to changing mechanical loads. The Frank-Starling law and the Anrep effect describe exquisite intrinsic mechanisms the heart has for autoregulating the force of contraction to maintain cardiac output under preload and afterload. Although these mechanisms have been known for more than a century, their cellular and molecular underpinnings are still debated. How does the cardiac myocyte sense a change in preload or afterload? How does the myocyte adjust its response to compensate for such changes? In cardiac myocytes Ca(2+) is a crucial regulator of contractile force and in this review we compare and contrast recent results from different labs that address two important questions...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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