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Staphylococcus aureus

Mostafa Ali, Julia K Keppler, Tom Coenye, Karin Schwarz
The covalent interactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and rosmarinic acid (RosA) at two different conditions, alkaline (pH 9) and enzymatic (in the presence of tyrosinase, PPO), at room temperature with free atmospheric air were studied. The conjugates formed between WPI and RosA were characterized in terms of their physicochemical and functional properties. The changes in protein structure were analyzed by intrinsic fluorescence and binding of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The findings show that the covalent interactions caused a decrease in free amino and thiol groups and tryptophan content at both conditions...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Carlos Eduardo Serrano-Maldonado, Maricarmen Quirasco
The genus Enterococcus occurs as native microbiota of fermented products due to its broad environmental distribution and its resistance to salt concentrations. Enterococcus faecalis F, a non-pathogenic strain isolated from a ripened cheese, has demonstrated useful enzymatic capabilities, a probiotic behavior and antibacterial activity against some food-borne pathogens, mainly due to peptidoglycan hydrolase activity. Its use as a natural pathogen-control agent could be further enhanced through the production of a bacteriocin, e...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Flaviana R F Dias, Juliana S Novais, Talita A do Nascimento Santos Devillart, Wanderson Amaral da Silva, Matheus O Ferreira, Raquel de S Loureiro, Vinícius R Campos, Vitor F Ferreira, Maria C B V de Souza, Helena C Castro, Anna C Cunha
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a serious global public health problem and lately very few antibiotics have been discovered and introduced into clinical practice. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of antibacterial compounds with new mechanism of action, especially those capable of evading known resistance mechanisms. In this work two series of glycoconjugate and non-glycoconjugate amino compounds derived from of isoquinoline-5,8-dione and 1,4-naphthoquinone and their halogenated derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Theckla Kazimoto, Salim Abdulla, Leah Bategereza, Omar Juma, Francis Mhimbira, Maja Weisser, Jürg Utzinger, Lutz von Müller, Sören L Becker
Few epidemiological studies have been carried out to assess the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens giving rise to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in sub-Saharan Africa. In the present study from six healthcare facilities in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, wound swabs from outpatients with SSTIs were analysed by a suite of methods, including microbiological culture techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and resistance testing. Among 185 patients with SSTIs, 179 (97%) swabs showed microbiological growth...
July 10, 2018: Acta Tropica
Tianrong Hang, Xiaozhen Zhang, Minhao Wu, Chengliang Wang, Shenglong Ling, Ling Xu, Qingguo Gong, Changlin Tian, Xuan Zhang, Jianye Zang
RNase HII exists ubiquitously in organisms and functions as a monomer in prokaryotes. We determined the crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus RNase HII (Sa-RNase HII), which displays a novel dimer conformation, with the active site of each monomer covered by the other one. Both small-angle X-ray scattering and gel-filtration analysis confirmed that Sa-RNase HII exists as a homodimer in solution. Enzymatic analysis revealed that the "self-inhibited" dimeric form is catalytically active. Furthermore, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance experiments clarified that the Sa-RNase HII dimer undergoes a large conformational change upon substrate binding, but remains a dimer to catalyze the reaction...
July 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Anpalaham Joseph
OBJECTIVES: Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties, are reluctant to face stressors. Living in hot and humid conditions they frequently suffer dehydration. Army soldiers living in dry zone of Sri Lanka, were screened for chronic kidney disease (CKD), common non-communicable diseases and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. Albumin creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g urine taken as cut-off for detection of CKD. RESULTS: Screened 417 soldiers, all were men and body mass index were 21...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
R Meel, M R Essop
BACKGROUND: We have recently noted a dramatic rise in the number of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) related to intravenous (IV) nyaope (a mixture of heroin, cocaine and antiretroviral drugs) presenting to Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To document the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of these patients. METHODS: Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of all patients (N=68) with IE due to IV nyaope use were retrospectively extracted from hospital records (December 2014 - February 2017)...
June 26, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
D O Matuka, B Binta, H A Carman, T Singh
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is a fundamental component of infection control. Hand contamination with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli may contribute to infections. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of different handwashing methods in reducing the levels of bacterial flora, especially S. aureus and E. coli, on the hands of theatre staff. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 staff in surgical theatres of three randomly chosen hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa...
May 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Somi Patro, Gitanjali Sarangi, Padma Das, Ashoka Mahapatra, Dharitri Mohapatra, Bimoch Projna Paty, Nirupama Chayani
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection. The etiology of VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern varies with different patient populations and types of ICUs. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 2 years in a tertiary care hospital to determine the various etiological agents causing VAP and to detect the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in these VAP patients...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
A Sala-Cunill, M Lazaro, L Herráez, M D Quiñones, M Moro-Moro, I Sanchez
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent and chronic skin disease characterised by dysfunction in the epithelial barrier, skin inflammation and immune dysregulation with changes in the skin microbiota and colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus being common. For this reason, the therapeutic approach to AD is complex and should be directed at restoring skin barrier function, reducing dehydration, maintaining acidic pH and avoiding superinfection and exposure to possible allergens. No curative treatment for AD currently exists...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Boris Nogid, Melinda K Lacy, Micah Jacobs, Jon Bruss, Jamie Dwyer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Telavancin and vancomycin are both approved for treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonias caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and both agents can cause renal dysfunction. The objective of this study was to assess renal function changes by performing renal shift table analyses of telavancin- and vancomycin-treated patients in phase III trials. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive analysis of data from the safety population from the Assessment of Telavancin for Treatment of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (ATTAIN) trials...
July 12, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Paul O Lewis, Emily L Heil, Kelly L Covert, David B Cluck
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia is a long-standing challenge to health care, often complicated by metastatic infections, treatment failure and mortality. When MRSA bacteraemia persists despite adequate initial treatment, current Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines recommend evaluation and removal of possible sources of infection. In addition, a change in therapy may be considered. The objective of this review was to explore the therapeutic options for the treatment of persistent MRSA bacteraemia...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Sergey Shlyapnikov, Arturo Jauregui, Nana N Khachatryan, Asok Kurup, Javier de la Cabada-Bauche, Hoe N Leong, Li Li, Mark H Wilcox
INTRODUCTION: Tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, once daily for 6 days, has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in several countries; however, clinical experience in real-life settings is currently limited. Here, we report on the use of tedizolid with an extended treatment duration for complex and severe ABSSSIs in real-world clinical settings. METHODS: Two patients with cellulitis and two patients with surgical site infection (SSI), aged 26-60 years, were treated with tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, intravenous/oral (IV/PO) or IV only, once daily at four different institutions...
July 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Juan Aguilar-Company, Carles Pigrau, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Vicenç Falcó, Mayli Lung, Ferran Pellisé, Benito Almirante
PURPOSE: To describe the demographic, clinical, and microbiological profile of native vertebral osteomyelitis (NVO) in aged patients as compared to that of younger patients, to identify differences that could motivate changes in clinical management. METHODS: Retrospective, observational cohort study (1990-2015) including all adult patients with microbiologically confirmed NVO divided into 2 groups: aged (≥ 65 years) vs younger (18-64 years). RESULTS: 247 patients included, 138 aged and 109 younger...
July 12, 2018: Infection
Angela Collins, Edward K Wakeland, Prithvi Raj, Min S Kim, Jiwoong Kim, Naureen G Tareen, Lawson A B Copley
Background: Children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) have a broad spectrum of illness ranging from mild to severe. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of genomic variation of Staphylococcus aureus on clinical phenotype of affected children and determine which virulence genes correlate with severity of illness. Methods: De novo whole genome sequencing was conducted for a strain of Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), using PacBio Hierarchical Genome Assembly Process (HGAP) from 6 Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) Cells, as a reference for DNA library assembly of 71 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from children with AHO...
June 2018: Heliyon
Yousef Maali, Cédric Badiou, Patrícia Martins-Simões, Elisabeth Hodille, Michele Bes, François Vandenesch, Gérard Lina, Alan Diot, Frederic Laurent, Sophie Trouillet-Assant
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is responsible for severe and necrotizing infections in humans and dogs. Contrary to S. aureus , the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this virulence are incompletely understood. We previously showed the intracellular cytotoxicity induced after internalization of S. pseudintermedius . Herein, we aimed to identify the virulence factors responsible for this cytotoxic activity. After addition of filtered S. pseudintermedius supernatants in culture cell media, MG63 cells, used as representative of non-professional phagocytic cells (NPPc), released a high level of LDH, indicating that the cytotoxicity was mainly mediated by secreted factors...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Danielle Vuichard Gysin, Barry Cookson, Henri Saenz, Markus Dettenkofer, Andreas F Widmer
Background: Definitions and practices regarding use of contact precautions and isolation to prevent the spread of gram-positive and gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are not uniform. Methods: We conducted an on-site survey during the European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2014 to assess specific details on contact precaution and implementation barriers. Results: Attendants from 32 European (EU) and 24 non-EU countries participated ( n  = 213)...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Victoria Dolange, Colin P Churchward, Myron Christodoulides, Lori A S Snyder
Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea is now a reality, as well as the consequences of untreatable infections. Gonococcal eye infections result in blindness if not properly treated; they accounted for the vast majority of infections in children in homes for the blind in the pre-antibiotic era. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infects the eyes of infants born to mothers with gonorrhea and can also infect the eyes of adults. Changes in sexual practices may account for the rise in adult gonococcal eye infections, although some cases seem to have occurred with no associated genital infection...
July 12, 2018: Antibiotics
Kenji Suzuki, Itsuki Nomura, Masayuki Ninomiya, Kaori Tanaka, Mamoru Koketsu
β-Carbolines constitute a vast group of indole alkaloids and exhibit various biological actions. The objective of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationships of β-carboline derivatives on in vitro inhibitory effects against clinically relevant microorganisms. A series of β-carboline dimers and their N2 -alkylated analogues were therefore prepared and evaluated for their antimicrobial effects. Among these, a dimeric 6-chlorocarboline N2 -benzylated salt exerted potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus at MICs of 0...
July 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Anna Irene Vedel Sørensen, Thomas Rosendal, Stefan Widgren, Tariq Halasa
Knowledge on successful interventions against livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) within pig herds is sparse. In situations like this, a mechanistic simulation model can be a valuable tool for assessing the effect of potential intervention strategies, and prioritising which should be tested in the field. We have simulated on-farm interventions in a farrow-to-finish pig herd, with a previously published LA-MRSA spread model, within four different areas: 1) Reduced antimicrobial consumption, 2) Reduced number of pigs within each section, 3) Reduced mixing of pigs, and 4) Improved internal biosecurity...
2018: PloS One
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