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Rabin Gerrah, Stephen J Haller, Isaac George
All biological processes are governed by principles of physics that dictate the pathophysiology and even the treatment of congenital heart diseases. In this review, basic concepts such as flow, pressure, resistance, and velocity are introduced, followed by more complex laws that describe the relationship between these variables and the disease processes. Finally, physical phenomena such as turbulence, steal and runoff phenomenon, and energy loss are discussed. By application of these principles, one can accurately quantify modifications undertaken to treat diseases, for example, the size of a patch that augments a vessel and the angle of an anastomosis to allow a certain flow...
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Rabin Gerrah, Mariel E Turner, Danielle Gottlieb, Jan M Quaegebeur, Emile Bacha
We reviewed our experience of surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in children weighing less than or equal to 4 kg to compare outcome of early palliation versus complete repair as the initial surgical approach. Seventy-six patients, weighing ≤ 4 kg, with TOF surgery between January 2005 and September 2013 were included in this single-center retrospective study. Twenty-five patients who underwent initial shunt procedure followed by later full repair were compared to 51 patients who had primary full repair for differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes...
October 2015: Pediatric Cardiology
Rachel E Sunstrom, Ashok Muralidaran, Rabin Gerrah, Richard D Reed, Milon K Good, Laurie R Armsby, Andrew J Rekito, M Mujeeb Zubair, Stephen M Langley
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing the Fontan procedure may have extended hospital stay due to various postoperative factors including prolonged chest tube drainage. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of our Fontan management protocol in reducing chest tube drainage and length of stay. METHODS: Patients who underwent a Fontan procedure at our institution from June 2008 to September 2013 were analyzed (n = 42). We currently manage our patients according to the PORTLAND protocol: Peripheral vasodilation, Oxygen, Restriction of fluids, Technique of surgery, Low-fat diet, Anticoagulation (including antithrombin III management), No ventilator, and Diuretics...
January 2015: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Rabin Gerrah, Dianna M E Bardo, Rich D Reed, Rachel E Sunstrom, Stephen M Langley
The purpose of this article is to study the importance of cross-sectional imaging in preoperative evaluation and surgical planning. Echocardiography is the modality of choice to diagnose cardiac diseases. However, in some cases, the data obtained from echocardiogram are insufficient or the image quality is poor. In these cases, additional modalities are being used to provide further information that can aid in guiding medical management of or surgical planning for the patient. Cross-sectional imaging has become widely available in many institutions...
January 2014: Congenital Heart Disease
Stephen M Langley, Rachel E Sunstrom, Richard D Reed, Andrew J Rekito, Rabin Gerrah
Neonatal patients with hypoplasia of the aortic arch constitute a heterogeneous group with a wide spectrum of severity. The milder end of the spectrum comprises patients with aortic coarctation and isthmus hypoplasia. At the other end of the spectrum are patients with severe transverse arch hypoplasia or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The aim of this paper is to discuss the various strategies and surgical approaches available for this group of patients, focusing on the surgical decisions that influence individual patient management...
2013: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
Rabin Gerrah, Omid David
Clot formation is a common complication in extracorporeal circuits. In this paper we describe a novel method for clot formation analysis using image processing. We assembled a closed extracorporeal circuit and circulated blood at varying speeds. Blood filters were placed in downstream of the flow, and clotting agents were added to the circuit. Digital images of the filter were subsequently taken, and image analysis was applied to calculate the density of the clot. Our results show a significant correlation between the cumulative size of the clots, the density measure of the clot based on image analysis, and flow duration in the system...
2013: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Rabin Gerrah, Amee Shah, Stephen M Langley, Jan M Quaegebeur
We describe a neonate with a rare congenital anomaly of the aorta. The anomaly included a hypoplastic aortic arch that was cervical and right sided. This complex combination was treated by a Norwood type procedure reconstructing a right-sided arch and, in a later stage, a Rastelli procedure. These 2 procedures achieved a 2 ventricular repair. The diagnostic and surgical challenges of this rare anomaly are described in this case report.
December 2012: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Casey Wong, Santos E Cabreriza, Maria Nugent, Daniel Y Wang, Rabin Gerrah, Alexander Rusanov, Vinay Yalamanchi, Alice Wang, Bin Cheng, Henry M Spotnitz
BACKGROUND: We used speckle-tracking echocardiography to test the hypothesis that regional left ventricular (LV) strain would improve during optimized biventricular pacing (BiVP) in acute right ventricular (RV) pressure overload (PO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Complete heart block and RVPO were induced in five open-chest fully anesthetized pigs. BiVP was optimized by adjusting atrioventricular and interventricular delays to maximize cardiac output derived from an aortic flow probe...
December 2012: Journal of Surgical Research
Rabin Gerrah, Alex Brill, David Varon
OBJECTIVES: : During cardiac surgery, platelets undergo substantial changes. The purpose of this study was to assess platelet function and compare these changes between different cardiac operations using an innovative technology. METHODS: : Perioperative platelet function was evaluated by the Impact test [cone and plate(let) analyzer (CPA)]. The Impact test yields 2 parameters for platelet function: average size (AS, the mean size of the platelet aggregates) and surface coverage (SC, the percentage of the surface covered by the platelet aggregates), which correspond to platelet aggregation and adhesion...
July 2007: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Raqeeb Haque, Teresa Wojtasiewicz, Rabin Gerrah, Lisa Gilmore, Yoshikatsu Saiki, Jonathan M Chen, Marc Richmond, Neil A Feldstein, Richard C E Anderson
Pediatric patients bridged to heart transplant with LVADs require chronic anticoagulation and are at increased risk of hemorrhagic complications, including intracranial hemorrhage. In this population, intracranial hemorrhage is often fatal. We report a case of successful management of a five-yr-old-boy with DCM on an LVAD who developed a subdural hematoma. We initially chose medical management, weighing the patient's high risk of thromboembolism from anticoagulation reversal against the risk of his chronic subdural hematoma...
August 2012: Pediatric Transplantation
K Charette, R Gerrah, J Quaegebeur, J Chen, D Riley, L Mongero, R Corda, E Bacha
BACKGROUND: The single dose cardioplegia technique for myocardial protection during congenital heart surgery is a viable alternative to multidose protocols. METHODS: Thirty-four pediatric patients with aortic cross clamp times greater than 90 minutes were grouped by modified adult (MA) multidose solution or del Nido (dN) single dose solution. Also, data from eight patients where the cross clamp times were greater than two hours on one dose of dN solution were included...
March 2012: Perfusion
Rabin Gerrah, Kevin Charette, Jonathan M Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2011: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Daniel Y Wang, Rabin Gerrah, Alexander Rusanov, Vinay Yalamanchi, Santos E Cabreriza, Henry M Spotnitz
OBJECTIVE: Temporary biventricular pacing to treat low output states after cardiac surgery is an active area of investigation. Reoperative cases are not studied due to adhesions, which preclude left ventricular mobilization to place epicardial pacing wires. In such patients, inserting a temporary left ventricular lead via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula may allow for biventricular pacing. We developed a novel technique for intraoperative left ventricular lead placement. METHODS: Eight domestic pigs underwent median sternotomy and pericardiotomy...
July 2011: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Rabin Gerrah, Santos E Cabreriza, Alexander Rusanov, Alexander Romanov, Azeem R Khan, Henry M Spotnitz
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary artery (PA)-left atrial (LA) shunt models in piglets have been described, but technical details critical to limit morbidity/mortality and promote study of chronic cyanosis are lacking. Accordingly, we describe our experience with an optimized technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 25 6- to 8-wk-old Yorkshire piglets, a beveled, 8 mm, polytetrafluoroethylene tube graft was anastomosed to the PA and LA. Systemic pressure was maintained at >60 mmHg...
November 2011: Journal of Surgical Research
Erin M George, Santos E Cabreriza, T Alexander Quinn, Alexander Rusanov, Rabin Gerrah, Justin M Broyles, Alan D Weinberg, Henry M Spotnitz
Biventricular pacing (BiVP) can increase cardiac output (CO) during acute failure of the left ventricle (LV) after cardiac surgery. This CO benefit is maximized by adjustment of atrioventricular (AVD) and interventricular (VVD) pacing delays. Real-time CO calculation could facilitate this optimization. Accordingly, we compared real-time automated analysis (AA) of CO with manual analysis (MA) in an animal model of pressure overload of the right ventricle (RV). In six anesthetized pigs, pacing leads were placed on the right atrium, RV, and LV...
May 2010: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Rabin Gerrah, Alex Brill, Sagi Tshori, Aharon Lubetsky, Gideon Merin, David Varon
The cone and plate(let) analyzer is an established method for assessing platelet function. It evaluates adherence of platelets on an extracellular matrix, expressed as a percentage of surface coverage and the average size of the aggregates. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of the cone and plate(let) analyzer in monitoring platelet function and predicting postoperative bleeding. The relationship between postoperative bleeding, perioperative platelet function, and other parameters was studied...
August 2006: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Rabin Gerrah, Mark Pappof, Vadim Shatz, Arthur Pollak, Dan Gilon
We describe herein a case of bioprosthetic valve malfunction, which closely imitates a stuck valve. Although the term "stuck" was used originally for the immovable mechanical valve leaflets, the echocardiographic manifestation of this malfunction is similar to those of a mechanical one. The clinical presentation of the stuck bioprosthesis is, however, far more benign than a stuck mechanical valve. Familiarity with this entity is important.
2005: Heart Surgery Forum
Rabin Gerrah, Amir Elami, Alon Stamler, Asya Smirnov, Zeev Stoeger
OBJECTIVES: Release of thromboxane (Tx) A(2) by platelets may be one of multiple factors that are responsible for lung injury after cardiopulmonary bypass, leading to pulmonary vasoconstriction and impaired oxygenation. In experimental models, the inhibition of Tx receptor or its production improved lung function. The use of aspirin, which is used widely in the treatment of ischemic heart disease because of its antiplatelet activity, is usually discontinued a week before the patient undergoes the operation to restore normal platelet hemostatic function...
May 2005: Chest
R Gerrah, S Ehrlich, S Tshori, G Sahar
AIM: Renal function is one of the most important prognostic factors following cardiac surgery. Whether aspirin affects cardiopulmonary bypass related renal injury is investigated in this study. METHODS: Ninety-four patients with impaired renal function (creatinine = or >1.5 mg/dl) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were categorized into 2 groups according to aspirin administration before surgery. Serum creatinine, urinary output and creatinine clearance along with other perioperative factors were compared between the 2 groups prior to surgery, 24 hours and 48 hours following cardiopulmonary bypass...
December 2004: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Rabin Gerrah, Eitan Snir, Alex Brill, David Varon
BACKGROUND: Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) is believed to reduce cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-related complications, including platelet damage. A hypercoagulable state instead of coagulopathy has been reported following OPCAB surgeries due to CPB. Whether platelet function is changed when the injurious effect of CPB is eliminated was investigated. METHODS: Platelet function was determined with the cone and plate(let) analyzer (CPA) method. The 2 parameters, average size (AS) and surface coverage (SC) of platelet aggregates, were measured with the CPA method to assess platelet aggregation and adhesion...
2004: Heart Surgery Forum
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