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Transition to the work environment

Lynn V Monrouxe, Lisa Grundy, Mala Mann, Zoe John, Eleni Panagoulas, Alison Bullock, Karen Mattick
OBJECTIVE: To understand how prepared UK medical graduates are for practice and the effectiveness of workplace transition interventions. DESIGN: A rapid review of the literature (registration #CRD42013005305). DATA SOURCES: Nine major databases (and key websites) were searched in two timeframes (July-September 2013; updated May-June 2014): CINAHL, Embase, Educational Resources Information Centre, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
Barry E Egener, Diana J Mason, Walter J McDonald, Sally Okun, Meg E Gaines, David A Fleming, Bernie M Rosof, David Gullen, May-Lynn Andresen
In 2002, the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism was published to provide physicians with guidance for decision making in a rapidly changing environment. Feedback from physicians indicated that they were unable to fully live up to the principles in the 2002 charter partly because of their employing or affiliated health care organizations. A multistakeholder group has developed a Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, which may provide more guidance than charters for individual disciplines, given the current structure of health care delivery systems...
January 10, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Virginia Andrea Angiolini, Carolina Uribe Cruz, Mónica Luján López, Laura Simon, Ursula Matte
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common cancer, ranking third in cancer-associated deaths. An important cause of cancer patients' mortality is metastasis. At the start of metastasis progression, there is an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, characterized by matrix degradation, junction reductions and vessels formation. HuH-7 is a cell line used in research as an in vitro model for hepatocellular carcinoma. It is known that two-dimensional growth reflects tumor characteristics poorly...
2017: Cancer Cell International
Ceri A Middleton, Peter M Grindrod, Peter R Sammonds
Ice-rock mixtures are found in a range of natural terrestrial and planetary environments. To understand how flow processes occur in these environments, laboratory-derived properties can be extrapolated to natural conditions through flow laws. Here, deformation experiments have been carried out on polycrystalline samples of pure ice, ice-rock and D2O-ice-rock mixtures at temperatures of 263, 253 and 233 K, confining pressure of 0 and 48 MPa, rock fraction of 0-50 vol.% and strain-rates of 5 × 10(-7) to 5 × 10(-5) s(-1) Both the presence of rock particles and replacement of H2O by D2O increase bulk strength...
February 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Daqi Zhang, Juan Yang, Meihui Li, Yan Li
In this work, we report an accurate and convenient method that can be used to assign the chirality of all metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (M-SWNTs). This method is designed based on the electronic Raman scattering (ERS) features, which are resonantly enhanced at the corresponding excitonic transition energies (Mii(+) and Mii(-)). Using this method, we are able to accurately determine the electronic property Mii with the resolution of a vibrational Raman spectroscopy (∼0.3 meV), which is significantly higher than that of the electronic spectroscopies (∼3 meV)...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Vedrana Bolic Baric, Helena Hemmingsson, Kristina Hellberg, Anette Kjellberg
The aim was to describe the occupational transition process to upper secondary school, further education and/or work, and to discover what support influences the process from the perspectives of young adults with Asperger syndrome or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This qualitative study was performed in Sweden and comprised interviews with 15 young adults recruited from community based day centres. Support influencing the process included: occupational transition preparation in compulsory school, practical work experience in a safe environment, and support beyond the workplace...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Lieven Billiet, Thijs Willem Swinnen, Rene Westhovens, Kurt de Vlam, Sabine Van Huffel
One of the important aspects to be considered in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases is the patient's activity capacity (or performance), defined as the ability to perform a task. Currently, it is assessed by physicians or health professionals mainly by means of a patient-reported questionnaire, sometimes combined with the therapist's judgment on performance-based tasks. This work introduces an approach to assess the activity capacity at home in a more objective, yet interpretable way. It offers a pilot study on 28 patients suffering from axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) to demonstrate its efficacy...
December 16, 2016: Sensors
Antonio Di Guardo, Melissa Morselli, Giuseppe Morabito, Matteo Semplice, Paul J Van den Brink, Frederik De Laender
In exposure prediction for environmental risk assessment, the transition to more dynamic and realistic modelling approaches and scenarios has been recently identified as a major challenge, since it would allow a more accurate prediction of bioavailable concentrations and their variations in space and time. In this work, an improved version of the multimedia model ChimERA fate, including a phytoplankton compartment and equations to calculate phytoplankton, detritus and dissolved organic matter variations in time, was developed...
December 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jan Spitzer
We review physicochemical factors and processes that describe how cellular life can emerge from prebiotic chemical matter; they are: (1) prebiotic Earth is a multicomponent and multiphase reservoir of chemical compounds, to which (2) Earth-Moon rotations deliver two kinds of regular cycling energies: diurnal electromagnetic radiation and seawater tides. (3) Emerging colloidal phases cyclically nucleate and agglomerate in seawater and consolidate as geochemical sediments in tidal zones, creating a matrix of microspaces...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Ateet Dutt, Yasuhiro Matsumoto, G Santana-Rodríguez, Estrella Ramos, B Marel Monroy, J Santoyo Salazar
The impact of the surface reconstruction of the density distribution and photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silicon oxide matrix (SiOx) has been studied. Annealing treatments carried out on the as-deposited samples provoked the effusion of hydrogen species. Moreover, depending on the surrounding density and coalescence of QDs, they resulted in a change in the average size of the particles depending on the initial local environment. The shift in the luminescence spectra all over the visible region (blue, green and red) shows a strong dependence on the resultant change in the size and/or the passivation environment of QDs...
January 4, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Brian J Gullekson, Andrew T Breshears, M Alex Brown, Jeremy B Essner, Gary A Baker, Justin R Walensky, Alena Paulenova, Artem V Gelis
Complexes of the trivalent lanthanides and Am with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (HDEHP) dissolved in an aliphatic diluent were probed with UV-vis, X-ray absorption fine structure, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy while the water concentration was determined by Karl Fischer titrations. In particular, our work focuses on the Nd-hypersensitive UV-vis absorbance region to identify the cause of changing absorbance values at 570 and 583 nm in relation to the pseudooctahedral Nd environment when coordinated with three HDEHP dimers...
December 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
S Monisha, T Mathavan, S Selvasekarapandian, A Milton Franklin Benial, G Aristatil, N Mani, M Premalatha, D Vinoth Pandi
Proton conducting materials create prime interest in electro chemical device development. Present work has been carried out to design environment friendly new biopolymer electrolytes (BPEs) using cellulose acetate (CA) complex with different concentrations of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), which have been prepared as film and characterized. The 50mol% CA and 50mol% NH4NO3 complex has highest ionic conductivity (1.02×10(-3)Scm(-1)). Differential scanning calorimetry shows the changes in glass transition temperature depends on salt concentration...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Gabriele Escherich, Stefan Bielack, Stephan Maier, Ralf Braungart, Tim H Brümmendorf, Mathias Freund, Regine Grosse, Anette Hoferer, Rebecca Kampschulte, Barbara Koch, Melchior Lauten, Valeria Milani, Henning Ross, Freimut Schilling, Dieter Wöhrle, Holger Cario, Uta Dirksen
Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hemato-oncological problems constitute a heterogenous group with characteristic particularities, specific needs, and age-related clinical and unique psychosocial features. Strong collaboration between pediatric and adult hemato-oncology settings is essential to address their needs appropriately. This is not only true for patients who first become ill during adolescence or young adulthood, but equally so for people who contract hemato-oncological diseases congenitally or as younger children and who are now becoming old enough to leave the pediatric setting and have to transit into "adult" medical care...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Elisa Rojo-Nieto, Carolina Fernández-Maldonado
Dolphins are considered sentinel species in the marine environment. The Strait of Gibraltar is the only passage between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, being the transitional region which connects these two basins and one of the most important routes of cetacean migration worldwide. In this work, eight trace elements (TE) were studied in 45 samples of liver, kidney and muscle, from 15 specimens stranded in this study area. The preliminary results show, among others, the patterns of distribution of the TE in the target organs studied, the influence of sex, length and developmental stage in these TE concentrations and the Se/Hg ratio...
March 2017: Chemosphere
Rich Masters, Catherine Capio, Thomson Wong, Jamie Poolton, Liis Uiga
BACKGROUND: China's rapid urban growth is associated with an increasingly unhealthy population. Urban planners can design cities to promote healthy lifestyles, but to re-engineer the existing built environment is no simple task. We assessed whether a simple modification of the built environment was associated with altered perceptions of, and ambulation in, that environment. METHODS: We adjusted a single-rail stair banister (length 3 m, height 1 m) in an urban area of Hong Kong, China, to increase or decrease the convergence angle with the stairs by 10% (plus or minus 1·91°)...
October 2016: Lancet
Eric D Metzger, Robert J Comito, Christopher H Hendon, Mircea Dincă
A recently developed metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst for the dimerization of ethylene has a combination of selectivity and activity that surpasses that of commercial homogeneous catalysts, which have dominated this important industrial process for nearly 50 years. The uniform catalytic sites available in MOFs provide a unique opportunity to directly study reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysts, a problem typically intractable due to the multiplicity of coordination environments found in many solid catalysts...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A Atxabal, M Ribeiro, S Parui, L Urreta, E Sagasta, X Sun, R Llopis, F Casanova, L E Hueso
Molecular spins have become key enablers for exploring magnetic interactions, quantum information processes and many-body effects in metals. Metal-organic molecules, in particular, let the spin state of the core metal ion to be modified according to its organic environment, allowing localized magnetic moments to emerge as functional entities with radically different properties from its simple atomic counterparts. Here, using and preserving the integrity of transition metal phthalocyanine high-spin complexes, we demonstrate the magnetic doping of gold thin films, effectively creating a new ground state...
December 12, 2016: Nature Communications
Annalisa Berta, Agnese Lanzetti, Eric G Ekdale, Thomas A Deméré
The origin of baleen and filter feeding in mysticete cetaceans occurred sometime between approximately 34 and 24 million years ago and represents a major macroevolutionary shift in cetacean morphology (teeth to baleen) and ecology (raptorial to filter feeding). We explore this dramatic change in feeding strategy by employing a diversity of tools and approaches: morphology, molecules, development, and stable isotopes from the geological record. Adaptations for raptorial feeding in extinct toothed mysticetes provide the phylogenetic context for evaluating morphological apomorphies preserved in the skeletons of stem and crown edentulous mysticetes...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
J K Green, A D Huntington
Professional development opportunities for nurses are increasingly being offered in the online environment and therefore it is imperative that learning designers, nurse educators and healthcare organisations consider how best to support staff to enable Registered Nurses to capitalise on the resources available. Research participants explored educational strategies to support digitally differentiated nurses' engagement with professional development activities in an online environment through a participatory action research project that collected data over a 16 month period through six focus groups before being analysed thematically...
December 2, 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
Richard A Watson, Rob Mills, C L Buckley, Kostas Kouvaris, Adam Jackson, Simon T Powers, Chris Cox, Simon Tudge, Adam Davies, Loizos Kounios, Daniel Power
The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
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