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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531354/monomeric-polyglutamine-structures-that-evolve-into-fibrils
#1
David Punihaole, Ryan S Jakubek, Riley James Workman, Lauren E Marbella, Patricia Campbell, Jeffry D Madura, Sanford A Asher
We investigate the solution and fibril conformations and structural transitions of the polyglutamine (polyQ) peptide, D2Q10K2 (Q10), by synergistically using UV Resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that Q10 adopts two distinct, monomeric solution conformational states, a collapsed β-strand and a PPII-like structure that do not readily interconvert. This clearly indicates a high activation barrier in solution that prevents equilibration between these structures...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530038/hiv-treatment-and-care-services-for-adolescents-a-situational-analysis-of-218-facilities-in-23-sub-saharan-african-countries
#2
Daniella Mark, Alice Armstrong, Catarina Andrade, Martina Penazzato, Luann Hatane, Lina Taing, Toby Runciman, Jane Ferguson
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, an estimated 2.1 million adolescents (age 10-19 years) were living with HIV globally. The extent to which health facilities provide appropriate treatment and care was unknown. To support understanding of service availability in 2014, Paediatric-Adolescent Treatment Africa (PATA), a non-governmental organisation (NGO) supporting a network of health facilities across sub-Saharan Africa, undertook a facility-level situational analysis of adolescent HIV treatment and care services in 23 countries...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523437/using-participatory-action-research-to-develop-a-working-model-that-enhances-psychiatric-nurses-professionalism-the-architecture-of-stability
#3
Martin Salzmann-Erikson
Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices...
May 18, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515956/effects-of-phosalone-consumption-via-feeding-with-or-without-sodium-bentonite-on-performance-blood-metabolites-and-its-transition-to-milk-of-iranian-baluchi-sheep
#4
Mohsen Kazemi, Ameneh Eskandary Torbaghan, Abdoul Mansour Tahmasbi, Reza Valizadeh, Abbas Ali Naserian
BACKGROUND: Transfer of pesticides from environment to animal products is inevitable, so the purpose of the present work was to evaluate phosalone consumption via feeding with or without sodium bentonite (SB) on performance, blood metabolites and its transition to milk of Iranian Baluchi sheep. METHODS: Twenty Baluchi ewes were divided into four treatments (P1 as control, P2, P3, and P4) of five animals in which phosalone, an organophosphate pesticide, was given via diet (only for P2 and P3) at a dose of 280 mg/sheep/day for 63 consecutive days...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513727/self-assembled-air-stable-magnesium-hydride-embedded-in-3-d-activated-carbon-for-reversible-hydrogen-storage
#5
S S Shinde, Dong-Hyung Kim, Jin-Young Yu, Jung-Ho Lee
The rational design of stable, inexpensive catalysts with excellent hydrogen dynamics and sorption characteristics under realistic environments for reversible hydrogen storage remains a great challenge. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to fabricate a monodispersed, air-stable, magnesium hydride embedded in three-dimensional activated carbon with periodic synchronization of transition metals (MHCH). The high surface area, homogeneous distribution of MgH2 nanoparticles, excellent thermal stability, high energy density, steric confinement by carbon, and robust architecture of the catalyst resulted in a noticeable enhancement of the hydrogen storage performance...
May 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505519/impact-of-interactive-situated-and-simulated-teaching-program-on-novice-nursing-practitioners-clinical-competence-confidence-and-stress
#6
Sue-Hsien Chen, Shu-Ching Chen, Shu-Chiou Lee, Yi-Ling Chang, Kun-Yun Yeh
BACKGROUND: Novice nursing practitioners (NNPs) often struggle to make the transition to fully competent professionals. We sought to determine the impact of an interactive, situated learning workshop on a participant's clinical competence. OBJECTIVES: This work aimed to improve the clinical competence, promote the self-confidence, and reduce the number of work-related stressors of NNPs. METHODS: We randomly allocated 31 newly graduated NNPs into interactive situated and simulated teaching (ISST) and non-ISST groups, which were perceived as the homogeneity of the 2 groups based upon no significant difference at age, education level and work units...
May 6, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501644/mechanistic-and-computational-studies-of-pcb-151-dechlorination-by-zero-valent-magnesium-for-field-remediation-optimization
#7
Fiona M Zullo, Muqiong Liu, Shengli Zou, Cherie L Yestrebsky
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned in the U.S. but are persistent in the environment; current regulations provide an urgent need to remediate PCBs in a cost-effective way. In prior work, a novel method of degradation of PCBs via hydrodehalogenation with ball milled zero-valent magnesium and activated carbon showed promising results even with water present in the system. In this research, a detailed study of the byproducts formed in the dechlorination process for PCB 151 (used as an example of hexa-chlorinated PCB) and a study of the mechanism involved in this reaction via density functional theory (DFT) computations are presented...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488112/work-characteristics-predict-the-development-of-multi-site-musculoskeletal-pain
#8
Jodi Oakman, Astrid de Wind, Swenne G van den Heuvel, Allard J van der Beek
PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal pain in more than one body region is common and a barrier to sustaining employment. We aimed to examine whether work characteristics predict the development of multi-site pain (MSP), and to determine differences in work-related predictors between age groups. METHODS: This study is based on 5136 employees from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) who reported no MSP at baseline. Measures included physical, emotional, mental, and psychological job demands, social support and autonomy...
May 9, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486496/phenotypic-heterogeneity-promotes-adaptive-evolution
#9
Zoltán Bódi, Zoltán Farkas, Dmitry Nevozhay, Dorottya Kalapis, Viktória Lázár, Bálint Csörgő, Ákos Nyerges, Béla Szamecz, Gergely Fekete, Balázs Papp, Hugo Araújo, José L Oliveira, Gabriela Moura, Manuel A S Santos, Tamás Székely, Gábor Balázsi, Csaba Pál
Genetically identical cells frequently display substantial heterogeneity in gene expression, cellular morphology and physiology. It has been suggested that by rapidly generating a subpopulation with novel phenotypic traits, phenotypic heterogeneity (or plasticity) accelerates the rate of adaptive evolution in populations facing extreme environmental challenges. This issue is important as cell-to-cell phenotypic heterogeneity may initiate key steps in microbial evolution of drug resistance and cancer progression...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485971/evidence-of-correlated-static-disorder-in-the-fenna-matthews-olson-complex
#10
Alexander S Fokas, Daniel J Cole, Nicholas D M Hine, Stephen A Wells, Michael C Payne, Alex W Chin
Observation of excitonic quantum beats in photosynthetic antennae has prompted wide debate regarding the function of excitonic coherence in pigment-protein complexes. Much of this work focuses on the interactions of excitons with the femto-to-picosecond dynamical fluctuations of their environment. However, in experiments these effects can be masked by static disorder of the excited-state energies across ensembles, whose microscopic origins are challenging to predict. Here the excited-state properties of ∼2000 atom clusters of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex are simulated using a unique combination of linear-scaling density functional theory and constrained geometric dynamics...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484301/comparative-analysis-of-family-medicine-education-and-exams-at-cathedras-of-family-medicine-of-universities-in-southeastern-europe-splitska-inicijativa-sarajevo-2017
#11
Izet Masic, Olivera Batic Mujanovic, Maja Racic, Larisa Gavran, Kosana Stanetic, Merzika Hodzic, Milena Cojic, Ljiljana Cvejanov-Kezunovic, Aleksandar Stepanovic, Katarina Stavrikj, Zaim Jatic, Edita Cerny Obrdalj, Amra Zalihic, Ksenija Tusek-Bunc
Education means: learning, teaching or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. Today the importance of focus on educational quality, particularly in the professions operating in the services required by people is agreed by all involved. The higher educational system shoulders some critical responsibilities in the economic, social, cultural and educational development and growth in the communities...
March 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483389/battlefield-trauma-induced-hypothermia-transitioning-the-preferred-method-of-casualty-rewarming
#12
REVIEW
Brad L Bennett, John B Holcomb
For centuries, cold and wet weather has affected military combat operations leading to tremendous loss of manpower caused by cold-weather-related injuries including trench foot, frostbite, and hypothermia. The initial battlefield management of hypothermia in military personnel had not advanced significantly following many wars and conflicts until 2006. The aim of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of trauma-induced hypothermia (TIH); 2) highlight the Department of Defense strategy for the implementation of a hypothermia clinical management program for battlefield (prehospital) casualties; 3) highlight the research and development of the Hypothermia Prevention and Management Kit (HPMK) as the preferred field rewarming system for battlefield TIH; and 4) emphasize how the HPMK can be easily transitioned to the civilian sector for active rewarming of both accidental and TIH patients...
May 5, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474725/growth-of-large-sized-two-dimensional-mos2-flakes-in-aqueous-solution
#13
Xiaoling Zeng, Hippolyte Hirwa, Marlis Ortel, Hannah Catherine Nerl, Valeria Nicolosi, Veit Wagner
A large lateral size and low dimensions are prerequisites for next generation electronics. Since the first single layer MoS2 transistor reported by Kis's group in 2011, layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated to be the ideal candidate for next generation electronics. However, the development of large scale and low cost growth techniques is a crucial step towards TMDs' inclusion in modern electronics and photoelectronics. In this work we develop a cheap, wet chemical, and environment friendly deposition process for two dimensional MoS2 flakes with extended size...
May 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471684/quantum-chemical-study-of-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-effects-on-combustion-kinetics
#14
Artëm E Masunov, Elizabeth E Wait, Arseniy A Atlanov, Subith S Vasu
In oxy-fuel combustion, the pure oxygen (O2), diluted with CO2 is used as oxidant instead air. Hence, the combustion products (CO2 and H2O) are free from pollution by nitrogen oxides. Moreover, high pressures result in the near-liquid density of CO2 at supercritical state (sCO2). Unfortunately, the effects of sCO2 on the combustion kinetics are far from being understood. To assist in this understanding, in this work we are using quantum chemistry methods. Here we investigate potential energy surfaces of important combustion reactions in the presence of the carbon dioxide molecule...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452347/segregation-of-liquid-crystal-mixtures-in-topological-defects
#15
Mohammad Rahimi, Hadi Ramezani-Dakhel, Rui Zhang, Abelardo Ramirez-Hernandez, Nicholas L Abbott, Juan J de Pablo
The structure and physical properties of liquid crystal (LC) mixtures are a function of composition, and small changes can have pronounced effects on observables, such as phase-transition temperatures. Traditionally, LC mixtures have been assumed to be compositionally homogenous. The results of chemically detailed simulations presented here show that this is not the case; pronounced deviations of the local order from that observed in the bulk at defects and interfaces lead to significant compositional segregation effects...
April 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447801/droplets-on-microdecorated-surfaces-evolution-of-the-polygonal-contact-line
#16
Alok Kumar, Rishi Raj
Interaction of liquids with surfaces is ubiquitous in our physical environment as well as many engineering applications. Recent advances on this topic have not only provided us with valuable insight into nature's design, but also enabled improved fluidic manipulation for liquid-based printing applications such as biomicroarrays for protein and DNA sequencing, multicolor polymer-based LED displays, inkjet printing, and solder droplet printing, among others. For example, droplet contact lines, which are typically circular on a smooth and homogeneous surface, when deposited on a microdecorated surface may take various common polygonal shapes such as squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons and dodecagons...
May 4, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440016/outcomes-and-feasibility-of-the-short-transitional-intervention-in-psychiatry-in-improving-the-transition-from-inpatient-treatment-to-the-community-a-pilot-study
#17
Anna Hegedüs, Bernd Kozel, Niklaus Fankhauser, Ian Needham, Johann Behrens
Discharge from psychiatric inpatient care is frequently described as chaotic, stressful, and emotionally charged. Following discharge, service users are vulnerable to becoming overwhelmed by the challenges involved in readapting to their home environments, which could result in serious problems and lead to readmission. The short transitional intervention in psychiatry (STeP) is a bridging intervention that includes pre- and post-discharge sections. It aims to prepare patients for specific situations in the period immediately following discharge from a psychiatric hospital...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419875/falls-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-comparison-of-community-and-home-based-falls
#18
Robyn M Lamont, Meg E Morris, Hylton B Menz, Jennifer L McGinley, Sandra G Brauer
BACKGROUND: Falls are common and debilitating in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and restrict participation in daily activities. Understanding circumstances of falls in the community and at home may assist clinicians to target therapy more effectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of community and home fallers and the circumstances that contribute to falls in people living with PD. METHODS: People with mild-moderately severe PD (n=196) used a daily falls diary and telephone hotline to report prospectively the occurrence, location and circumstances of falls over 14 months...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411425/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-1-development-of-theoretical-models-for-design-considerations
#19
B K Sahoo, K Sudeep Kumara, N Karunakara, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya
Regulating the environmental discharge of (220)Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the (220)Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the (220)Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406619/interaction-between-dissolved-organic-matter-and-long-chain-ionic-liquids-a-microstructural-and-spectroscopic-correlation-study
#20
Xiao-Yang Liu, Wei Chen, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
The production and use of ionic liquids (ILs) increase the potential risk after their emission into the environment. After entering the environment, ILs will readily interact with dissolved organic matter (DOM), and their environmental behavior will be impacted by DOM, which is abundant in the environment and has various functional groups. However, to date, the interaction between DOM and ILs, especially long-chain ILs, remains unclear. In this work, the interaction between long-chain ILs and humic acid (HA), a representative DOM, was investigated using synchronous fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential techniques, which were integrated with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS), hetero-2DCOS, and perturbation-correlation moving-window analyses...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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