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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330360/on-the-origin-of-stretched-exponential-kohlrausch-relaxation-kinetics-in-the-room-temperature-luminescence-decay-of-colloidal-quantum-dots
#1
E N Bodunov, Yu A Antonov, A L Simões Gamboa
The non-exponential room temperature luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots is often well described by a stretched exponential function. However, the physical meaning of the parameters of the function is not clear in the majority of cases reported in the literature. In this work, the room temperature stretched exponential luminescence decay of colloidal quantum dots is investigated theoretically in an attempt to identify the underlying physical mechanisms associated with the parameters of the function...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318319/medical-student-perceptions-of-the-learning-environment-in-medical-school-change-as-students-transition-to-clinical-training-in-undergraduate-medical-school
#2
Lisette Dunham, Michael Dekhtyar, Gregory Gruener, Eileen CichoskiKelly, Jennifer Deitz, Donna Elliott, Margaret L Stuber, Susan E Skochelak
Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity...
March 20, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317933/tuning-quantum-measurements-to-control-chaos
#3
Jessica K Eastman, Joseph J Hope, André R R Carvalho
Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301842/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-health-and-disease-in-the-gambia
#4
Sophie E Moore
BACKGROUND: Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301808/impacts-of-discarded-coffee-waste-on-human-and-environmental-health
#5
A S Fernandes, F V C Mello, S Thode Filho, R M Carpes, J G Honório, M R C Marques, I Felzenszwalb, E R A Ferraz
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. So far, many studies have shown the properties of coffee beverages, but little is known about its impacts on human and environmental health from its discard in the environment. So, the present work aims to investigate the mutagenic, genotoxic, cytotoxic and ecotoxic effects of leached (LE) and solubilized (SE) extracts from coffee waste, simulating the disposal of this residue in landfills and via sewage systems, respectively. Chemical analyses were also carried out...
March 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289732/adaptation-of-escherichia-coli-to-long-term-serial-passage-in-complex-medium-evidence-of-parallel-evolution
#6
Karin E Kram, Christopher Geiger, Wazim Mohammed Ismail, Heewook Lee, Haixu Tang, Patricia L Foster, Steven E Finkel
Experimental evolution of bacterial populations in the laboratory has led to identification of several themes, including parallel evolution of populations adapting to carbon starvation, heat stress, and pH stress. However, most of these experiments study growth in defined and/or constant environments. We hypothesized that while there would likely continue to be parallelism in more complex and changing environments, there would also be more variation in what types of mutations would benefit the cells. In order to test our hypothesis, we serially passaged Escherichia coli in a complex medium (Luria-Bertani broth) throughout the five phases of bacterial growth...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282100/controlling-electronic-access-to-the-spin-excitations-of-a-single-molecule-in-a-tunnel-junction
#7
Ben Warner, Fadi El Hallak, Henning Prüser, Afolabi Ajibade, Tobias G Gill, Andrew J Fisher, Mats Persson, Cyrus F Hirjibehedin
Spintronic phenomena underpin new device paradigms for data storage and sensing. Scaling these down to the single molecule level requires controlling the properties of current-carrying molecular orbitals to enable access to spin states through phenomena such as inelastic electron tunnelling. Here we show that the spintronic properties of a tunnel junction containing a single molecule can be controlled using the local environment as a pseudo-gate. For tunnelling through iron phthalocyanine (FePc) on an insulating copper nitride (Cu2N) monolayer above Cu(001), we find that spin transitions may be strongly excited depending on the binding site of the central Fe atom...
March 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262973/trouble-in-transit-organizational-barriers-to-workers-health
#8
Nicole P Bowles, Bruce S McEwen, Carla Boutin-Foster
BACKGROUND: Valuable insights on the health and behavior of transit workers can be obtained from qualitative research that considers the social environment, which affects job performance and determines levels of perceived stress. METHODS: Using a grounded theory approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with American transit workers (n = 32). Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a constant comparative method. RESULTS: Participants described categories related to entrenched organizational practices, particularly managements' leadership style, which created an atmosphere of distrust...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255823/aging-frailty-and-complex-networks
#9
REVIEW
A B Mitnitski, A D Rutenberg, S Farrell, K Rockwood
When people age their mortality rate increases exponentially, following Gompertz's law. Even so, individuals do not die from old age. Instead, they accumulate age-related illnesses and conditions and so become increasingly vulnerable to death from various external and internal stressors. As a measure of such vulnerability, frailty can be quantified using the frailty index (FI). Larger values of the FI are strongly associated with mortality and other adverse health outcomes. This association, and the insensitivity of the FI to the particular health variables that are included in its construction, makes it a powerful, convenient, and increasingly popular integrative health measure...
March 2, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251245/connecting-the-empire-new-research-perspectives-on-infrastructures-and-the-environment-in-the-post-colonial-world
#10
Jonas van der Straeten, Ute Hasenöhrl
In the academic debate on infrastructures in the Global South, there is a broad consensus that (post)colonial legacies present a major challenge for a transition towards more inclusive, sustainable and adapted modes of providing services. Yet, relatively little is known about the emergence and evolution of infrastructures in former colonies. Until a decade ago, most historical studies followed Daniel Headrick's (1981) "tools of empire" thesis, painting-with broad brush strokes-a picture of infrastructures as instruments for advancing the colonial project of exploitation and subordination of non-European peoples and environments...
March 1, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242793/coupled-decision-processes-update-and-maintain-saccadic-priors-in-a-dynamic-environment
#11
Timothy Doyeon Kim, Mohammad Kabir, Joshua I Gold
Much of what we know about how the brain forms decisions comes from studies of saccadic eye movements. However, saccadic decisions are often studied in isolation, which limits the insights they can provide about real-world decisions with complex interdependencies. Here we use a serial reaction-time (RT) task to show that prior expectations affect RTs via interdependent, normative decision processes that operate within and across saccades. We found that human subjects performing the task generated saccades that were governed by a rise-to-threshold decision process with a starting point that reflected expected state-dependent transition probabilities...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237494/multiple-lhcii-antennae-can-transfer-energy-efficiently-to-a-single-photosystem-i
#12
Inge Bos, Kaitlyn M Bland, Lijin Tian, Roberta Croce, Laurie K Frankel, Herbert van Amerongen, Terry M Bricker, Emilie Wientjes
Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) work in series to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. The two photosystems have different absorption spectra, therefore changes in light quality can lead to imbalanced excitation of the photosystems and a loss in photosynthetic efficiency. In a short-term adaptation response termed state transitions, excitation energy is directed to the light-limited photosystem. In higher plants a special pool of LHCII antennae, which can be associated with either PSI or PSII, participates in these state transitions...
February 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230438/the-influence-of-placements-on-adult-nursing-graduates-choice-of-first-post
#13
Mark Wareing, Renate Taylor, Aileen Wilson, Adrienne Sharples
BACKGROUND: This article presents findings from a study that sought to explore the extent to which clinical placements have an impact on nursing students' decisions regarding their first staff nurse post. Within the UK, nursing is facing a recruitment crisis with particular difficulty recruiting to areas such as primary care and care of older people. Transitioning into a new role is challenging in any occupation, but it is a particular problem in nursing where the realities of professional practice often differ from students' perception of the staff nurse role as shaped by their clinical placements...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#14
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214103/tracking-the-evolution-and-differences-between-guest-induced-phases-of-ga-mil-53-via-ultra-wideline-69-71-ga-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#15
Yue Zhang, Bryan E G Lucier, Victor V Terskikh, Renlong Zheng, Yining Huang
Ga-MIL-53 is a metal-organic framework (MOF) that exhibits a "breathing effect," in which the pore size and overall MOF topology can be influenced by temperature, pressure, and host-guest interactions. The phase control afforded by this flexible framework renders Ga-MIL-53 a promising material for guest storage and sensing applications. In this work, the structure and behavior of four Ga-MIL-53 phases (as, ht, enp and lt), along with CO2 adsorbed within Ga-MIL-53 at various loading levels, has been investigated using (69/71)Ga solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments at 21...
January 31, 2017: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210958/does-global-astrocytic-calcium-signaling-participate-in-awake-brain-state-transitions-and-neuronal-circuit-function
#16
Celia Kjaerby, Rune Rasmussen, Mie Andersen, Maiken Nedergaard
We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release of the neuromodulators, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Astrocytes have emerged as a new player participating in the regulation of brain activity, and have recently been implicated in brain state shifts. Astrocytes display global Ca(2+) signaling in response to activation of the noradrenergic system, but whether astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling is causative or correlative for shifts in brain state and neural activity patterns is not known...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208419/einstein-podolsky-rosen-paradox-implies-a-minimum-achievable-temperature
#17
David M Rogers
This work examines the thermodynamic consequences of the repeated partial projection model for coupling a quantum system to an arbitrary series of environments under feedback control. This paper provides observational definitions of heat and work that can be realized in current laboratory setups. In contrast to other definitions, it uses only properties of the environment and the measurement outcomes, avoiding references to the "measurement" of the central system's state in any basis. These definitions are consistent with the usual laws of thermodynamics at all temperatures, while never requiring complete projective measurement of the entire system...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196337/are-seaward-pneumatophore-fringes-transitional-between-mangrove-and-lower-shore-system-compartments
#18
R S K Barnes
Work in temperate New Zealand has concluded that seaward fringes of Avicennia pneumatophores (P) form an 'important ecological transitional environment' between seagrass (Z) and mangrove (M), supporting intermediate macrofaunal numbers and biodiversity (Alfaro, 2006). This study re-examined that hypothesis in subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland, and investigated its dependence on the nature of the lower-shore habitat; i.e. whether seagrass or sandflat (S). Adjacent macrobenthic assemblages across 45 m deep Z:P:M and S:P:M interfaces were compared uni- and multivariately and via various assemblage metrics...
April 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186825/balancing-safety-and-harm-for-older-adults-with-dementia-in-rural-emergency-departments-healthcare-professionals-perspectives
#19
Kathleen F Hunter, Belinda Parke, Maureen Babb, Dorothy Forbes, Laurel Strain
INTRODUCTION: The emergency department (ED) is a potentially harmful environment for older adults with dementia, and rural EDs face unique challenges in providing care to this population. The purpose of this study was to understand safety and harm in rural ED transitional care for community dwelling older adults with dementia from the perspective of healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS: An interpretive, descriptive exploratory design from a social ecological perspective was used...
January 2017: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176990/large-change-in-thermopower-with-temperature-driven-p-n-type-conduction-switching-in-environment-friendly-baxsr2-xti0-8fe0-8nb0-4o6-double-perovskites
#20
Pinku Roy, Vikram Waghmare, Khagesh Tanwar, Tanmoy Maiti
Oxide based thermoelectric materials have gained some interest in recent times due to their low thermal conductivity, environment friendly nature and high temperature durability. In the present work, the effect of Nb(5+) doping on the thermoelectric properties of BaxSr2-xTiFeO6 based double perovskites was investigated. BaxSr2-xTi0.8Fe0.8Nb0.4O6 (BSTFN) double perovskites with stoichiometric compositions of 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25 were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Rietveld refinement powder XRD data confirmed single-phase solid solutions with cubic crystal symmetry for all the BSTFN compositions...
February 8, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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