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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932852/evolutionary-connectionism-algorithmic-principles-underlying-the-evolution-of-biological-organisation-in-evo-devo-evo-eco-and-evolutionary-transitions
#1
Richard A Watson, Rob Mills, C L Buckley, Kostas Kouvaris, Adam Jackson, Simon T Powers, Chris Cox, Simon Tudge, Adam Davies, Loizos Kounios, Daniel Power
The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928887/the-role-of-rural-nurse-managers-in-supporting-new-graduate-nurses-in-rural-practice
#2
Jackie Lea, Mary Cruickshank
AIM: To investigate the nature and timing of support available to new graduate nurses within a rural transition to practice programme. BACKGROUND: For new graduates in rural practice successful transition is complicated by the unique role of the rural nurse, staff ratios and resources within rural environments. Little is known about the support needs of graduates working in rural health services, or who is best placed to provide support during their transition. METHOD: This was a qualitative case study, using individual interviews with new graduate nurses at 3, 6 and 9 months milestones during a 12-month rural transition to practice programme plus interviews with experienced rural nurses who were employed in rural health agencies where the new graduate nurses were employed...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904880/microbial-community-patterns-associated-with-automated-teller-machine-keypads-in-new-york-city
#3
Holly M Bik, Julia M Maritz, Albert Luong, Hakdong Shin, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Jane M Carlton
In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896664/molecular-interactions-structural-transitions-and-alterations-in-soxb-protein-due-to-soxyz-interaction-from-two-distinct-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-an-in-silico-approach-towards-the-thiosulfate-oxidation-and-recycling-of-soxy-protein
#4
Sujay Ray, Semanti Ghosh, Angshuman Bagchi
Microbial oxidation-reduction reactions utilizing the environmental thiosulfate ions and mediated mainly by the sox operon are very much essential to maintain the sulfur balance in the environment. Majority of the previously documented wet laboratory studies show genetics behind the functionality of Sox proteins encoded by the sox operon. However, the molecular details of the involvements of the essential SoxB, SoxY and SoxZ proteins in the beta-proteobacteria have not yet been elucidated. In this work, an attempt was made to analyze the interaction profiles of the aforementioned SoxB, SoxY and SoxZ proteins to predict their roles in biological sulfur oxidation process...
November 28, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886730/school-transitions-peer-influence-and-educational-expectation-formation-girls-and-boys
#5
Megan Andrew, Jennifer Flashman
School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885865/delivering-phage-therapy-per-os-benefits-and-barriers
#6
Susan Zelasko, Andrzej Gorski, Krystyna Dabrowska
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract pose a serious public health concern. High levels of antibiotic drug resistance, along with the potential for antibiotics to precipitate disease or alter the gut microbiome has prompted research into alternative treatment methods. Evidence suggests that bacteriophage therapy delivered per os may be well-suited to target such infections. Areas covered: Herein, we discuss the specific advantages and challenges of using orally administered phage therapy...
November 25, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884151/unearthing-the-transition-rates-between-photoreceptor-conformers
#7
Robert W Smith, Britta Helwig, Adrie H Westphal, Eran Pel, Maximilian Hörner, Hannes M Beyer, Sophia L Samodelov, Wilfried Weber, Matias D Zurbriggen, Jan Willem Borst, Christian Fleck
BACKGROUND: Obtaining accurate estimates of biological or enzymatic reaction rates is critical in understanding the design principles of a network and how biological processes can be experimentally manipulated on demand. In many cases experimental limitations mean that some enzymatic rates cannot be measured directly, requiring mathematical algorithms to estimate them. Here, we describe a methodology that calculates rates at which light-regulated proteins switch between conformational states...
November 25, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878890/a-qualitative-exploration-of-anesthesia-trainees-experiences-during-transition-to-a-children-s-hospital
#8
Peter W Howe, Koshila Kumar
BACKGROUND: The stresses of starting a new job can make anyone feel tired and inefficient. In health care, this may impair the ability to learn at a time when there is most to learn, and increase the risk of error in a context where errors may lead to patient harm. AIM: The aim of this study was to understand issues which influence anesthesia trainees' transition to a pediatric setting. METHODS: This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews to gather data from 31 anesthesia trainees who had commenced work at a tertiary children's hospital between 4 and 6 weeks previously...
November 22, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860145/ultrashort-beryllium-beryllium-distances-rivalling-those-of-metal-metal-quintuple-bonds-between-transition-metals
#9
Caixia Yuan, Xue-Feng Zhao, Yan-Bo Wu, Xiaotai Wang
Chemical bonding is at the heart of chemistry. Recent work on high bond orders between homonuclear transition metal atoms has led to ultrashort metal-metal (TM-TM) distances defined as dM-M <1.900 Å. The present work is a computational design and characterization of novel main group species containing ultrashort metal-metal distances (1.728-1.866 Å) between two beryllium atoms in different molecular environments, including a rhombic Be2 X2 (X=C, N) core, a vertical Be-Be axis in a 3D molecular star, and a horizontal Be-Be axis supported by N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands...
November 16, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859217/feeling-one-s-way-in-the-world-making-a-life
#10
Margaret M Browning
This paper argues for the psychoanalytic relevance of the works of James Gibson and Susanne Langer in explicating the early development of the human child and makes use of this combined formulation of development to think about psychoanalytic theory and practice. From the insights of James Gibson's ecological psychology we can appreciate the embodiment and embeddedness of the child's growing mind within both her physical and social environments. Making use of Susanne Langer's concept of feeling to redefine ecological psychology's perceptual counterpart to action allows us to understand the child's seamless transition into active participation in her culture, as she learns to project her animalian capacity to feel into intersubjectively defined forms of behavior and experience with others...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833069/benefits-of-mobile-phone-technology-for-personal-environmental-monitoring
#11
David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Audrey de Nazelle, Albert Ambros, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Edmund Seto, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
BACKGROUND: Tracking individuals in environmental epidemiological studies using novel mobile phone technologies can provide valuable information on geolocation and physical activity, which will improve our understanding of environmental exposures. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the performance of one of the least expensive mobile phones on the market to track people's travel-activity pattern. METHODS: Adults living and working in Barcelona (72/162 bicycle commuters) carried simultaneously a mobile phone and a Global Positioning System (GPS) tracker and filled in a travel-activity diary (TAD) for 1 week (N=162)...
November 10, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832216/the-built-environment-is-a-microbial-wasteland
#12
COMMENT
Sean M Gibbons
Humanity's transition from the outdoor environment to the built environment (BE) has reduced our exposure to microbial diversity. The relative importance of factors that contribute to the composition of human-dominated BE microbial communities remains largely unknown. In their article in this issue, Chase and colleagues (J. Chase, J. Fouquier, M. Zare, D. L. Sonderegger, R. Knight, S. T. Kelley, J. Siegel, and J. G. Caporaso, mSystems 1(2):e00022-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00022-16) present an office building study in which they controlled for environmental factors, geography, surface material, sampling location, and human interaction type...
March 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825244/catalytic-conversion-in-nanoporous-materials-concentration-oscillations-and-spatial-correlations-due-to-inhibited-transport-and-intermolecular-interactions
#13
Andrés García, James W Evans
We show that steady-state catalytic conversion in nanoporous materials can occur in a quasi-counter-diffusion mode with the reactant (product) concentration strongly decaying (growing) into the pore, but also with oscillations in the total concentration. These oscillations reflect the response of the fluid to the transition from an extended to a confined environment near the pore opening. We focus on the regime of strongly inhibited transport in narrow pores corresponding to single-file diffusion. Here, limited penetration of the reactant into the pores and the associated low reaction yield is impacted by strong spatial correlations induced by both reaction (non-equilibrium correlations) and also by intermolecular interactions (thermodynamic correlations)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814681/wuflux-an-open-source-platform-for-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-of-bacterial-metabolism
#14
Lian He, Stephen G Wu, Muhan Zhang, Yixin Chen, Yinjie J Tang
BACKGROUND: Flux analyses, including flux balance analysis (FBA) and (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA), offer direct insights into cell metabolism, and have been widely used to characterize model and non-model microbial species. Nonetheless, constructing the (13)C-MFA model and performing flux calculation are demanding for new learners, because they require knowledge of metabolic networks, carbon transitions, and computer programming. To facilitate and standardize the (13)C-MFA modeling work, we set out to publish a user-friendly and programming-free platform (WUFlux) for flux calculations in MATLAB(®)...
November 4, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804302/unexpected-cation-dynamics-in-the-low-temperature-phase-of-methylammonium-lead-iodide-the-need-for-improved-models
#15
Kacper Drużbicki, Roberto Simone Pinna, Svemir Rudic, Marek Jura, Giuseppe Gorini, Felix Fernandez-Alonso
High-resolution inelastic neutron scattering and extensive first-principles calculations have been used to explore the low-temperature phase of the hybrid solar-cell material me-thylammonium lead iodide up to the well-known phase transition to the tetragonal phase at ca. 160 K. Contrary to original expectation, we find that the Pnma structure for this phase can only provide a qualitative description of the geometry and underlying motions of the organic cation. A substantial lowering of the local symmetry inside the perovskite cage leads to an improved atomis-tic model that can account for all available spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, both at low temperatures and in the vicinity of the aforementioned phase transition...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803155/bridging-the-gap-metabolic-and-endocrine-care-of-patients-during-transition
#16
REVIEW
Anita Hokken-Koelega, Aart-Jan van der Lely, Berthold Hauffa, Gabriele Häusler, Gudmundur Johannsson, Mohamad Maghnie, Jesús Argente, Jean DeSchepper, Helena Gleeson, John W Gregory, Charlotte Höybye, Fahrettin Keleştimur, Anton Luger, Hermann L Müller, Sebastian Neggers, Vera Popovic-Brkic, Eleonora Porcu, Lars Sävendahl, Stephen Shalet, Bessie Spiliotis, Maithé Tauber
OBJECTIVE: Seamless transition of endocrine patients from the paediatric to adult setting is still suboptimal, especially in patients with complex disorders, i.e., small for gestational age, Turner or Prader-Willi syndromes; Childhood Cancer Survivors, and those with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency. METHODS: An expert panel meeting comprised of European paediatric and adult endocrinologists was convened to explore the current gaps in managing the healthcare of patients with endocrine diseases during transition from paediatric to adult care settings...
November 2016: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785027/an-online-survey-of-turkish-psychiatrists-attitudes-about-and-experiences-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-clinical-practice
#17
Murat Altın, Gamze Ergil Altın, Bengi Semerci
OBJECTIVE: Although adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists beyond childhood, daily clinical practices and transition of adult patients with ADHD into adult mental health services in Turkey are not well studied. The aim of this study was to provide data about the presentation of adult patients with ADHD and evaluate the treatment strategies of Turkish adult psychiatrists based on their personal clinical experience in different hospital settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey to be filled out by Turkish adult psychiatrists was designed and administered in May 2014...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783833/married-state-preceptorship-model-crossing-the-state-line-in-new-graduate-nurse-transition-to-practice
#18
Solimar Figueroa, Julie Gardner, Jose Irizarry, Tanya Cohn
BACKGROUND: The transition to practice for new graduate nurses poses distinct challenges at the point of care. The complicated work environment necessitates a preceptorship model that maintains safety at all times. METHOD: This study used survey, focus groups, and interviews to assess the effects of the married state preceptorship model (MSPM) on the experiences and perceptions of the new nurses and preceptors in a hospital setting. RESULTS: The result validated the original findings from the new nurses' survey, indicating all (N = 28, 100%) of the new nurses found the MSPM to be beneficial, promote safety, and lessen anxiety, and 27 (96%) thought it helped them to assume a full patient load...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772710/functionalization-of-2d-transition-metal-dichalcogenides-for-biomedical-applications
#19
Zibiao Li, Swee Liang Wong
Recent research has revealed a gamut of interesting properties present in layered two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as photoluminescence, comparatively high electron mobility, flexibility, mechanical strength and relatively low toxicity. The large surface to area ratio inherent in these materials also allows easy functionalization and maximal interaction with the external environment. Due to its unique physical and chemical properties, much work has been done in tailoring TMDCs through chemical functionalization for use in a diverse range of biomedical applications as biosensors, drug delivery carriers or even as therapeutic agents...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726037/on-the-morphological-stability-of-multicellular-tumour-spheroids-growing-in-porous-media
#20
Chiara Giverso, Pasquale Ciarletta
Multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTSs) are extensively used as in vitro system models for investigating the avascular growth phase of solid tumours. In this work, we propose a continuous growth model of heterogeneous MCTSs within a porous material, taking into account a diffusing nutrient from the surrounding material directing both the proliferation rate and the mobility of tumour cells. At the time scale of interest, the MCTS behaves as an incompressible viscous fluid expanding inside a porous medium. The cell motion and proliferation rate are modelled using a non-convective chemotactic mass flux, driving the cell expansion in the direction of the external nutrients' source...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
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