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Laura M Seske, William C Ralston, Louis J Muglia, James M Greenberg
Infant mortality rate is generally regarded as a fundamental indicator of population health and is often used to validate public health interventions. Hamilton County, Ohio, has one of the highest rates in the nation. Most deaths that do not occur in the hospital fall under the jurisdiction of a coroner/medical examiner. We reviewed all infant deaths evaluated by the Hamilton County Coroner from 2006 to 2013 in order to identify opportunities for public health interventions. We predicted that the majority of these infant deaths were unintentional, but preventable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Charles M Watson, Warren W Burggren
Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differences in microhabitat selection and behavior are associated with the cooler temperatures of the more Northern ranges. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in metabolic temperature sensitivity locally segregates them across their total range...
2016: PloS One
Anna Sävneby, Johannes Luthman, Fabian Nordenskjöld, Björn Andersson, A Michael Lindberg
The transcriptomes of cells infected with lytic and non-lytic variants of coxsackievirus B2 Ohio-1 (CVB2O) were analyzed using next generation sequencing. This approach was selected with the purpose of elucidating the effects of lytic and non-lytic viruses on host cell transcription. Total RNA was extracted from infected cells and sequenced. The resulting reads were subsequently mapped against the human and CVB2O genomes. The amount of intracellular RNA was measured, indicating lower proportions of human RNA in the cells infected with the lytic virus compared to the non-lytic virus after 48 hours...
2016: PloS One
H Claude Sagi, David Donohue, Seth Cooper, David P Barei, Justin Siebler, Michael T Archdeacon, Marcus Sciadini, Michelle Romeo, Patrick F Bergin, Thomas Higgins, Hassan Mir
OBJECTIVES: The current literature focuses on wound severity, time to debridement and antibiotic administration with respect to risk of infection after open fracture. The purpose of this analysis was to determine if either the incidence of post-traumatic infection or causative organism varies with treating institution or the season in which the open fracture occurred. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Seven level-one regional referral trauma centers located in each of the seven climatic regions of the continental United States (Northwest; High Plains; Midwest/Ohio Valley; New England/Mid-Atlantic; Southeast; South; and Southwest)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Alma Fernanda Sanchez-Maldonado, Mueen Aslam, Cara Service, Claudia Narváez-Bravo, Brent P Avery, Roger Johnson, Tineke H Jones
This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP)...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Caroline Kingori, Camila LeMaster Esquivel, Qorsho Hassan, Abdul Elmi, Bakali Mukasa, Michael Reece
African-born immigrants and refugees have HIV infection rates six times higher than any other minority groups in the United States. Despite the increase in the population size and diversity of Somali immigrants and refugees in the United States, Somalis are one of the medically underserved population subgroups in this region. The lack of aggregate HIV infection rates among African-born immigrants, for example, Somali refugees, is a cause for alarm and calls for more research to be conducted in this subgroup...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
N K Goyal, A T Folger, E S Hall, J M Greenberg, J B Van Ginkel, R T Ammerman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the association of home visiting with subsequent pregnancy outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of Ohio mothers delivering their first infant from 2007 to 2009. First, we compared mothers enrolled in home visiting with a matched eligible group. Second, we compared outcomes within home visiting based on program participation (low <25% of recommended home visits, moderate 25 to 75%, high 75 to 100% and very high >100%)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
M Ali, H Pasic, K Alam, S A N Tiji, N Mannella, T Silva, T Liu
This paper reports development and testing of novel cross-flow wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP), recently patented at Ohio University, which utilizes vertical columns of permeable material in the form of polypropylene ropes placed in a cross flow configuration within a flue gas stream. The cross flow design has large surface area, which provides scrubbing action; therefore it has the potential for removing multiple pollutants including particulates, gases, vapors and mists. In this new method, the ropes are kept wet by the liquid (water) introduced from the top of the cells running downward on the ropes by capillary action, making the permeable materials act as the ground electrode for capturing particles from the flue gas...
October 10, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Kaveh Hajifathalian, Annette Humberson, Mohamad A Hanouneh, David S Barnes, Zubin Arora, Nizar N Zein, Bijan Eghtesad, Dympna Kelly, Ibrahim A Hanouneh
AIM: To evaluate risk of recidivism on a case-by-case basis. METHODS: From our center's liver transplant program, we selected patients with alcoholic liver disease who were listed for transplant based on Ohio Solid Organ Transplantation Consortium (OSOTC) exception criteria. They were considered to have either a low or medium risk of recidivism, and had at least one or three or more months of abstinence, respectively. They were matched based on gender, age, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score to controls with alcohol-induced cirrhosis from Organ Procurement and Transplant Network data...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Kathleen J Pantano
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge high school coaches have about the female athlete triad and to determine if gender differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviors exist. DESIGN: Cross-sectional Survey SETTING: Twenty-six high schools in and around the vicinity of Cleveland, Ohio, USA PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred currently employed high school coaches INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed a 30-question survey that assessed knowledge, attitudes and behaviors coaches had about the female athlete triad...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Stephen D Thorpe, Myriam Charpentier
The last decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of the proteins of the nuclear envelope, which have multiple roles including positioning the nucleus, maintaining its structural organisation, and in events ranging from mitosis and meiosis to chromatin positioning and gene expression. Diverse new and stimulating results relating to nuclear organisation and genome function from across kingdoms were presented in a session stream entitled "Dynamic Organisation of the Nucleus" at this year's Society of Experimental Biology (SEB) meeting in Brighton, UK (July 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Nucleus
Jie Zhang, Haihao Zhang, Yilin Zhao, Chen Guo, Zhaoqing Yang, Shaohui Ma
Human coxsackievirus B2 (CVB2) belongs to the species Human enterovirus B and can cause aseptic meningitis, myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We first determined the complete genome of the RW41-2/YN/CHN/2012 strain, isolated from a patient with HFMD and aseptic meningitis in the Yunnan Province, China in 2012. The strain shared 83.5 % and 82.2 % nucleotide similarity with CVB2 prototype strain Ohio-1, in the complete VP1 gene and the complete genome, respectively. Using phylogenetic and homogeneity analyses for the complete VP1 gene, CVB2 strains could be divided into four genogroups (A-D); the RW41-2/YN/CHN/2012 strain belonging to genogroup D...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Virology
Paul A Gastañaduy, Jeremy Budd, Nicholas Fisher, Susan B Redd, Jackie Fletcher, Julie Miller, Dwight J McFadden, Jennifer Rota, Paul A Rota, Carole Hickman, Brian Fowler, Lilith Tatham, Gregory S Wallace, Sietske de Fijter, Amy Parker Fiebelkorn, Mary DiOrio
Background Although measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, importations of the virus continue to cause outbreaks. We describe the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of measles that originated from two unvaccinated Amish men in whom measles was incubating at the time of their return to the United States from the Philippines and explore the effect of public health responses on limiting the spread of measles. Methods We performed descriptive analyses of data on demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory evaluations, and vaccination coverage...
October 6, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Lalitha Sivaswamy
Investigators from the Ohio State University, Oregon Health and Science University and Rosalind Franklin School of Medicine examined the presenting manifestations, demographics and treatment strategies in children enrolled in the Intracranial Hypertension Registry (IHR).
October 2016: Pediatric neurology briefs
Mira L Katz, Barret J Zimmermann, Deborah Moore, E D Paskett, Paul Reiter
Cervical cancer (CC) incidence and mortality rates are increased, and CC screening rates are low among Appalachian Ohio women. Mailing human papillomavirus (HPV) self-tests to women to complete at home is a potential new strategy to engage women in CC screening.We aimed to gain insights into the perceived acceptability of mailed HPV self-tests. We conducted focus groups (August 2014-January 2015) among providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses) and women in Appalachian Ohio. Providers (n = 28) and women (n = 15; age range: 32-62 years) reported general acceptance of HPV self-tests, however, for different reasons...
October 4, 2016: Women & Health
Eric Egnot, Kim Jordan, John O Elliott
BACKGROUND: Use of the electronic cigarette for nicotine delivery has increased dramatically in recent years. Information continues to emerge on its role as a smoking cessation aid, but little is known about resident physician use of the device in clinical practice. METHODS: In 2015, an electronic survey was administered to resident physicians in one healthcare system in Columbus, Ohio. The survey included questions about personal smoking exposure, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes about electronic cigarettes and early adoption of electronic cigarettes with patients...
October 3, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Allison R Kaup, Carrie Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Joel H Kramer, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older Veterans. METHODS: Participants were 169 older Veterans [mean age=79.1 years (range, 51-97 years), 89% male, 92% Caucasian], 88 with lifetime TBI and 81 without TBI, living in Veterans' retirement homes in independent residence. TBI history was ascertained with the Ohio State TBI Identification Method structured interview. Cognition was assessed with neuropsychological tests: Raw scores were converted to Z-scores compared to age-corrected normative data and combined into five domain composite Z-scores (attention/working memory, learning/memory, language, processing speed, executive functioning)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Jeffrey M Caterino, Nicole V Brown, Maya W Hamilton, Brian Ichwan, Salman Khaliqdina, David C Evans, Subrahmanyan Darbha, Ashish R Panchal, Manish N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect on outcomes of the Ohio Department of Public Safety statewide geriatric triage criteria, established in 2009 for emergency medical services (EMS) to use for injured individuals aged 70 and older. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of the Ohio Trauma Registry. SETTING: All hospitals in Ohio. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older in the Ohio Trauma Registry from January 2006 through December 2011, 3 years before and 3 years after criteria adoption (N = 34,499)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
K W King, M R Williams, W A Dick, G A LaBarge
Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural nonpoint-source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P sorbing potential. A before-after control-impact paired field experiment was used to examine the water quality effects of successive FGD gypsum applications (2.24 Mg ha; 1 ton acre each) to an Ohio field with high soil test P levels (>480 ppm Mehlich-3 P)...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Mary Ellen Wewers, Abigail Shoben, Sara Conroy, Elana Curry, Amy K Ferketich, David M Murray, Julianna Nemeth, Amy Wermert
INTRODUCTION: Community health workers (CHW) may be effective in the delivery of tobacco dependence treatment with underserved groups. This study evaluated two evidence-based CHW models of treatment. It was hypothesized that smokers assigned to a CHW face-to-face condition would have higher abstinence at 12 months post-treatment than smokers enrolled in CHW referral to a state-sponsored quit line condition. Intrapersonal and treatment-related factors associated with abstinence at 12 months were determined...
September 30, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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