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Stem cell bioethics

Coralea Stephanou, Panayiota Papasavva, Myria Zachariou, Petros Patsali, Marilena Epitropou, Petros Ladas, Ruba Al-Abdulla, Soteroulla Christou, Michael N Antoniou, Carsten W Lederer, Marina Kleanthous
BACKGROUND AIMS: Primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are key components of cell-based therapies for blood disorders and are thus the authentic substrate for related research. We propose that ubiquitous small-volume diagnostic samples represent a readily available and as yet untapped resource of primary patient-derived cells for cell- and gene-therapy studies. METHODS: In the present study we compare isolation and storage methods for HSPCs from normal and thalassemic small-volume blood samples, considering genotype, density-gradient versus lysis-based cell isolation and cryostorage media with different serum contents...
February 2017: Cytotherapy
Anke I Bouzenita
This paper gives insight into the Islamic bioethical discussion on harvesting and using human embryonic (hESC) and adult stem cells. It describes some of the Islamic legal mechanisms involved in the bioethical discourse among Muslims. As the contemporary Islamic bioethical discourse is very diverse, the paper focuses on the critical discussion of related resolutions of the Saudi-based Islamic Fiqh Academy due to the esteem in which the IFA is held in the Islamic world and the pertinence of their rulings on this issue...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
K Haude, P McCarthy Veach, B LeRoy, H Zierhut
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Natan Monsores, Cecilia Lopes, Edilnete Maria Bessa Bezerra, Natasha Lunara Silva
Therapeutic tourism is a recent phenomenon in public health and has had repercussions among people with disabilities. Virtual social networks have enabled people to organize themselves to discover ways and means of seeking unconventional treatments in China. In this context, foreign biotech companies have offered experimental cell treatment therapies. In this work, netnography (conducting ethnographic research online) was conducted on the blogs of 58 people who organized campaigns to carry out treatment in China...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Katarzyna Siennicka, Aleksandra Zolocinska, Karolina Stepien, Natalia Lubina-Dabrowska, Marzena Maciagowska, Ewa Zolocinska, Anna Slysz, Renata Piusinska-Macoch, Slawomir Mazur, Urszula Zdanowicz, Robert Smigielski, Adam Stepien, Zygmunt Pojda
Although mesenchymal stem cells are used in numerous clinical trials, the safety of their application is still a matter of concern. We have analysed the clinical results of the autologous adipose-derived stem cell treatment (stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial progenitors, and blood mononuclear cells) for orthopedic (cartilage, bone, tendon, or combined joint injuries) and neurologic (multiple sclerosis) diseases. Methods of adipose tissue collection, cell isolation and purification, and resulting cell numbers, viability, and morphology were considered, and patient's age, sex, disease type, and method of cell administration (cell numbers per single application, treatment numbers and frequency, and methods of cell implantation) were analysed and searched for the unwanted clinical effects...
2016: Stem Cells International
Aileen J Anderson, Brian J Cummings
A central principle of bioethics is "subject autonomy," the acknowledgement of the primacy of the informed consent of the subject of research. Autonomy requires informed consent - the assurance that the research participant is informed about the possible risks and benefits of the research. In fact, informed consent is difficult when a single drug is being tested, although subjects have a baseline understanding of the testing of a pharmacological agent and the understanding that they can stop taking the drug if there were an adverse event...
September 2016: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Hiroshi Mizuno
Production of human fertilized embryos by using germ cells derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) entails ethical issues that differ fundamentally depending on the aim. If the aim is solely to conduct research, then embryo generation, utilization and destruction must respect for the human embryo as having the innate potential to develop into a human being. If the aim is human reproduction, this technology must never be used to manipulate human life, confuse social order, or negatively affect future generations...
August 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Ahmet Karakaya, Ilhan Ilkilic
BACKGROUND: Turkey, with a Muslim population of officially over 99 %, is one of the few secular states in the Muslim world. Although state institutions are not based on Islamic juridical and ethical norms, the latter play a significant role in defining people's attitudes towards controversial issues in the modern world, especially when backed by opinions of Muslim scholars living in Turkey. Accordingly, opinions of Muslim scholars undoubtedly have an important effect on bioethical decisions made by institutions and individuals...
August 2016: Stem Cell Reviews
Luigi Naldi
In a commentary published in The Lancet on January 2016, Giuseppe Remuzzi and Richard Horton, analyse the origin of the decline of the Italian primacy in biomedical science. Among the others, the existence of Italian political groups «which oppose science simply to please the Church and to achieve political gain» was considered as detrimental for advancing research in such areas as assisted reproduction or embryonic stem cell research. Some hope for a change is raised, in the opinion of Remuzzi and Horton, by the more open attitude toward science of pope Francis...
March 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Michelle G J L Habets, Johannes J M van Delden, Annelien L Bredenoord
AIM: The inherent uncertainty of first-in-human trials, combined with the technical complexity of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), makes early phase PSC studies ethically challenging. Conducting parallel bioethics research based on experiences and views of professionals in the stem cell field is therefore important. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with various stakeholders to get a lay of the land of ethical issues professionals find relevant to the translation of PSCs...
January 2016: Regenerative Medicine
Maliheh Ghadiri, Paul M Young, Daniela Traini
INTRODUCTION: During the last few decades, cell-based therapies have shown great potential to treat patients with lung diseases. It has been proposed that the administration of cells into an injured lung could be considered as a therapeutic method to repair and replace lost lung tissue. Using this method, transplanted cells with the ability to proliferate and differentiate into alveolar cells, have been suggested as a therapeutic strategy for IPF treatment. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the latest investigations using various types of cells for IPF therapy have been presented...
2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Nik Brown, Rosalind Williams
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become the focus of intense efforts to collect, screen and bank haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in hundreds of repositories around the world. UCB banking has developed through a broad spectrum of overlapping banking practices, sectors and institutional forms. Superficially at least, these sectors have been widely distinguished in bioethical and policy literature between notions of the 'public' and the 'private', the commons and the market respectively. Our purpose in this paper is to reflect more critically on these distinctions and to articulate the complex practical and hybrid nature of cord blood as a 'bio-object' that straddles binary conceptions of the blood economies...
2015: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Bartłomiej Noszczyk
Over the last decade autologous fat from subcutaneous tissue has been used by plastic surgeons for face volumization. It has also been used with growing frequency for aesthetic breast enhancement. Currently, experts in this field are becoming increasingly aware of the potential of fat for breast reconstruction. However, the safety of fat transfers to post-mastectomy defects has been called into question in recent debates due to the, albeit rare, observations of their possible influence on local cancer recurrence...
2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Brian Salter, Yinhua Zhou, Saheli Datta
The global political economy of stem cell therapies is characterised by an established biomedical hegemony of expertise, governance and values in collision with an increasingly informed health consumer demand able to define and pursue its own interest. How does the hegemony then deal with the challenge from the consumer market and what does this tell us about its modus operandi? In developing a theoretical framework to answer these questions, the paper begins with an analysis of the nature of the hegemony of biomedical innovation in general, its close relationship with the research funding market, the current political modes of consumer incorporation, and the ideological role performed by bioethics as legitimating agency...
April 2015: Social Science & Medicine
Alice King, Swathi Balaji, Sundeep G Keswani, Timothy M Crombleholme
Significance: Revascularization plays a critical role in wound healing and is regulated by a complex milieu of growth factors and cytokines. Deficiencies in revascularization contribute to the development of chronic nonhealing wounds. Recent Advances: Stem-cell-based therapy provides a novel strategy to enhance angiogenesis and improve wound healing. With bioethical concerns associated with embryonic stem cells, focus has shifted to different populations of vascular precursors, isolated from adult somatic tissue...
October 1, 2014: Advances in Wound Care
Xavier Bioy
The legal and bioethical regulation of the uses of the elements of the human body can be described by means of the concept of solidarity. From the French example, we can so show that the State tries to frame solidarities which already exist, for example between people who share the same genome, in the family, or, on the contrary, tent to impose or to direct the sharing of the human biological resources (organs, tissues, gametes, stem cell...).
June 2014: Journal International de Bioéthique, International Journal of Bioethics
Denis English
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2012: Annals of Neurosciences
Denis English
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2012: Annals of Neurosciences
Denis English
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2012: Annals of Neurosciences
Nancy Mp King, Jacob Perrin
Rapid progress in biotechnology has introduced a host of pressing ethical and policy issues pertaining to stem cell research. In this review, we provide an overview of the most significant issues with which the stem cell research community should be familiar. We draw on a sample of the bioethics and scientific literatures to address issues that are specific to stem cell research and therapy, as well as issues that are important for stem cell research and therapy but also for translational research in related fields, and issues that apply to all clinical research and therapy...
2014: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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