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Sexual discrimination residents

Emily F Wood, Dan Werb, Leo Beletsky, Gudelia Rangel, Jazmine Cuevas Mota, Richard S Garfein, Steffanie A Strathdee, Karla D Wagner
BACKGROUND: Research among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the USA and Mexico has identified a range of adverse health impacts associated with policing of PWIDs. We employed a mixed methods design to investigate how PWIDs from San Diego and Mexico experienced policing in Tijuana, and how these interactions affect PWIDs behavior, stratifying by country of origin. METHODS: In 2012-2014, 575 PWIDs in San Diego, 102 of whom had used drugs in Mexico in the past six months, were enrolled in the STAHR-II study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 who had recently injected drugs in Mexico...
March 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus, people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. The authors evaluate whether psychosocial stressors and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of US residents and assess whether psychosocial stressors mediate identified associations...
December 7, 2016: Substance Abuse
Victoria Nimmo-Smith, Traolach S Brugha, Michael P Kerr, Sally McManus, Dheeraj Rai
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the experience of discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other stressful life events in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population and people with other chronic conditions. To assess whether any excess relative burden of these adversities could explain the higher rates of depression in people with epilepsy. METHODS: The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 used comprehensive interviews with 7,403 individuals living in private residences in England...
November 2016: Epilepsia
Vorapot Sapsirisavat, Nittaya Phanuphak, Siriwan Keadpudsa, James E Egan, Kanitta Pussadee, Preeyarach Klaytong, M Reuel Friedman, Frits van Griensven, Ron Stall
HIV prevalence remains high in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. Even though resources for HIV testing and treatment are available for all, a large proportion of MSM still do not get HIV tested. We studied high risk MSM who are unaware of their HIV status to help maximize effectiveness of our resources. Convenience sampling was conducted among MSM who came for HIV testing at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two popular drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, have not been tested positive for HIV, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection diagnosis...
December 2016: AIDS and Behavior
David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix
Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women residing throughout the United States...
December 2015: Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy: ASAP
Miria Kano, Alma Rosa Silva-Bañuelos, Robert Sturm, Cathleen E Willging
PURPOSE: Individuals among gender/sexual minorities share experiences of stigma and discrimination, yet have distinctive health care needs influenced by ethnic/racial minority and rural realities. METHODS: We collected qualitative data from lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) and queer persons across the largely rural, multicultural state of New Mexico, particularly those from understudied ethnic groups, regarding factors facilitating or impeding patient-centered primary care...
January 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Maria Roura, Federico Bisoffi, Barbara Navaza, Robert Pool
BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities. METHODS: We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain)...
2015: PloS One
Anna N Chard, Catherine Finneran, Patrick S Sullivan, Rob Stephenson
Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook...
2015: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Martin Zieger, Silvia Utz
During the last decade, DNA profiling and the use of DNA databases have become two of the most employed instruments of police investigations. This very rapid establishment of forensic genetics is yet far from being complete. In the last few years novel types of analyses have been presented to describe phenotypically a possible perpetrator. We conducted the present study among German speaking Swiss residents for two main reasons: firstly, we aimed at getting an impression of the public awareness and acceptance of the Swiss DNA database and the perception of a hypothetical DNA database containing all Swiss residents...
July 2015: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Waleed H BuAli, Abdul Sattar Khan, Mohammad Hussain Al-Qahtani, Shaikha Aldossary
PURPOSE: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals' environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. METHODS: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. RESULTS: The number of respondents was 104 (86...
2015: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
James S Morandini, Alexander Blaszczynski, Ilan Dar-Nimrod, Michael W Ross
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) Australians residing in rural-remote and other non-inner metropolitan localities experience increased levels of minority stress and reduced social support relative to their inner metropolitan counterparts. METHODS: A convenience sample of (n=1306) LGB Australians completed an online survey that assessed minority stressors, level of connection with other LGB individuals and social isolation. Postcodes provided were coded into three metropolitan and two rural zones...
June 2015: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Matthew Mansh, Gabriel Garcia, Mitchell R Lunn
Equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGMs)-including members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities-has become an integral part of the national conversation in the United States. Although SGM civil rights have expanded in recent years, these populations continue to experience unique health and health care disparities, including poor access to health care, stigmatization, and discrimination. SGM trainees and physicians also face challenges, including derogatory comments, humiliation, harassment, fear of being ostracized, and residency/job placement discrimination...
May 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Randolph D Hubach, Brian Dodge, Vanessa Schick, William D Ramos, Debby Herbenick, Michael J Li, Thea Cola, Michael Reece
Most previous studies of the sexual behaviour of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men living with HIV are based on samples of men recruited within relatively urban and suburban areas of the USA. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential challenges associated with HIV-related stigma and residing in a relatively rural area. We conducted a qualitative study based in south-central Indiana, a relatively rural area of the USA. Twenty-three HIV-positive gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, aged 21-48 years, were interviewed on topics regarding community engagement, perceived HIV-related stigma, relationship formation, sexual behaviour and HIV status disclosure...
2015: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Mark Henrickson, Nigel Dickson, Fungai Mhlanga, Adrian Ludlam
OBJECTIVE: The AfricaNZ Health project aimed explore HIV risks in Black African communities in NZ with a view to informing HIV infection prevention and health promotion programs. METHODS: AfricaNZ Health was completed in two phases. The first developed desk estimates of the resident Black African population in New Zealand, and Africans living with HIV. The second comprised two arms: an anonymous survey administered at African community events and a series of focus groups around the country...
February 2015: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Roberto Castro
This article documents the gender abuse that Mexican medical students face. The concept of medical socialization is analyzed, with emphasis on the problem of the mistreatment of medical students. The theoretical framework articulates ideas from Foucault and Goffman with the nodal points of Bourdieu using a gender focus. Numerous examples are employed to show that the formal program of study also contains a hidden curriculum which serves to reproduce gender hierarchies. Women face numerous types of socially induced discouragement in choosing and completing their course of study, particularly in certain specialties...
December 2014: Salud Colectiva
Renee Binder, Amy Friedli, Elena Fuentes-Afflick
Professionalism is a required competency for medical students, residents, practicing physicians, and academic faculty. Faculty members must adhere to codes of conduct or risk discipline. The authors describe issues of unprofessionalism that culminate in allegations of faculty misconduct or filing of grievances in academic medicine and outline strategies for early intervention and prevention. The authors, vice and associate deans and executive director of the office of faculty affairs at a large U.S. medical school, have handled many allegations of unprofessional conduct over the past decade...
April 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Charles I Tobin-West, Victor N Onyekwere
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling has remained significantly low in rural communities of Nigeria despite the huge benefits of early case detection and treatment. This study aims at evolving strategies based on the health-seeking attitudes of rural people in order to improve their HIV testing access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between May and June 2011 among persons of reproductive ages, that is, 15 years and above for men and 15-49 years for women; normally resident in rural communities of Rivers State, Nigeria, selected using a multistage sampling technique...
October 2014: Annals of African Medicine
Verónica Caridad Rabelo, Lilia M Cortina
This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction)...
August 2014: Law and Human Behavior
Juan Carlos Illera, Ana M Palmero, Paola Laiolo, Felipe Rodríguez, Ángel C Moreno, Miguel Navascués
Songbirds with recently (i.e., early Holocene) founded populations are suitable models for studying incipient differentiation in oceanic islands. On such systems each colonization event represents a different evolutionary episode that can be studied by addressing sets of diverging phenotypic and genetic traits. We investigate the process of early differentiation in the spectacled warbler (Sylvia conspicillata) in 14 populations separated by sea barriers from three Atlantic archipelagos and from continental regions spanning from tropical to temperate latitudes...
August 2014: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Elise Marsicano, Rosemary Dray-Spira, France Lert, Cindy Aubrière, Bruno Spire, Christine Hamelin
Since the advent of AIDS, discrimination has remained at the core of the experience of people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV who belong to minority groups are exposed to discrimination not only on the grounds of their HIV infection but also because of rejecting attitudes towards drug users, homosexuals and black people. This article aimed to measure the frequency of discrimination and assess its correlates among PLHIV in France. We used data from a national representative survey, the ANRS-Vespa2 study, conducted in France in 2011 among 3022 male and female HIV-positive patients followed at hospitals...
2014: AIDS Care
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