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Staphylococcus aureus

Yahya Almutawif, Benjamin Hartmann, Megan Lloyd, Wendy Erber, Donna Geddes
INTRODUCTION: The bacterial content of donated human milk is either endogenous or introduced via contamination. Defining milk bank bacterial content will allow researchers to devise appropriate tests for significant and commonly encountered organisms. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective audit was conducted on data recorded from the Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco, Western Australia. This aimed to describe the incidence of bacterial species detected in donated human milk and to identify potentially pathogenic bacteria...
January 11, 2017: Early Human Development
Abderrahmen Merghni, Ines Dallel, Emira Noumi, Yassine Kadmi, Hajer Hentati, Samir Tobji, Adel Ben Amor, Maha Mastouri
Biosurfactants also called bioemulsifiers are amphipathic compounds produced by many microorganisms that allow them to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative potential of biosurfactants isolated from Lactobacillus casei and to assess their anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm abilities against oral opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus strains. The antioxidant activity of biosurfactant was evaluated using the in vitro scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical...
January 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Devendra Dusane, Scott Diamond, Cory Knecht, Nicholas Farrar, Casey Peters, Robert Howlin, Matthew Swearingen, Jason Calhoun, Roger D Plaut, Tanya Nocera, Jeffrey Granger, Paul Stoodley
Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yue Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Wangsong Chen, Pavimol Angsantikul, Kevin A Spiekermann, Ronnie H Fang, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang
We reported an erythrocyte membrane-coated nanogel (RBC-nanogel) system with combinatorial antivirulence and responsive antibiotic delivery for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. RBC membrane was coated onto the nanogel via a membrane vesicle templated in situ gelation process, whereas the redox-responsiveness was achieved by using a disulfide bond-based crosslinker. We demonstrated that the RBC-nanogels effectively neutralized MRSA-associated toxins in extracellular environment and the toxin neutralization in turn promoted bacterial uptake by macrophages...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Rein Jan Piso, Roman Käch, Roxana Pop, Daniela Zillig, Urs Schibli, Stefano Bassetti, Dominik Meinel, Adrian Egli
BACKGROUND: The recent crisis of refugees seeking asylum in European countries challenges public health on many levels. Most refugees currently arrive from Syria, Afghanistan, or Eritrea. Data about multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR) prevalence are not present for these countries. However, when entering the European heath care systems, data about colonisation rates regarding highly resistant bacterial pathogens are important. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional screening in four Swiss refugee centres to determine the colonization rates for MRSA and ESBL- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae...
2017: PloS One
Måns Ullberg, Petra Lüthje, Paula Mölling, Kristoffer Strålin, Volkan Özenci
The clinical demand on rapid microbiological diagnostic is constantly increasing. PCR coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, PCR/ESI-MS, offers detection and identification of over 750 bacteria and Candida species directly from clinical specimens within 6 hours. In this study, we investigated the clinical performance of the IRIDICA BAC LRT Assay for detection of bacterial pathogens in 121 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples that were received consecutively at our bacterial laboratory for BAL culture...
2017: PloS One
Kavita Ragini, Jane Fromont, Andrew M Piggott, Peter Karuso
The isolation of bromotyrosine alkaloids, some of which are enantiomers of previously isolated compounds, has highlighted a possible enantiodivergence in their biosynthesis. Two new (1, 2) and six known bromotyrosine alkaloids (4-9), and the enantiomer (10) of a known compound, have been isolated from a Western Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina cf. verrucosa. The compounds inhibited the growth of multidrug-resistant and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with comparable activity to vancomycin...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
Andre Y Son, Louis H Stein, Abe DeAnda, Stuart D Katz, Deane E Smith, Alex Reyentovich, Leora B Balsam
PURPOSE: Driveline exit site (DLES) management following left ventricular assist device implantation is important for preventing driveline infection (DLI). While chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is generally recommended for DLES antisepsis, CHG intolerance can develop, resulting in a need for alternative antiseptics. We reviewed our institutional experience with DLES antisepsis methods in HeartMate II patients, comparing outcomes of patients with and without CHG intolerance. METHODS: Between October 2011 and March 2016, 44 patients underwent primary HeartMate II implantation...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Chia-Jung Lee, Lih-Geeng Chen, Wen-Li Liang, Ching-Chiung Wang
Acne is a common skin condition with sebum overproduction, hyperkeratosis, Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and Staphylococcus aureus, and inflammation. Punica granatum (pomegranate) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory effects; however, few studies have discussed the anti-acne effects of pomegranate. In this study, we found that pomegranate extract (PG-E) significantly reduced P. acnes-induced edema in Wistar rat ears. Therefore, an evaluation platform using multiple pathogenic mechanisms of acne was established to explore the anti-acne effects of pomegranate...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Amy E Wright, K Brian Killday, Debopam Chakrabarti, Esther A Guzmán, Dedra Harmody, Peter J McCarthy, Tara Pitts, Shirley A Pomponi, John K Reed, Bracken F Roberts, Carolina Rodrigues Felix, Kyle H Rohde
A deep-water sponge of the genus Spongosorites has yielded a bis-indole alkaloid which we have named dragmacidin G. Dragmacidin G was first reported by us in the patent literature and has recently been reported by Hitora et al. from a sponge of the genus Lipastrotheya. Dragmacidin G is the first in this series of compounds to have a pyrazine ring linking the two indole rings. It also has a rare N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-guanidine side chain. Dragmacidin G shows a broad spectrum of biological activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum, and a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines...
January 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
Hideki Abe, Masayuki Shiba, Yoshiyuki Niibe, Kenji Tadokoro, Masahiro Satake
BACKGROUND: Pulsed xenon (Xe) flash without any photoreactive compounds has been shown to inactivate a type of bacteria spiked into platelet (PLT) suspension in plasma, but enhanced the PLT storage lesion (PSL). Predicting reduction of PSL with increasing bactericidal ability, pulsed Xe flash was filtered through a band-stop filter, which excluded ultraviolet (UV)A, UVB, and visible light. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Apheresis PLT concentrates (PCs) inoculated with bacteria were irradiated with filtered Xe flash (fXe treatment)...
January 12, 2017: Transfusion
Arno M Lechner, Eva Past, Ulla Porsche, Jan M Kern, Uta Hoppe, Ingrid Pretsch
Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic with activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). To the best of our knowledge, there are only two case reports on rhabdomyolysis in patients treated with linezolid. Here, we describe two cases of serious rhabdomyolysis: one in a patient with septic community-acquired (CA)-MRSA pneumonia and a second case in a patient with suspected catheter-related blood stream infection.
January 12, 2017: Infection
Kate McMillan, Theodore R Allnutt, Edward M Fox
This study describes draft whole genomes of 15 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy farms located in Victoria, Australia. Two novel sequence types (ST3183 and ST3184) were identified among these isolates.
January 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
Rania E Morsi, Ahmed M Alsabagh, Shimaa A Nasr, Manal M Zaki
Multifunctional nanocomposites of chitosan with silver nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes either as bi- or multifunctional nanocomposites were prepared. Change in the overall morphology of the prepared nanocomposites was observed; carbon nanotubes, Ag NPs and Cu NPs are distributed homogeneously inside the polymer matrix individually in the case of the bi-nanocomposites while a combination of different dimensional shapes; spherical NPs and nanotubes was observed in the multifunctional nanocomposite...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ching-Chi Lee, Yu-Ju Chou, Jiun-Nong Lin, Feng-Yuan Chu, Hung-Jen Tang, Chung-Hsu Lai, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Chien-Ching Hung, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pathogens of community-onset bacteremia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults as well as to establish the clinical predictors of the major microorganisms. METHODS: An observational cohort study was conducted retrospectively between January 2007 and December 2012. Demographic characteristics and pathogens determined from chart records were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 121 eligible HIV adults with bacteremia, there was a male predominance (106 patients, 87...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Fangchao Bi, Liwei Guo, Yinhu Wang, Henrietta Venter, Susan J Semple, Fang Liu, Shutao Ma
Novel series of 3-substituted 2,6-difluorobenzamide derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against various phenotype of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and their cell division inhibitory activity against three representative strains. As a result, 3-chloroalkoxy derivative 7, 3-bromoalkoxy derivative 12 and 3-alkyloxy derivative 17 were found to exhibit the best antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with MICs of 0...
January 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
J Lefebvre, S Buffet-Bataillon, P L Henaux, L Riffaud, X Morandi, C Haegelen
In a controlled before-and-after study in a single centre, it was aimed to determine whether identification of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers followed by nasal mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine soap reduced surgical site infections (SSIs) among 182 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation. In all, 119 patients were included in the control group and 63 in the screening group. There was a significant SSI decrease from 10.9% to 1.6% between the two groups (P<0.04; relative risk: 0.13; 95% confidence interval: 0...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Y Gramlich, G Walter, J Gils, R Hoffmann
Background Treatment of musculoskeletal infections principally consists of radical surgical debridement and systemic administration of antibiotics. Additional local antibiotic therapy is not yet generally established, and lacks evidence-based proof of efficacy. Nonetheless, there are a variety of practical approaches, as most specialised departments are unwilling to forego this option. The established polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) carrier system has a number of practical disadvantages. This has led to the increased use of absorbable carrier systems, and those based on calcium sulphate have given particularly encouraging results...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Isabelle Bleiziffer, Julian Eikmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Kathryn McAulay, Guoqing Xia, Muzaffar Hussain, Andreas Peschel, Simon Foster, Georg Peters, Christine Heilmann
Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa) and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa) glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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