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Sexual discrimination residents

Melinda Manning
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects medical students and residents from all forms of sexual discrimination, including sexual harassment and assault. Hospitals that train residents as well as medical students must follow Title IX mandates, including investigating and addressing all reports of sexual discrimination, harassment, or violence. While these processes can help eliminate potential barriers to women in medical training, the pressure to participate in an internal investigation can discourage some medical students and residents from seeking help...
January 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Lieslot Mahieu, Alice Cavolo, Chris Gastmans
OBJECTIVES: To investigate what empirical studies report on the perceptions of community-dwelling LGBT adults regarding sexuality and sexual expression in residential aged care (RAC), and how their sexuality should be addressed in RAC. METHODS: Relevant papers were identified through electronic searches in databases; and by reference tracking and citation tracking. Data were extracted using a standardized data extraction form and were compared, related, and synthesized using thematic analyses...
January 22, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Chuncheng Liu, Rong Fu, Weiming Tang, Bolin Cao, Stephen W Pan, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker, M Kumi Smith
INTRODUCTION: Migration of men who have sex with men (MSM) from rural to urban areas is common across low- and middle-income countries and is widely believed to contribute to elevated HIV risk among migrant MSM in urban areas. Little consensus exists on whether their risk is due to their transplantation or their being from resource-constrained rural areas. This study seeks to clarify the relationship between migration and HIV risks by comparing differences in HIV-related risky sexual behaviours and healthcare utilization across competing conceptualizations of migratory statuses...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Shirley J Semple, Eileen V Pitpitan, David Goodman-Meza, Steffanie A Strathdee, Claudia V Chavarin, Gudelia Rangel, Karla Torres, Thomas L Patterson
Condomless anal sex between male partners is the primary risk factor for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). Correlates of condomless anal sex have been well-studied in developed countries, but they have received less attention in lower-to-middle income countries (LMIC), where MSM are often subject to stigma, discrimination, intolerance, and even the criminalization of same sex behavior. In Mexico, a LMIC where traditional views on homosexuality are common, HIV prevalence among MSM is high (16...
2017: PloS One
Anna N Chard, Nicholas S Metheny, Patrick S Sullivan, Rob Stephenson
BACKGROUND: Rates of drug and alcohol use are higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than the general adult male population, and are often associated with increased sexual risk-taking. OBJECTIVES: We aim to examine the prevalence of drunk or high sex and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, gay social network size, and social stress among an online sample of MSM drawn from seven countries. METHODS: Sexually-active MSM aged over 18 residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom, or the United States were recruited through Facebook for a quantitative survey (n = 2,403) in 2012...
January 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Sean M Phelan, Sara E Burke, Rachel R Hardeman, Richard O White, Julia Przedworski, John F Dovidio, Sylvia P Perry, Michael Plankey, Brooke A Cunningham, Deborah Finstad, Mark W Yeazel, Michelle van Ryn
BACKGROUND: Implicit and explicit bias among providers can influence the quality of healthcare. Efforts to address sexual orientation bias in new physicians are hampered by a lack of knowledge of school factors that influence bias among students. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medical school curriculum, role modeling, diversity climate, and contact with sexual minorities predict bias among graduating students against gay and lesbian people. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
November 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Kathryn P Derose, Denise D Payán, María Altagracia Fulcar, Sergio Terrero, Ramón Acevedo, Hugo Farías, Kartika Palar
BACKGROUND: Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. METHODS: We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics...
2017: PloS One
Rob Stephenson, Ryan Freeland, Stephen P Sullivan, Erin Riley, Brent A Johnson, Jason Mitchell, Deborah McFarland, Patrick S Sullivan
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence remains high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, yet the majority of research has focused on MSM as individuals, not as dyads, and has discussed HIV risks primarily in the context of casual sex. Nexus is an online prevention program that combines home-based HIV testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). It allows partners in dyadic MSM relationships to receive HIV testing and care in the comfort of their designated residence, via video-based chat...
May 30, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
Emily F Wood, Dan Werb, Leo Beletsky, Gudelia Rangel, Jazmine Cuevas Mota, Richard S Garfein, Steffanie A Strathdee, Karla D Wagner
BACKGROUND: Research among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in the USA and Mexico has identified a range of adverse health impacts associated with policing of PWIDs. We employed a mixed methods design to investigate how PWIDs from San Diego and Mexico experienced policing in Tijuana, and how these interactions affect PWIDs behavior, stratifying by country of origin. METHODS: In 2012-2014, 575 PWIDs in San Diego, 102 of whom had used drugs in Mexico in the past six months, were enrolled in the STAHR-II study, with qualitative interviews conducted with a subsample of 20 who had recently injected drugs in Mexico...
March 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
Emily C Williams, Young Sun Joo, Lauren Lipira, Joseph E Glass
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is stigmatized and disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations. Thus, people living with HIV (PLWH) may have greater exposure to psychosocial stressors than those without HIV. Exposure to psychosocial stressors may increase alcohol use and serve as barriers to alcohol treatment receipt. The authors evaluate whether psychosocial stressors and alcohol use, symptom severity, and treatment receipt vary across HIV status in a general population sample of US residents and assess whether psychosocial stressors mediate identified associations...
July 2017: Substance Abuse
Victoria Nimmo-Smith, Traolach S Brugha, Michael P Kerr, Sally McManus, Dheeraj Rai
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the experience of discrimination, domestic violence, abuse, and other stressful life events in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population and people with other chronic conditions. To assess whether any excess relative burden of these adversities could explain the higher rates of depression in people with epilepsy. METHODS: The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 used comprehensive interviews with 7,403 individuals living in private residences in England...
November 2016: Epilepsia
Vorapot Sapsirisavat, Nittaya Phanuphak, Siriwan Keadpudsa, James E Egan, Kanitta Pussadee, Preeyarach Klaytong, M Reuel Friedman, Frits van Griensven, Ron Stall
HIV prevalence remains high in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. Even though resources for HIV testing and treatment are available for all, a large proportion of MSM still do not get HIV tested. We studied high risk MSM who are unaware of their HIV status to help maximize effectiveness of our resources. Convenience sampling was conducted among MSM who came for HIV testing at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic and two popular drop-in centers in Bangkok. Inclusion criteria were MSM aged >18 years, have not been tested positive for HIV, who reported ≥1 of the following in the previous 6 months: condomless sex with a male, being a sex worker, or having a sexual transmitted infection diagnosis...
December 2016: AIDS and Behavior
David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix
Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women residing throughout the United States...
December 2015: Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy: ASAP
Miria Kano, Alma Rosa Silva-Bañuelos, Robert Sturm, Cathleen E Willging
PURPOSE: Individuals among gender/sexual minorities share experiences of stigma and discrimination, yet have distinctive health care needs influenced by ethnic/racial minority and rural realities. METHODS: We collected qualitative data from lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) and queer persons across the largely rural, multicultural state of New Mexico, particularly those from understudied ethnic groups, regarding factors facilitating or impeding patient-centered primary care...
January 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
Maria Roura, Federico Bisoffi, Barbara Navaza, Robert Pool
BACKGROUND: An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities. METHODS: We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain)...
2015: PloS One
Anna N Chard, Catherine Finneran, Patrick S Sullivan, Rob Stephenson
Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook...
2015: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Martin Zieger, Silvia Utz
During the last decade, DNA profiling and the use of DNA databases have become two of the most employed instruments of police investigations. This very rapid establishment of forensic genetics is yet far from being complete. In the last few years novel types of analyses have been presented to describe phenotypically a possible perpetrator. We conducted the present study among German speaking Swiss residents for two main reasons: firstly, we aimed at getting an impression of the public awareness and acceptance of the Swiss DNA database and the perception of a hypothetical DNA database containing all Swiss residents...
July 2015: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Waleed H BuAli, Abdul Sattar Khan, Mohammad Hussain Al-Qahtani, Shaikha Aldossary
PURPOSE: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals' environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. METHODS: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. RESULTS: The number of respondents was 104 (86...
2015: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
James S Morandini, Alexander Blaszczynski, Ilan Dar-Nimrod, Michael W Ross
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) Australians residing in rural-remote and other non-inner metropolitan localities experience increased levels of minority stress and reduced social support relative to their inner metropolitan counterparts. METHODS: A convenience sample of (n=1306) LGB Australians completed an online survey that assessed minority stressors, level of connection with other LGB individuals and social isolation. Postcodes provided were coded into three metropolitan and two rural zones...
June 2015: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Matthew Mansh, Gabriel Garcia, Mitchell R Lunn
Equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGMs)-including members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities-has become an integral part of the national conversation in the United States. Although SGM civil rights have expanded in recent years, these populations continue to experience unique health and health care disparities, including poor access to health care, stigmatization, and discrimination. SGM trainees and physicians also face challenges, including derogatory comments, humiliation, harassment, fear of being ostracized, and residency/job placement discrimination...
May 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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