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Modelling somatic growth

Jolien S de Groot, Max A K Rätze, Miranda van Amersfoort, Tanja Eisemann, Eva J Vlug, Mijanou T Niklaas, Suet-Feung Chin, Carlos Caldas, Paul J van Diest, Jos Jonkers, Johan de Rooij, Patrick W B Derksen
Mutational inactivation of E-cadherin (CDH1) is the main driver of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC), although approximately 10-15% of all ILCs retain membrane-localized E-cadherin, despite the presence of an apparent non-cohesive and invasive lobular growth pattern. Given that ILC is dependent on constitutive actomyosin contraction for tumor development and progression, we used a combination of cell systems and in vivo experiments to investigate the consequences of α-catenin (CTNNA1) loss in the regulation of anchorage independence of non-invasive breast carcinoma...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Francesco Cavraro, Giulia Gheno, Renzo Ganzerla, Matteo Zucchetta, Piero Franzoi, Stefano Malavasi
Display of bright and striking color patterns is a widespread way of communication in many animal species. Carotenoid-based coloration accounts for most of the bright yellow, orange, and red displays in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, being widely considered a signal of individual health. This type of coloration is under the influence of several factors, such as sexual selection, predator pressure, pigment availability, and light transmission. Fish offer numerous examples of visual communication by means of color patterns...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Natalie J Lemanski, Nina H Fefferman
One evolutionary view of aging, the disposable soma theory, suggests that an organism's rate of senescence depends on the amount of energy invested in somatic maintenance. Since organisms have limited energy to allocate among growth, maintenance, and reproduction, the optimal amount of energy to invest in maintenance is influenced by the probability of death from extrinsic causes and the effect of somatic investment on survival. In eusocial animals, the disposable soma theory can be used to explain colonies' energy investment in the longevity of workers, who act as the somatic elements of a superorganism...
June 2018: American Naturalist
Bibhas Roy, Saradha Venkatachalapathy, Prasuna Ratna, Yejun Wang, Doorgesh Sharma Jokhun, Mallika Nagarajan, G V Shivashankar
Cells in tissues undergo transdifferentiation programs when stimulated by specific mechanical and biochemical signals. While seminal studies have demonstrated that exogenous biochemical factors can reprogram somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, the critical roles played by mechanical signals in such reprogramming process have not been well documented. In this paper, we show that laterally confined growth of fibroblasts on micropatterned substrates induces nuclear reprogramming with high efficiency in the absence of any exogenous reprogramming factors...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fei Hao, Wei Yan, Xiaocong Li, Hui Wang, Yingmin Wang, Xiao Hu, Xu Liu, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
In recent years, while the use of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) (CRISPR-Cas9) system for targeted genome editing has become a research hotspot, it has, to date, not proved adequate for genome editing in large mammals, such as goats. In this study, two opposite single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) were designed for complete EDAR gene targeting in Cashmere goats, and co-transfected with a plasmid encoding Cas9 into goat fibroblasts. Among the 89 cell lines obtained through the cultivation of clonal cell lines, 62 were positive for EDAR gene targeting...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Jamil Ahmad, Muhammad Muzammal Adeel, Akhtar Rasool Asif, Xiaoyong Du
The rapid evolution of reproductive proteins might be driven by positive Darwinian selection. The bone morphogenetic protein family is the largest within the transforming growth factor (TGF) superfamily. A little have been known about the molecular evolution of bone morphogenetic proteins exhibiting potential role in mammalian reproduction. In this study we investigated mammalian bone morphogenetic proteins using maximum likelihood approaches of codon substitutions to identify positive Darwinian selection in various species...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Nadine M Aziz, Faycal Guedj, Jeroen L A Pennings, Jose Luis Olmos-Serrano, Ashley Siegel, Tarik F Haydar, Diana W Bianchi
Down syndrome (DS) results from triplication of human chromosome 21. Neuropathological hallmarks of DS include atypical central nervous system development that manifests prenatally and extends throughout life. As a result, individuals with DS exhibit cognitive and motor deficits and have delays in achieving developmental milestones. To determine whether different mouse models of DS recapitulate the human prenatal and postnatal phenotypes, here we directly compared brain histogenesis, gene expression, and behavior over the lifespan of three cytogenetically distinct mouse models of DS: Ts1Cje, Ts65Dn and Dp(16)1/Yey...
April 30, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Yeo-Jin Son, Seung-Eun Lee, Yun-Gwi Park, Sang-Gi Jeong, Min-Young Shin, Eun-Young Kim, Se-Pill Park
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is required for the generation of transgenic animals as disease models. During the in vitro development of SCNT embryos, the quality of matured oocytes is one of the major factors regulating the developmental potential of embryos. Time-lapse monitoring systems are new tools that assess the developmental capacity of embryos for use in embryo transfer. In this study, we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF 10) on the developmental potential of SCNT embryos...
April 30, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Véronique Bernier Gosselin, Jessica Lovstad, Simon Dufour, Pamela R F Adkins, John R Middleton
The most common pathogens causing intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy goats are staphylococci. Gene sequencing has been the reference method for identification of staphylococcal species, but MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry could represent a rapid and cost-effective alternative method. The objectives were to evaluate the typeability and accuracy of partial gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF for identifying staphylococci isolated from caprine milk samples, and to evaluate the relationship between staphylococcal species IMI, milk somatic cell score (SCS), and milk yield (MY)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jaume Baguñà
Scientific fields grow by accretion of knowledge brought up by succesive generations of scientists. With the field of planarian regeneration as a general background, here I give a personal account of it from the late 1960s until the late 1990s when new research groups, namely Americans, broke into it. After a short historical summary, I report how I got into regeneration, why I choose planarians, and most especially the finding and description of the current model organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Next, I concentrate on the quantitative cellular approaches to regeneration, growth, and degrowth undertaken in our lab in Barcelona, and the long struggle to set neoblasts as a totipotent/pluripotent heterogeneous population of mitotic and non-mitotic cells for homeostatic somatic cell renewal, reproduction, and blastema formation during regeneration...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Erlend I F Fossen, Christophe Pélabon, Sigurd Einum
Theoretical models on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity predict a zone of canalization where reaction norms cross and genetic variation is minimized in the environment a population most frequently encounter. Empirical tests of this prediction are largely missing, in particular for life-history traits. We addressed this prediction by quantifying thermal reaction norms of three life-history traits (somatic growth rate, age and size at maturation) of a Norwegian population of Daphnia magna and testing for the occurrence of an intermediate temperature (Tm ) at which genetic variance in the traits is minimized...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Eryn E Dixon, Owen M Woodward
Novel technologies, new understanding of the basement membrane composition, and better comprehension of the embryonic development of the mammalian kidney have led to explosive growth in the use of three dimensional (3D) in vitro models to study a range of human disease pathologies(6, 35). The development of these effective model systems represents a new tool to study the progressive cystogenesis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD is a prevalent and complex monogenetic disease, characterized by the pathological formation of fluid fill cysts in renal tissue(17, 40)...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Evgeny V Esin, Grigorii N Markevich, Michail Yu Pichugin
Identifying the mechanisms initiating sympatric diversification in vertebrates has remained a conceptual challenge. Here we analyze an assemblage of sympatric charr (Salvelinus malma) morphs from landlocked Lake Kronotskoe basin as a model to uncover the divergence pathways in freshwater fishes during the early life history stages. All morphs have distinct developmental biology, but a similar developmental rate retardation compared to the ancestor. Our study reveals that adult morphological differences, which acquire functionality at maturation, originate in the early juvenile stages due to heterochrony in skeletogenesis and allometric changes triggered by variation in metabolic activity...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Joao Filipe Fernandes, James M Hammel, Jia Zhou, Yunbin Xiao, Manuela Chen, Rita Alves, John Lof, Stuart M Grieve, Andreas Schuster, Titus Kuehne, Shelby Kutty
OBJECTIVE: We investigated a full energetic profile of pressure and volume loaded right ventricle (RV) in porcine models by evaluating kinetic energy (KE), stroke power, power output and power loss across pulmonary valves with stenosis (PS) or with regurgitation (PR). METHODS: Fifteen pigs (6 PS and 6 PR, 3 unoperated controls) were studied. Phase-contrast 4D-flow MRI was performed in models of PS and PR at baseline and at 10-12 weeks, in conjunction with cardiac catheterization...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Ling Chen, Ellen Bennett, Amanda J Wheeler, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods, Fay Johnston, Graeme R Zosky
BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to particulate matter (PM) from a range of sources is associated with adverse post-natal health; however, the effect of maternal exposure to community-sampled PM on early post-natal lung and immune development is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using a mouse model, we aimed to determine whether in utero exposure to PM alters early post-natal lung function and immune cell populations. We used PM collected from ceiling voids in suburban houses as a proxy for community PM exposure...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Research
Floris P Barthel, Pieter Wesseling, Roel G W Verhaak
At the time of their clinical manifestation, the heterogeneous group of adult and pediatric gliomas carries a wide range of diverse somatic genomic alterations, ranging from somatic single-nucleotide variants to structural chromosomal rearrangements. Somatic abnormalities may have functional consequences, such as a decrease, increase or change in mRNA transcripts, and cells pay a penalty for maintaining them. These abnormalities, therefore, must provide cells with a competitive advantage to become engrained into the glioma genome...
April 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Kateryna Pierzynowska, Jose Valverde-Piedra, Sylwia Szymanczyk, Olena Prykhod'ko, Marek Pieszka, Marek Kardas, Elżbieta Grochowska-Niedworok, Tomasz Grabowski, Mateusz Winiarczyk, Stefan Pierzynowski
Introduction: The standard therapy for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is porcine-derived pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT). In the present study we tested a new approach with a mixture of pancreatic-like enzymes of microbial origin (PLEM) in a 1-week efficacy study in EPI pigs. In addition to the conventionally used coefficient of fat and nitrogen absorption (CFA and CNA), parameters that more accurately reflect the nutritional and health status, such as changes in the lipemic index (LI), plasma triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels, and somatic growth, were determined...
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Mantang Qiu, Wenjia Xia, Rui Chen, Siwei Wang, Youtao Xu, Zhifei Ma, Weizhang Xu, Erbao Zhang, Jie Wang, Tian Fang, Jingwen Hu, Gaochao Dong, Rong Yin, Jun Wang, Lin Xu
Somatic copy-number variations (CNV) may drive cancer progression through both coding and noncoding transcripts. However, noncoding transcripts resulting from CNV are largely unknown, especially for circular RNAs. By integrating bioinformatics analyses of alerted circRNAs and focal CNV in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), we identify a proto-oncogenic circular RNA (circPRKCI) from the 3q26.2 amplicon, one of the most frequent genomic aberrations in multiple cancers. circPRKCI was overexpressed in LAC tissues, in part due to amplification of the 3q26...
March 27, 2018: Cancer Research
J Robert Britton, Ana Ruiz-Navarro, Hugo Verreycken, Fatima Amat-Trigo
Invasive species can cause substantial ecological impacts on native biodiversity. While ecological theory attempts to explain the processes involved in the trophic integration of invaders into native food webs and their competitive impacts on resident species, results are equivocal. In addition, quantifying the relative strength of impacts from non-native species (interspecific competition) versus the release of native conspecifics (intraspecific competition) is important but rarely completed.Two model non-native fishes, the globally invasive Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus , and the model native fish Tinca tinca , were used in a pond experiment to test how increased intra- and interspecific competition influenced trophic niches and somatic growth rates...
February 2018: Functional Ecology
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