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Cardiac valve anatomy

Wail Alkashkari, Amani Alsubei, Ziyad M Hijazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The past couple of decades have brought tremendous advances to the field of pediatric and adult congenital heart disease (CHD). Percutaneous valve interventions are now a cornerstone of not just the congenital cardiologist treating patients with congenital heart disease, but also-and numerically more importantly-for adult interventional cardiologists treating patients with acquired heart valve disease. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) is one of the most exciting recent developments in the treatment of CHD and has evolved to become an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction...
March 15, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Anubha Saha, Sanchita Roy
INTRODUCTION: Papillary muscle plays an important role in stabilizing the position of the tricuspid valve. Several pathologies can result in anatomical and functional abnormalities of the papillary muscles. The aim of the study is to deliberate the morphometry of papillary muscles in tricuspid valve and to analyze with the eminent research works previously done. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 52 formalin-fixed adult apparently normal cadaveric hearts belonging to either sex obtained from the Department of Anatomy...
February 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Ginnie Abarbanell, William L Border, Brian Schlosser, Gemma Morrow, Michael Kelleman, Ritu Sachdeva
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether neonates with interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and a smaller left ventricular outflow tract may have improved outcomes with a Yasui operation (ventricular outflow bypass procedure) over a primary complete repair. This study sought to identify preoperative echocardiographic parameters to differentiate which neonates may have improved outcomes with a primary vs Yasui operation. DESIGN: Patient demographics, cardiac surgery type, complications, need for reoperation and/or interventional catheterization, and date of last follow-up were collected on neonates who underwent a biventricular repair for IAA from 2003 to 2014...
March 9, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
Rominder Grover, Mickael Ohana, Chesnal Dey Arepalli, Stephanie L Sellers, John Mooney, Shaw-Hua Kueh, Ung Kim, Philipp Blanke, Jonathon A Leipsic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advancements in transcatheter valvular interventions have resulted in a growing demand for advanced cardiac imaging to help guide these procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Both echocardiography and multi-detector computed tomography have played essential roles in the maturation of transcatheter aortic valve replacement and are now building on these experiences and helping inform the nascent field of transcatheter mitral interventions. Advanced imaging is essential to aid in the diagnosis and determination of the mechanism of mitral regurgitation...
March 6, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
I Vernikouskaya, W Rottbauer, J Seeger, B Gonska, V Rasche, Jochen Wöhrle
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to adapt patient-specifically a co-registration procedure for image fusion (IF) of a pre-interventional CT dataset with real-time X-ray (XR) fluoroscopy during transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), enabling improved performance of the procedure. BACKGROUND: The ability to use 3D models of the respective anatomies to complement the anatomic information obtained by XR fluoroscopy and provide a greater degree of real-time anatomical guidance holds great potential for complex cardiac interventions, especially for TAVI procedures with cerebral protection...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Mark Webster, Sanjeevan Pasupati, Nigel Lever, Martin Stiles
OBJECTIVE: This first-in-human study evaluated the safety and technical feasibility of the Tempo temporary cardiac pacing lead (BioTrace Medical), which includes a novel fixation mechanism and soft tip. BACKGROUND: Complications of temporary pacing leads include dislodgment, arrhythmias, and ventricular perforation. Temporary pacing applications have increased with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) growth, for rapid pacing during balloon valvuloplasty (BAV) and valve deployment, and for periprocedural bradyarrhythmia support...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
Aaron B Hesselson, Sandeep Duggal, Michael Rukavina, Peter L Gallagher, Gery F Tomassoni
BACKGROUND: Barriers to successful left ventricular lead placement within the coronary venous anatomy may include focal stenoses, thromboses, phrenic nerve stimulation, vessel tortuosity, small vessel caliber, non-excitable tissue and valve presence. A large series describing the utilization of coronary venous angioplasty (CVAP) for relief of these issues is absent in the literature. OBJECTIVE: We report our experience for all patients treated with CVAP in a single-center 13-year experience...
February 12, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Vladimiro L Vida, Lorenza Zanotto, Massimiliano Carrozzini, Massimo A Padalino, Giovanni Stellin
Congenital mitral valve (MV) dysplasia is a relatively rare and highly complex cardiac disease. We sought to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current surgical techniques for treating mitral valve insufficiency and the results of mitral valve repair at our institution. Between 1972 and 2017, 104 consecutive patients underwent surgical repair of congenital MV dysplasia-insufficiency at our institution. Among these, 59 patients presented with MV insufficiency (or prevalent MV insufficiency) and were part of the study...
March 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
Sathish M Chikkabyrappa, Rohit S Loomba, Justin T Tretter
Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA-IVS) is a rare complex cyanotic congenital heart disease with heterogeneous morphological variation. Prenatal diagnosis allows for developing a safe plan for delivery and postnatal management. While transthoracic echocardiography allows for detailed delineation of the cardiac anatomy, additional imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheterization may be necessary to further outline features of the cardiac anatomy, specifically coronary artery anatomy...
February 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Yung-Tsai Lee, Wei-Hsian Yin, Ho-Ping Yu, Jeng Wei
Background: Transfemoral (TF) access is associated with lower rates of surgical conversion and mortality compared with non-TF access for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Therefore, efforts should be made to make this procedure even less invasive, allowing more TAVR procedures to be performed through femoral access. We herein describe our single-center experience of using one-stage percutaneous internal endoconduits for TAVR in patients with unfavorable iliac artery anatomy...
January 2018: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Noman Ali, Peysh A Patel, Steven J Lindsay
Interventional cardiology has been revolutionised by transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), which has become established as the benchmark treatment for severe aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). Increased procedural familiarity and progression in device technology has enabled improvements to be made in complication rates, which have led to a commensurate expansion in the use of TAVI; it is now a viable alternative to AVR in patients at intermediate surgical risk, and has been used in cohorts such as those with bicuspid aortic valves or pure, severe aortic regurgitation...
January 25, 2018: European Journal of Heart Failure
Noriyasu Kawada, Hirokuni Naganuma, Koichi Muramatsu, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Ko Bando, Kazuhiro Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Although numerous reports have described suturing techniques for tricuspid annuloplasty, most studies were not based on a detailed anatomy of the tricuspid annulus. Thus, the definition of the tricuspid commissures remains unclear. This study aimed to clearly define the commissures and leaflets of the tricuspid valve and subvalvular structures, and to define a standard method for tricuspid annuloplasty. METHODS: In 27 normal heart specimens without cardiac disease, the tricuspid commissure was defined using indentations of the leaflets as a point, not an area, and the length of each tricuspid annulus was measured...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Shiho Naito, Johannes Petersen, Hermann Reichenspurner, Evaldas Girdauskas
OBJECTIVES: The association of anomalous anatomy of coronary arteries and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) has been sporadically reported. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of coronary anomalies between BAV and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and to analyse their impact on major adverse cardiac events during and after aortic valve surgery. METHODS: A total of 1099 consecutive patients who received preoperative coronary evaluation and elective aortic valve replacement/repair between January 2013 and July 2016 at our institution were involved...
December 12, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Olivia Ginty, John Moore, Terry Peters, Daniel Bainbridge
Medical imaging has advanced enormously over the last few decades, revolutionizing patient diagnostics and care. At the same time, additive manufacturing has emerged as a means of reproducing physical shapes and models previously not possible. In combination, they have given rise to 3-dimensional (3D) modeling, an entirely new technology for physicians. In an era in which 3D imaging has become a standard for aiding in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease, this visualization now can be taken further by bringing the patient's anatomy into physical reality as a model...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Sylvestre Maréchaux, Jeffery E Illman, James Huynh, Hector I Michelena, Vuyisile T Nkomo, Christophe Tribouilloy
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most prevalent cause of valvular heart disease (VHD) in western countries. In the Euro Heart Survey on VHD, MR was the second most common heart VHD requiring surgery. It is also the most common form of VHD in community and population-based studies from the United States. The categorization of MR based on causes and mechanisms is a major determinant of clinical outcome, of possible therapies for the MR and of the effectiveness of these therapies. Surgical mitral valve (MV) repair has been shown to improve survival in patients with severe primary MR compared with MV replacement...
November 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
M-A Genain, A Morlet, M Herrtage, H Muresian, F Anselme, C Latremouille, F Laborde, L Behr, N Borenstein
INTRODUCTION: The coronary arterial system has been the subject of greater investigation than its venous system due to the importance of human coronary artery disease. With the advent of new percutaneous treatments, the anatomy of the coronary venous system has increasing relevancy. We compared the organization of the coronary venous circulation in three species commonly used in research and compared these to normal humans using both macroscopic anatomic and angiographic studies. ANIMALS: The anatomy of five explanted hearts from healthy dogs, pigs, and sheep were studied macroscopically, and 10 explanted hearts per animal species and 10 clinically normal human were examined by angiography...
February 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Mary C Niu, Heather A Dickerson, Judson A Moore, Caridad de la Uz, Santiago O Valdés, Jeffrey J Kim, David E Bard, Shaine A Morris, Christina Y Miyake
BACKGROUND: Heterotaxy syndrome (HS) is a rare disorder with complex anatomy involving misarrangements of the cardiac conduction system. Arrhythmias may be related to anatomic variations and contribute to morbidity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between arrhythmias, anatomy, and outcomes in a large HS cohort. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of patients ≤21 years of age diagnosed with HS was performed...
December 8, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Munirah Ismail, Foad Kabinejadian, Yen Ngoc Nguyen, Edgar Tay Lik Wui, Sangho Kim, Hwa Liang Leo
There has not been much progress in the development of transcatheter tricuspid valves to treat tricuspid regurgitation because of the difficulty in anchoring a stented valve onto the complex tricuspid annulus. Hence, the concept of heterotopic implantation of the transcatheter tricuspid valve onto the cavo-atrial junction was proposed. However, to date there has been no detailed in vitro investigation of the hemodynamic performance of this new device. The study utilises both 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) to interrogate the flow patterns in the vicinity of the extra-cardiac tricuspid valves in an in vitro physiological flow loop, specifically at four measurement locations in the cavo-atrial anatomy...
December 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
Theodoros D Karamitsos, Chrysovalantou Nikolaidou, Athanasios Koutsakis, Kyriakos Anastasiadis, Charalambos Karvounis, Stavros Hadjimiltiades
Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are common immediately after percutaneous mitral commissurotomy (PMC). They are usually small, hemodynamically insignificant, and tend to decrease or disappear within 6 to 12 months. Herein, a case is described of persistent ASD in a patient with mitral valve stenosis who had undergone successful PMC three years previously. The patient had signs and symptoms of right heart failure and severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) with borderline right ventricular systolic function on echocardiography, in addition to the ASD...
May 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
Nicolas Geis, Philip Raake, Derliz Mereles, Emmanuel Chorianopoulos, Gabor Szabo, Hugo A Katus, Raffi Bekeredjian, Sven T Pleger
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and clinical effectiveness of the MitraClip device in octogenarians suffering from severe mitral valve regurgitation due to chordae rupture. BACKGROUND: The MitraClip procedure is a suitable technique in high-risk surgical patients to achieve safe and effective percutaneous repair of mitral valve regurgitation. Octogenarians show cumulative risk and social aspects hindering mitral valve surgery. No data exists regarding the use of the MitraClip device in high-risk octogenarians suffering from mitral valve chordae rupture...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
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