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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906159/neural-network-approach-for-characterizing-structural-transformations-by-x-ray-absorption-fine-structure-spectroscopy
#1
Janis Timoshenko, Andris Anspoks, Arturs Cintins, Alexei Kuzmin, Juris Purans, Anatoly I Frenkel
The knowledge of the coordination environment around various atomic species in many functional materials provides a key for explaining their properties and working mechanisms. Many structural motifs and their transformations are difficult to detect and quantify in the process of work (operando conditions), due to their local nature, small changes, low dimensionality of the material, and/or extreme conditions. Here we use an artificial neural network approach to extract the information on the local structure and its in situ changes directly from the x-ray absorption fine structure spectra...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904730/surveillance-and-epidemiology-of-drug-resistant-infections-consortium-sedric-supporting-the-transition-from-strategy-to-action
#2
Keiji Fukuda, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Iruka N Okeke, Nandini Shetty, Rogier van Doorn, Nicholas A Feasey, Francesca Chiara, Ghada Zoubiane, Tim Jinks, Julian Parkhill, Jean Patel, Stuart W J Reid, Alison H Holmes, Sharon J Peacock
In recognition of the central importance of surveillance and epidemiology in the control of antimicrobial resistance and the need to strengthen surveillance at all levels, Wellcome has brought together a new international expert group SEDRIC (Surveillance and Epidemiology of Drug Resistant Infections Consortium). SEDRIC aims to advance and transform the ways of tracking, sharing and analysing rates of infection and drug resistance, burden of disease, information on antibiotic use, opportunities for preventative measures such as vaccines, and contamination of the environment...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886258/imaging-redox-activity-and-fe-ii-at-the-microbe-mineral-interface-during-fe-iii-reduction
#3
Helen F Downie, Joel P Standerwick, Letitia Burgess, Louise S Natrajan, Jonathan R Lloyd
Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) play an important role in controlling the redox chemistry of Fe and other transition metals and radionuclides in the environment. During bacterial iron reduction, electrons are transferred from the outer membrane to poorly soluble Fe(III) minerals, although the precise physiological mechanisms and local impact on minerals of these redox processes remain unclear. The aim of this work was to use a range of microscopic techniques to examine the local environment of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown on thin films of Fe(III)-bearing minerals, to provide insight into spatial patterns of Fe(III) reduction and electron transfer...
June 7, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882513/aerodynamic-robustness-in-owl-inspired-leading-edge-serrations-a-computational-wind-gust-model
#4
Chen Rao, Hao Liu
Owls are a master to achieve silent flight in gliding and flapping flights under natural turbulent environments owing to their unique wing morphologies. While the leading-edge serrations are recently revealed, as a passive flow control micro-device, to play a crucial role in aerodynamic force production and sound suppression [25], the characteristics of wind-gust rejection associated with leading-edge serrations remain unclear. Here we address a large-eddy simulation (LES)-based study of aerodynamic robustness in owl-inspired leading-edge serrations, which is conducted with clean and serrated wing models through mimicking wind-gusts under a longitudinal fluctuation in free-stream inflow and a lateral fluctuation in pitch angle over a broad range of angles of attack (AoAs) over 0° ≤ Φ ≤ 20°...
June 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880023/hundreds-of-novel-composite-genes-and-chimeric-genes-with-bacterial-origins-contributed-to-haloarchaeal-evolution
#5
Raphaël Méheust, Andrew K Watson, François-Joseph Lapointe, R Thane Papke, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
BACKGROUND: Haloarchaea, a major group of archaea, are able to metabolize sugars and to live in oxygenated salty environments. Their physiology and lifestyle strongly contrast with that of their archaeal ancestors. Amino acid optimizations, which lowered the isoelectric point of haloarchaeal proteins, and abundant lateral gene transfers from bacteria have been invoked to explain this deep evolutionary transition. We use network analyses to show that the evolution of novel genes exclusive to Haloarchaea also contributed to the evolution of this group...
June 7, 2018: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879972/refer-to-pharmacy-a-qualitative-study-exploring-the-implementation-of-an-electronic-transfer-of-care-initiative-to-improve-medicines-optimisation-following-hospital-discharge
#6
Jane Ferguson, Liz Seston, Darren M Ashcroft
BACKGROUND: Transition between care settings is a time of high risk for preventable medication errors. Poor communication about medication changes on discharge from hospital can result in adverse drug events and medicines-related readmissions. Refer-to-Pharmacy is a novel electronic referral system that allows hospital pharmacy staff to refer patients from their bedside to their community pharmacist for post-hospital discharge medication support. The aim of this study was to examine factors that promoted or inhibited the implementation of Refer-to-Pharmacy in hospital and community settings...
June 7, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875367/hexagonal-mote-2-with-amorphous-bn-passivation-layer-for-improved-oxidation-resistance-and-endurance-of-2d-field-effect-transistors
#7
Benjamin Sirota, Nicholas Glavin, Sergiy Krylyuk, Albert V Davydov, Andrey A Voevodin
Environmental and thermal stability of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) remains a fundamental challenge towards enabling robust electronic devices. Few-layer 2H-MoTe2 with an amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) covering layer was synthesized as a channel for back-gated field effect transistors (FET) and compared to uncovered MoTe2 . A systematic approach was taken to understand the effects of heat treatment in air on the performance of FET devices. Atmospheric oxygen was shown to negatively affect uncoated MoTe2 devices while BN-covered FETs showed considerably enhanced chemical and electronic characteristic stability...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868279/miphy-identify-and-quantify-rapidly-evolving-members-of-large-gene-families
#8
David M Curran, John S Gilleard, James D Wasmuth
After transitioning to a new environment, species often exhibit rapid phenotypic innovation. One of the fastest mechanisms for this is duplication followed by specialization of existing genes. When this happens to a member of a gene family, it tends to leave a detectable phylogenetic signature of lineage-specific expansions and contractions. These can be identified by analyzing the gene family across several species and identifying patterns of gene duplication and loss that do not correlate with the known relationships between those species...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861511/laboratory-study-of-methyl-isocyanate-ices-under-astrophysical-conditions
#9
B Maté, G Molpeceres, V Timón, I Tanarro, R Escribano, J C Guillemin, J Cernicharo, V J Herrero
Methyl isocyanate has been recently detected in comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/CG) and in the interstellar medium. New physicochemical studies on this species are now necessary as tools for subsequent studies in astrophysics. In this work, infrared spectra of solid CH3 NCO have been obtained at temperatures of relevance for astronomical environments. The spectra are dominated by a strong, characteristic multiplet feature at 2350-2250 cm-1 , which can be attributed to the antisymmetric stretching of the NCO group...
October 1, 2017: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861282/neurocomputational-dynamics-of-sequence-learning
#10
Arkady Konovalov, Ian Krajbich
The brain is often able to learn complex structures of the environment using a very limited amount of evidence, which is crucial for model-based planning and sequential prediction. However, little is known about the neurocomputational mechanisms of deterministic sequential prediction, as prior work has primarily focused on stochastic transition structures. Here we find that human subjects' beliefs about a sequence of states, captured by reaction times, are well explained by a Bayesian pattern-learning model that tracks beliefs about both the current state and the underlying structure of the environment, taking into account prior beliefs about possible patterns in the sequence...
May 19, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849543/constructing-temporally-extended-actions-through-incremental-community-detection
#11
Xiao Xu, Mei Yang, Ge Li
Hierarchical reinforcement learning works on temporally extended actions or skills to facilitate learning. How to automatically form such abstraction is challenging, and many efforts tackle this issue in the options framework. While various approaches exist to construct options from different perspectives, few of them concentrate on options' adaptability during learning. This paper presents an algorithm to create options and enhance their quality online. Both aspects operate on detected communities of the learning environment's state transition graph...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845856/mesoporous-hollow-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanospheres-with-embedded-mnfe2o4-fe-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-efficient-bifunctional-oxygen-electrocatalyst-in-alkaline-media
#12
Xiuju Wu, Yanli Niu, Bomin Feng, Yanan Yu, Xiaoqin Huang, Changyin Zhong, Weihua Hu, Chang Ming Li
Exploring sustainable and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is necessary for the development of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein we report bimetal Fe/Mn-N-C material composed of spinel MnFe2O4/metallic Fe hybrid nanoparticles encapsulated in N-doped mesoporous hollow carbon nanospheres as an excellent bifunctional ORR/OER electrocatalyst in alkaline electrolyte. The Fe/Mn-N-C catalyst is synthesized via pyrolysis of bimetal ion-incorporated polydopamine nanospheres and shows impressive ORR electrocatalytic activity superior to Pt/C and good OER activity close to RuO2 catalyst in alkaline environment...
May 30, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800762/reforming-the-undergraduate-nursing-clinical-curriculum-through-clinical-immersion-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Susan M Fowler, Mary C Knowlton, Amy W Putnam
Clinical immersion is a method used by various academic programs to narrow the theory-to-practice gap and assist students to transition from school to a new work environment. In the clinical immersion model, students embark upon a concentrated and intensive clinical experience, typically at the end of a semester or program. This literature review explored the various methods by which programs carry out the immersion clinical experience model and if the experience improved students' readiness for entry level positions...
May 3, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799113/changes-in-sleep-quality-and-levels-of-psychological-distress-during-the-adaptation-to-university-the-role-of-childhood-adversity
#14
Neha A John-Henderson, Sarah E Williams, Ryan C Brindle, Annie T Ginty
Stress-related sleep disturbances are common, and poor sleep quality can negatively affect health. Previous work indicates that early-life adversity is associated with compromised sleep quality later in life, but it is unknown whether it predicts greater declines in sleep quality during stressful life transitions. We propose and test a conceptual model whereby individuals who reported experiencing greater levels of child maltreatment would experience greater psychological distress during a stressful life transition, which in turn would contribute to greater declines in sleep quality, relative to their quality of sleep before the stressful transition...
May 25, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793337/thermo-sensitive-lipid-bilayer-coated-mesoporous-carbon-nanoparticles-for-synergistic-thermo-chemotherapy-of-tumor
#15
Xian Li, Xiudan Wang, Luping Sha, Da Wang, Wei Shi, Qinfu Zhao, Siling Wang
Thermo-chemotherapy exhibits a synergistic therapeutic efficiency for cancer, and the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemical drugs could be increased to a large extent at elevated temperature. In this work, a novel biocompatible drug delivery system TSMCN was designed by covering a liposome on the surface of the mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCN). The TSMCN had good photothermal efficiency and photostability. The DOX loaded TSMCN (DOX/TSMCN) showed a slower release than DOX loaded MCN-COOH (DOX/MCN-COOH) both in simulated tumor environment (pH 5...
May 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788085/involving-young-people-in-health-promotion-research-and-policy-making-practical-recommendations
#16
Magaly Aceves-Martins, Aixa Y Aleman-Diaz, Montse Giralt, Rosa Solà
Youth is a dynamic and complex transition period in life where many factors jeopardise its present and future health. Youth involvement enables young people to influence processes and decisions that affect them, leading to changes in themselves and their environment (e.g. peers, services, communities and policies); this strategy could be applied to improve health and prevent diseases. Nonetheless, scientific evidence of involving youth in health-related programmes is scarce. The aim of this paper is to describe youth involvement as a health promotion strategy and to compile practical recommendations for health promoters, researchers and policy-makers interested in successful involvement of young people in health-related programmes...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782801/epr-evidence-of-liquid-water-in-ice-an-intrinsic-property-of-water-or-a-self-confinement-effect
#17
Muthulakshmi Thangswamy, Priya Maheshwari, Dhanadeep Dutta, Vinayak G Rane, Pradeep Kumar Pujari
Liquid water (LW) existence in pure ice below 273 K has been a controversial aspect primarily because of the lack of experimental evidences. Recently, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to study deeply supercooled water in a rapidly-frozen polycrystalline ice. The same technique can also be used to probe the presence of LW in polycrystalline ice that has formed through a more conventional, slow cooling one. In this context, the present study aims to emphasize that in case of an external probe involving techniques such as EPR, the results are influenced by the binary phase (BP) diagram of the probe-water system, which also predicts the existence of LW domains in ice, upto the eutectic point...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768685/post-formation-copper-nitrogen-species-on-carbon-black-their-chemical-structures-and-active-sites-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#18
Xin Xie, Jingjun Liu, Tuanfeng Li, Ye Song, Feng Wang
Note that 3d transition metal and nitrogen co-doped carbon materials (TM-N-C) are considered as the most promising next-generation electrocatalysts alternative to precious Pt for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Herein, we have fabricated a Cu-N-C catalyst through directly grafting copper-nitrogen complexes composed by cuprous chloride and ammonia water onto the surface of an industrial carbon black at 500℃. In an alkaline environment, the synthesized catalyst exhibits excellent ORR catalytic activity, which is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst but far exceeding that obtained by the original carbon...
May 16, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756623/metal-organic-frameworks-as-a-catalyst-for-oxygen-reduction-an-unexpected-outcome-of-a-highly-active-mn-mof-based-catalyst-incorporated-in-activated-carbon
#19
S Gonen, O Lori, G Cohen-Taguri, L Elbaz
Owing to their unique chemistry and physical properties, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an interesting class of materials which can be utilized for a wide array of applications. MOFs have been proposed to be used as catalysts for fuel cells, but their low intrinsic electronic conductivity hampered their utilization as is. In this work, we present the synthesis and application of MOF-based precious-metal-group-free (PGM-free) catalysts for oxygen reduction based on a unique metal-organic framework-carbon composite material...
May 14, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753968/quantitative-determination-of-wool-in-textile-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-multivariate-models
#20
Hui Chen, Chao Tan, Zan Lin
The wool content in textiles is a key quality index and the corresponding quantitative analysis takes an important position due to common adulterations in both raw and finished textiles. Conventional methods are maybe complicated, destructive, time-consuming, environment-unfriendly. Developing a quick, easy-to-use and green alternative method is interesting. The work focuses on exploring the feasibility of combining near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and several partial least squares (PLS)-based algorithms and elastic component regression (ECR) algorithms for measuring wool content in textile...
May 4, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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