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Staphylococcus aureus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166667/flotillin-scaffold-activity-contributes-to-type-vii-secretion-system-assembly-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#1
Benjamin Mielich-Süss, Rabea M Wagner, Nicole Mietrach, Tobias Hertlein, Gabriella Marincola, Knut Ohlsen, Sebastian Geibel, Daniel Lopez
Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that promote efficient interactions between partners of multi-enzymatic protein complexes; although they are well studied in eukaryotes, their role in prokaryotic systems is poorly understood. Bacterial membranes have functional membrane microdomains (FMM), a structure homologous to eukaryotic lipid rafts. Similar to their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial FMM harbor a scaffold protein termed flotillin that is thought to promote interactions between proteins spatially confined to the FMM...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166172/efficacy-of-listex-p100-at-different-concentrations-for-reduction-of-listeria-monocytogenes-inoculated-in-sashimi
#2
S Miguéis, C Saraiva, A Esteves
Sushi restaurants have become quite popular in Europe, with an increase in the consumption of the sashimi speciality. Pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus have been reported in this kind of food. Controlling the presence and multiplication of L. monocytogenes is a challenge for food safety management systems owing to its ubiquitous presence and psychrotrophic growth. Bacteriophages have been used as pathogenic biocide agents for decades. The bacteriophage P100, present in LISTEX P100, was used in this study to understand the possibility of implementing a new critical control point for L...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165756/the-pathogenic-detection-for-126-children-with-diarrhea-and-drug-sensitivity-tests
#3
X-X Song, D-H Fang, Y-Q Quan, D-J Feng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cause of infective diarrhea in children, special distribution of the infection and the drug sensitivity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out pathogenic detection and drug sensitivity tests for one hundred and twenty-six children with diarrhea, including 67 children in infant group (0-<1 year) and 59 children in child group (1-5 years). RESULTS: Fat particles and starch particles were seen in most stool samples under microscope; 42 kinds of pathogenic bacteria were obtained from 126 stool samples, including 10 Diarrheagenic E...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165561/evaluation-of-short-exposure-times-of-antimicrobial-wound-solutions-against-microbial-biofilms-from-in-vitro-to-in-vivo
#4
K Johani, M Malone, S O Jensen, H G Dickson, I B Gosbell, H Hu, Q Yang, G Schultz, K Vickery
Objectives: Test the performance of topical antimicrobial wound solutions against microbial biofilms using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo model systems at clinically relevant exposure times. Methods: Topical antimicrobial wound solutions were tested under three different conditions: (in vitro) 4% w/v Melaleuca oil, polyhexamethylene biguanide, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine and hypochlorous acid were tested at short duration exposure times for 15 min against 3 day mature biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (ex vivo) hypochlorous acid was tested in a porcine skin explant model with 12 cycles of 10 min exposure, over 24 h, against 3 day mature P...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165232/functional-analysis-of-the-esab-component-of-the-staphylococcus-aureus-type-vii-secretion-system
#5
M Guillermina Casabona, Grant Buchanan, Martin Zoltner, Catriona P Harkins, Matthew T G Holden, Tracy Palmer
Type VII secretion systems (T7SS) are found in many bacteria and secrete proteins involved in virulence and bacterial competition. In Staphylococcus aureus the small ubiquitin-like EsaB protein has been previously implicated as having a regulatory role in the production of the EsxC substrate. Here we show that in the S. aureus RN6390 strain, EsaB does not genetically regulate production of any T7 substrates or components, but is indispensable for secretion activity. Consistent with EsaB being an essential component of the T7SS, loss of either EsaB or EssC are associated with upregulation of a common set of iron acquisition genes...
November 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165091/antibacterial-assessment-of-heteroaryl-vinyl-benzyl-and-alkyl-tetrazole-compounds
#6
Joshua Dudley, Liana Feinn, Heather DeFrancesco, Erica Lindsay, Adiel Coca, Elizabeth Lewis Roberts
BACKGROUND: In previous reports, the antibacterial properties of certain tetrazole derivatives have been described. We have previously reported the antibacterial properties of aryl 1H-tetrazole compounds. OBJECTIVE: To study the antibacterial activity of 5-substituted heteroaryl, vinyl, benzyl, and alkyl 1H-tetrazole derivatives. METHODS: The antibacterial properties of heteroaryl, vinyl, benzylic, and aliphatic tetrazole derivatives were investigated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
November 20, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165063/high-throughput-screening-strategies-for-the-development-of-anti-virulence-inhibitors-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Xiaodan Cai, Weihao Zheng, Zigang Li
The increasing threats of antibiotic resistance urge the need for developing new approaches to combat bacterial infections. Unlike conventional antibiotics that aim to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, targeting bacterial virulence may be a promising alternative approach, which imposes weaker selective pressure for the generation of resistance. Here, we review the pathways related to staphylococcal virulence, summarize the high-throughput screening strategies used to identify novel anti-virulence inhibitors, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164727/highly-efficient-synthesis-of-a-staphylococcus-aureus-targeting-payload-enabling-the-first-antibody-antibiotic-conjugate
#8
Xin Linghu, Nathaniel Segraves, Ifat Abramovich, Nicholas Wong, Barbara Müller, Nadja Neubauer, Serena Fantasia, Sebastian Rieth, Stephan Bachmann, Michael Jansen, C Gregory Sowell, David Askin, Stefan Koenig, Francis Gosselin
A practical synthesis of the complex payload for an anti-Staphylococcus aureus THIOMAB TM antibody-antibiotic conjugate (TAC) is described. The route takes advantage of a delicate oxidative condensation, achieved via a semi-continuous flow procedure. It allows for the generation of kilogram quantities of a key intermediate to enable a mild nucleophilic aromatic substitution to the tertiary amine free drug. The linker component is introduced as a benzylic chloride, which allows formation of the quaternary ammonium salt linker-drug...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164404/size-selectivity-in-antibiofilm-activity-of-3-diphenylphosphino-propanoic-acid-coated-gold-nanomaterials-against-gram-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-and-streptococcus-mutans
#9
Dania Ahmed, Ayaz Anwar, Anum Khalid Khan, Ayaz Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is one of the major threats in hospital related infections, hence inhibiting and eradicating biofilms has become a primary target for developing new anti-infection approaches. The present study was aimed to develop novel antibiofilm agents against two Gram-positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300) and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) using gold nanomaterials conjugated with 3-(diphenylphosphino)propionic acid (Au-LPa). Gold nanomaterials with different sizes as 2-3 nm small and 9-90 nm (50 nm average size) large were stabilized by LPa via different chemical synthetic strategies...
November 21, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163950/a-retrospective-epidemiologic-study-to-define-risk-factors-microbiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-infective-endocarditis-in-a-large-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#10
Anahita S Mostaghim, Hoi Yee Annie Lo, Nancy Khardori
Objective: This study aims to define risk factors as well as their association with microbiology and clinical outcomes in a large US infective endocarditis population. Methods: Hospital records were searched for appropriate infective endocarditis-related ICD codes from 16 July 2007 to 13 August 2015. A total of 363 cases were retrospectively identified that met definite Modified Duke Criteria for infective endocarditis and were analyzed by age group, causative organism, and associated risk factors for use of valvular surgical intervention, 30/90/180-day mortality after admission, and embolic phenomena...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163457/the-agr-quorum-sensing-system-represses-persister-formation-through-regulation-of-phenol-soluble-modulins-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Tao Xu, Xu-Yang Wang, Peng Cui, Yu-Meng Zhang, Wen-Hong Zhang, Ying Zhang
The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has become an increasing threat to public health. While the Agr quorum sensing (QS) system is a master regulator of S. aureus virulence, its dysfunction has been frequently reported to promote bacteremia and mortality in clinical infections. Here we show that the Agr system is involved in persister formation in S. aureus. Mutation of either agrCA or agrD but not RNAIII resulted in increased persister formation of stationary phase cultures. RNA-seq analysis showed that in stationary phase AgrCA/AgrD and RNAIII mutants showed consistent up-regulation of virulence associated genes (lip and splE, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163415/combination-susceptibility-testing-of-common-antimicrobials-in-vitro-and-the-effects-of-sub-mic-of-antimicrobials-on-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-formation
#12
Bing Yang, Zhixin Lei, Yishuang Zhao, Saeed Ahmed, Chunqun Wang, Shishuo Zhang, Shulin Fu, Jiyue Cao, Yinsheng Qiu
The current study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial combination efficacies, and whether the sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of antibiotics can influent on the biofilm formation of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of common antibacterial drugs was determined in vitro against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) alone and in combination with each other by using the broth microdilution method and the checkerboard micro-dilution method analyzed with the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163411/diversity-within-italian-cheesemaking-brine-associated-bacterial-communities-evidenced-by-massive-parallel-16s-rrna-gene-tag-sequencing
#13
Marilena Marino, Nadia Innocente, Michela Maifreni, Jérôme Mounier, José F Cobo-Díaz, Emmanuel Coton, Lisa Carraro, Barbara Cardazzo
This study explored the bacterial diversity of brines used for cheesemaking in Italy, as well as their physicochemical characteristics. In this context, 19 brines used to salt soft, semi-hard, and hard Italian cheeses were collected in 14 commercial cheese plants and analyzed using a culture-independent amplicon sequencing approach in order to describe their bacterial microbiota. Large NaCl concentration variations were observed among the selected brines, with hard cheese brines exhibiting the highest values...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163169/icariin-enhances-bone-repair-in-rabbits-with-bone-infection-during-post-infection-treatment-and-prevents-inhibition-of-osteoblasts-by-vancomycin
#14
Yang Zhang, Lifeng Shen, Zhujun Mao, Nani Wang, Xuping Wang, Xiaowen Huang, Ying Hu, Dan Shou, Chengping Wen
Vancomycin is an effective antibiotic for treatment of bone infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus, however, a high local concentration of vancomycin might induce a delay in bone union. Icariin has been reported to suppress osteoclastogenes and promote osteogenesis. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of icariin on bone repair after anti-infection treatment in vivo and to explore the resisting effect of icariin on rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) inhibited with high doses of vancomycin. Rabbits with bone infection of S...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162982/future-directions-and-molecular-basis-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#15
REVIEW
Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Sevgen Tanir Basaranoglu
Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving treatment and has complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) that lead to high morbidity and mortality. Moreover VAP is the second most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric intensive care units. Although it is still not well understood, understanding molecular pathogenesis is essential for preventing and treating pneumonia. A lot of microbes are detected as a causative agent of VAP. The most common isolated VAP pathogens in pediatric patients are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram negative bacteria...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162543/identification-expression-analysis-and-antibacterial-activity-of-nk-lysin-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#16
Gai Ling Wang, Ming Cheng Wang, Ying Li Liu, Qian Zhang, Chuan Feng Li, Pan Ting Liu, En Zhong Li, Pin Nie, Hai Xia Xie
Natural killer lysin (NK-lysin), produced by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that has a broad antimicrobial spectrum, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Nevertheless, the implication of NK-lysin in the protection against bacterial infection is not aware in common carp. In this study, six different NK-lysin genes (nkl1, nkl2, nkl3, nkl4, nkl5 and nkl6) were identified in the common carp genome. Each of the mature peptides of common carp NK-lysin has six well-conserved cysteine residues, and shares a Saposin B domain, characteristic of saposin-like protein (SALIP) family...
November 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162494/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-migrant-children-admitted-to-an-italian-cardiac-surgery-department-2015-2016
#17
E Costa, M Tejada, P Gaia, M Cornetta, A Moroni, E Carfora, R Valaperta, C De Siena, N Moussaidi, G Isgrò, A Frigiola
Screening on hospital admission to identify multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization is a frequently discussed topic. We report the results of microbiological screening in 141 Italian and 354 migrant children candidates for cardiac surgery conducted in 2015-2016. In all, 25% of Italian children and more than 65.4% of African and Romanian children carried at least one MDRO (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes; carbapenemase producers; and vancomycin-resistant enterococci)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162493/outbreak-of-gentamicin-resistant-meticillin-susceptible-staphlococcus-aureus-on-a-neonatal-unit
#18
Sahar Eldirdiri, Jennifer Lee, Ann Jack, Alison Wright, Alison Findlay, Gabby Phillips
BACKGROUND: This report describes an outbreak of gentamicin-resistant meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (GR MSSA) which occurred on a 21-bed neonatal unit (NNU) in Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland. METHODS: An outbreak investigation was triggered by two new GR MSSA isolates from babies admitted directly to the unit who had acquired this organism during their stay. Data on MSSA cases and antibiograms of patient isolates were flagged as an alert and microbiology records trawled to detect previous cases...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162483/altered-expression-of-cxcr1-il-8r-in-macrophages-utilizing-cell-surface-tnfr1-and-il-1-receptor-during-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#19
Biswadev Bishayi, Rana Adhikary, Sahin Sultana, Rajen Dey, Ajeya Nandi
Currently, very few studies are available on the expression of CXCR1 in mouse macrophages having both intact TNFR1 and IL-1R or their deficiency in relation to acute S. aureus infection. Peritoneal macrophages from mice neutralized singly for TNFR1or IL-1R, or for both TNFR1 and IL-1R were infected with S. aureus in vitro and their ability to secrete cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. It was observed that the release TNF-α and IL-1β in response to S. aureus infection was decreased in macrophages when both TNFR1 and IL-1R were neutralized...
November 18, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162463/bioactivity-of-glycolipopeptide-cell-bound-biosurfactants-against-skin-pathogens
#20
X Vecino, L Rodríguez-López, D Ferreira, J M Cruz, A B Moldes, L R Rodrigues
The antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of the cell-bound biosurfactants, produced by Lactobacillus pentosus (PEB), characterized as glycolipopeptide macromolecules, were evaluated against several microorganisms present in the skin microflora, envisaging its potential use as a "natural" ingredient in cosmetic and personal care formulations. Their performance was compared with another cell-bound biosurfactants also characterized as glycolipopeptides produced by Lactobacillus paracasei (PAB). At concentrations of 50mg/mL, the PEB showed an important antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85% when extracted with phosphate buffer (PB) and 100% when extracted with phosphate buffer saline (PBS)), Streptococcus agalactiae (100% for both extracts), Staphylococcus aureus (67% when extracted with PBS and 100% when extracted with PB), Escherichia coli (72% when extracted with PB and 89% when extracted with PBS), Streptococcus pyogenes (about 85% for both extracts) and Candida albicans (around 70% for both extracts), comparable with that obtained for the PAB...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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