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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447801/droplets-on-microdecorated-surfaces-evolution-of-the-polygonal-contact-line
#1
Alok Kumar, Rishi Raj
Interaction of liquids with surfaces is ubiquitous in our physical environment as well as many engineering applications. Recent advances on this topic have not only provided us with valuable insight into nature's design, but also enabled improved fluidic manipulation for liquid-based printing applications such as bio-microarrays for protein and DNA sequencing, multicolor polymer-based LED displays, inkjet printing, and solder droplet printing, among others. For example, droplet contact lines which are typically circular on a smooth and homogenous surface when deposited on a microdecorated surface may take various common polygonal shapes such as squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons and dodecagons...
April 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440016/outcomes-and-feasibility-of-the-short-transitional-intervention-in-psychiatry-in-improving-the-transition-from-inpatient-treatment-to-the-community-a-pilot-study
#2
Anna Hegedüs, Bernd Kozel, Niklaus Fankhauser, Ian Needham, Johann Behrens
Discharge from psychiatric inpatient care is frequently described as chaotic, stressful, and emotionally charged. Following discharge, service users are vulnerable to becoming overwhelmed by the challenges involved in readapting to their home environments, which could result in serious problems and lead to readmission. The short transitional intervention in psychiatry (STeP) is a bridging intervention that includes pre- and post-discharge sections. It aims to prepare patients for specific situations in the period immediately following discharge from a psychiatric hospital...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419875/falls-in-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-comparison-of-community-and-home-based-falls
#3
Robyn M Lamont, Meg E Morris, Hylton B Menz, Jennifer L McGinley, Sandra G Brauer
BACKGROUND: Falls are common and debilitating in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and restrict participation in daily activities. Understanding circumstances of falls in the community and at home may assist clinicians to target therapy more effectively. OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of community and home fallers and the circumstances that contribute to falls in people living with PD. METHODS: People with mild-moderately severe PD (n=196) used a daily falls diary and telephone hotline to report prospectively the occurrence, location and circumstances of falls over 14 months...
April 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411425/thoron-mitigation-system-based-on-charcoal-bed-for-applications-in-thorium-fuel-cycle-facilities-part-1-development-of-theoretical-models-for-design-considerations
#4
B K Sahoo, K Sudeep Kumara, N Karunakara, J J Gaware, B K Sapra, Y S Mayya
Regulating the environmental discharge of (220)Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the (220)Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the (220)Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406619/interaction-between-dissolved-organic-matter-and-long-chain-ionic-liquids-a-microstructural-and-spectroscopic-correlation-study
#5
Xiao-Yang Liu, Wei Chen, Chen Qian, Han-Qing Yu
The production and use of ionic liquids (ILs) increase the potential risk after their emission into the environment. After entering the environment, ILs will readily interact with dissolved organic matter (DOM), and their environmental behavior will be impacted by DOM, which is abundant in the environment and has various functional groups. However, to date, the interaction between DOM and ILs, especially long-chain ILs, remains unclear. In this work, the interaction between long-chain ILs and humic acid (HA), a representative DOM, was investigated using synchronous fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential techniques, which were integrated with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS), hetero-2DCOS and perturbation-correlation moving-window analyses...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406284/dependence-of-organic-interlayer-diffusion-on-glass-transition-temperature-in-oleds
#6
Jake A McEwan, Andrew J Clulow, Andrew Nelson, Nageshwar Rao Yepuri, Paul L Burn, Ian R Gentle
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are subject to thermal stress from Joule heating and the external environment. In this work, neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to probe the effect of heat on the morphology of thin three-layer organic films comprising materials typically found in OLEDs. It was found that layers within the films began to mix when heated to approximately 20 °C above the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the material with the lowest Tg. Diffusion occurred when the material with the lowest Tg formed a supercooled liquid, with the rates of interdiffusion of the materials depending on the relative Tg's...
April 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401390/enzyme-based-solutions-for-textile-processing-and-dye-contaminant-biodegradation-a-review
#7
Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Muhammad Asgher, Hafiz M N Iqbal
The textile industry, as recognized conformist and stake industry in the world's economy, is facing serious environmental challenges. In numerous industries, in practice, various chemical-based processes from initial sizing to final washing are fascinating harsh environment concerns. Some of these chemicals are corrosive to equipment and cause serious damage itself. Therefore, in the twenty-first century, chemical and allied industries quest a paradigm transition from traditional chemical-based concepts to a greener, sustainable, and environmentally friendlier catalytic alternative, both at the laboratory and industrial scales...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400744/a-psychosocial-approach-to-understanding-underground-spaces
#8
Eun H Lee, George I Christopoulos, Kian W Kwok, Adam C Roberts, Chee-Kiong Soh
With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398718/facile-fabrication-of-composite-membranes-with-dual-thermo-and-ph-responsive-characteristics
#9
Bing Ma, Xiao-Jie Ju, Feng Luo, Yu-Qiong Liu, Yuan Wang, Zhuang Liu, Wei Wang, Rui Xie, Liang-Yin Chu
Facile fabrication of novel functional membranes with excellent dual thermo- and pH-responsive characteristics has been achieved by simply designing dual-layer composite membranes. pH-Responsive poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymers and polystyrene blended with thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogels are respectively used to construct the top layer and bottom layer of composite membranes. The stretching/coiling conformation changes of the P4VP chains around the pKa (∼3...
April 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398039/influence-of-humidity-on-grip-and-release-adhesion-mechanisms-for-gecko-inspired-microfibrillar-surfaces
#10
Nicholas Cadirov, Jamie A Booth, Kimberly L Turner, Jacob N Israelachvili
Geckos have developed foot pads that allow them to maintain their unique climbing ability despite vast differences of surfaces and environments, from dry desert to humid rainforest. Likewise, successful gecko-inspired mimics should exhibit adhesive and frictional performance across a similarly diverse range of climates. In this work, we focus on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the "frictional-adhesion" behavior of gecko-inspired adhesive pads. A surface forces apparatus was used to quantitatively measure adhesion and friction forces of a microfibrillar cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane surface against a smooth hemispherical glass disk at varying relative humidity, from 0 to 100% (including fully submerged under water)...
April 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395598/improving-clerkship-preparedness-a-hospital-medicine-elective-for-pre-clerkship-students
#11
Denise M Connor, Paul J Conlon, Bridget C O'Brien, Calvin L Chou
BACKGROUND: Medical students often struggle to apply their nascent clinical skills in clerkships. While transitional clerkships can orient students to new roles and logistics, students may benefit from developing clinical skills in inpatient environments earlier in their curriculum to improve readiness for clerkships. INTERVENTION: Our four- to six-session elective provides pre-clerkship students with individualized learning in the inpatient setting with the aim of improving clerkship preparedness...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395531/a-transactional-framework-for-pediatric-rehabilitation-shifting-the-focus-to-situated-contexts-transactional-processes-and-adaptive-developmental-outcomes
#12
Gillian King, Christine Imms, Debra Stewart, Matt Freeman, Tram Nguyen
PURPOSE: A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional processes of change over the life course. METHOD: The framework draws attention to transactional processes by which individuals, situated in life contexts, change and adapt over the life course and, in turn, influence their contextual settings and broader environments...
April 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374538/high-efficiency-green-and-scalable-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-assisted-aqueous-exfoliation-of-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-the-cases-of-mos2-and-res2
#13
Wancheng Zhao, Xingxing Tan, Jingyun Jiang, Feijie Liu, Tiancheng Mu
β-cyclodextrin-assisted aqueous-exfoliation method is successfully introduced to prepare transition metal dichalcogenides nanosheets (TMDs), which is cheap, high-efficiency, scalable, and environmentally friendly. As the cases, MoS2 and ReS2 nanoflakes are prepared using our method. Particularly, the effective exfoliation of ReS2 crystal in aqueous environment is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, exfoliated nanomaterials can be availably utilized in hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) as noble-metal-free catalyst...
April 3, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374017/nonstationary-stochastic-dynamics-underlie-spontaneous-transitions-between-active-and-inactive-behavioral-states
#14
Alexandre Melanson, Jorge F Mejias, James J Jun, Leonard Maler, André Longtin
The neural basis of spontaneous movement generation is a fascinating open question. Long-term monitoring of fish, swimming freely in a constant sensory environment, has revealed a sequence of behavioral states that alternate randomly and spontaneously between periods of activity and inactivity. We show that key dynamical features of this sequence are captured by a 1-D diffusion process evolving in a nonlinear double well energy landscape, in which a slow variable modulates the relative depth of the wells. This combination of stochasticity, nonlinearity, and nonstationary forcing correctly captures the vastly different timescales of fluctuations observed in the data (∼1 to ∼1000 s), and yields long-tailed residence time distributions (RTDs) also consistent with the data...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372249/systematic-transition-from-description-to-prediction-for-the-oxidation-in-packaged-olive-oil
#15
Antonis Kanavouras, Frank A Coutelieris
In this work, an oxidation predictive model was proposed, following a methodical consideration of the natural laws and principles that determine the phenomena occurring during the olive oil oxidation. A mathematical description was obtained via a road-map involving selected "food-packaging-environment" system descriptors. A straightforward transition from the phenomena description to the tool was also developed. For this work, oxidation of packed edible oil was tested against the developed methodology, as a characteristic exemplar to confirm and support it...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371304/clinical-nurse-leaders-and-academics-perspectives-in-clinical-assessment-of-final-year-nursing-students-a-qualitative-study
#16
Xi Vivien Wu, Karin Enskär, Lay Hoon Pua, Doreen Gek Noi Heng, Wenru Wang
The nature of nursing practice is diverse; therefore, clinical assessment is a complex process. This study explores the perceptions of clinical nurse leaders and academics on clinical assessment for undergraduate nursing education during transition to practice. An explorative qualitative approach was applied. Eight nurse managers, six clinical nurse educators, and eight academics from two tertiary hospitals and a university in Singapore participated in four focus group discussions. Thematic analysis was conducted...
March 30, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370650/the-work-environment-and-empowerment-as-predictors-of-patient-safety-culture-in-turkey
#17
Hasan Fehmi Dirik, Seyda Seren Intepeler
AIM AND BACKGROUND: As scant research based information is available regarding the work environment, empowerment and patient safety culture, this study from a developing country (Turkey) in which health care institutions are in a state of transition, aimed to investigate further the relationships between these three variables. METHOD: A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. The sample comprised 274 nurse participants working in a university hospital located in Izmir (Turkey)...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366166/a-path-to-precision-in-the-icu
#18
REVIEW
David M Maslove, Francois Lamontagne, John C Marshall, Daren K Heyland
Precision medicine is increasingly touted as a groundbreaking new paradigm in biomedicine. In the ICU, the complexity and ambiguity of critical illness syndromes have been identified as fundamental justifications for the adoption of a precision approach to research and practice. Inherently protean diseases states such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome have manifestations that are physiologically and anatomically diffuse, and that fluctuate over short periods of time. This leads to considerable heterogeneity among patients, and conditions in which a "one size fits all" approach to therapy can lead to widely divergent results...
April 3, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365483/structural-transitions-in-torsionally-constrained-dna-and-their-dependence-on-solution-electrostatics
#19
Jaspreet Singh, Prashant K Purohit
Experimental studies on single molecules of DNA have reported a rich variety of structural transitions, including coexistence of three phases, in a torsionally constrained molecule. A comprehensive knowledge of these structural transitions is useful for unraveling the in vivo and in vitro behavior of DNA. Our objective is to understand the structural transitions in a torsionally constrained DNA molecule when it is pulled using optical or magnetic tweezers. We use foundational concepts from the Zimm-Bragg helix-coil transition theory and merge them with ideas from the theory of fluctuating elastic rods to model the mechanics of DNA...
March 29, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362798/interrogating-the-topological-robustness-of-gene-regulatory-circuits-by-randomization
#20
Bin Huang, Mingyang Lu, Dongya Jia, Eshel Ben-Jacob, Herbert Levine, Jose N Onuchic
One of the most important roles of cells is performing their cellular tasks properly for survival. Cells usually achieve robust functionality, for example, cell-fate decision-making and signal transduction, through multiple layers of regulation involving many genes. Despite the combinatorial complexity of gene regulation, its quantitative behavior has been typically studied on the basis of experimentally verified core gene regulatory circuitry, composed of a small set of important elements. It is still unclear how such a core circuit operates in the presence of many other regulatory molecules and in a crowded and noisy cellular environment...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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