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Modelling somatic growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330447/human-placental-derived-adherent-stromal-cells-co-induced-with-tnf-%C3%AE-and-ifn-%C3%AE-inhibit-triple-negative-breast-cancer-in-nude-mouse-xenograft-models
#1
Hoshea Allen, Niva Shraga-Heled, Michal Blumenfeld, Tamar Dego-Ashto, Dana Fuchs-Telem, Ariel Gilert, Zami Aberman, Racheli Ofir
Culturing 3D-expanded human placental-derived adherent stromal cells (ASCs) in the presence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) transiently upregulated the secretion of numerous anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In a 3D-spheroid screening assay, conditioned medium from these induced-ASCs inhibited proliferation of cancer cell lines, including triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lines. In vitro co-culture studies of induced-ASCs with MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells, a model representing TNBC, supports a mechanism involving immunomodulation and angiogenesis inhibition...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328449/bioinformatics-analysis-to-screen-key-genes-implicated-in-the-differentiation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-hepatocytes
#2
Rui Lin, Yufeng Wang, Kun Ji, Zhongyan Liu, Shuai Xiao, Dehua Zhou, Quanning Chen, Baomin Shi
Due to the lack of potential organs, hepatocellular transplantation has been considered for treating end-stage liver disease. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reverted from somatic cells and are able to differentiate into hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying iPSC differentiation to hepatocytes. GSE66076 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus; this database includes data from 3 undifferentiated (T0), 3 definitive endoderm (T5), and 3 early hepatocyte (T24) samples across hepatic‑directed differentiation of iPSCs...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313303/ecologically-relevant-exposure-to-methylmercury-during-early-development-does-not-affect-adult-phenotype-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#3
Spencer A M Morran, John E Elliott, Jessica M L Young, Margaret L Eng, Niladri Basu, Tony D Williams
Methylmercury causes behavioural and reproductive effects in adult mammals via early developmental exposure. Similar studies in birds are limited and mostly focussed on aquatic systems, but recent work has reported high blood mercury concentrations in terrestrial, passerine songbirds. We used the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) as a model to explore the long-term effects of early developmental exposure to methylmercury exposure. Chicks were dosed orally with either the vehicle control, 0.0315 µg Hg/g bw/day, or 0...
January 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311328/modeling-lethal-x-linked-genetic-disorders-in-pigs-with-ensured-fertility
#4
Hitomi Matsunari, Masahito Watanabe, Kazuaki Nakano, Shin Enosawa, Kazuhiro Umeyama, Ayuko Uchikura, Sayaka Yashima, Toru Fukuda, Nikolai Klymiuk, Mayuko Kurome, Barbara Kessler, Annegret Wuensch, Valeri Zakhartchenko, Eckhard Wolf, Yutaka Hanazono, Masaki Nagaya, Akihiro Umezawa, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Hiroshi Nagashima
Genetically engineered pigs play an indispensable role in the study of rare monogenic diseases. Pigs harboring a gene responsible for a specific disease can be efficiently generated via somatic cell cloning. The generation of somatic cell-cloned pigs from male cells with mutation(s) in an X chromosomal gene is a reliable and straightforward method for reproducing X-linked genetic diseases (XLGDs) in pigs. However, the severe symptoms of XLGDs are often accompanied by impaired growth and reproductive disorders, which hinder the reproduction of these valuable model animals...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305415/histone-modifier-gene-mutations-in-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-not-otherwise-specified
#5
Meng-Meng Ji, Yao-Hui Huang, Jin-Yan Huang, Zhao-Fu Wang, Di Fu, Han Liu, Feng Liu, Christophe Leboeuf, Li Wang, Jing Ye, Yi-Ming Lu, Anne Janin, Shu Cheng, Wei-Li Zhao
Due to heterogeneous morphological and immunophenotypic features, approximately 50% of peripheral T-cell lymphomas are unclassifiable and categorized as peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified, presenting aggressive disease course and poor clinical outcome. Identification of actionable biomarkers is urgently needed to develop better therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic alterations play a crucial role in tumor progression. Histone modifications, particularly methylation and acetylation, are generally involved in chromatin state regulation...
January 5, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300391/use-of-a-three-layer-gradient-system-of-cells-for-rat-testicular-organoid-generation
#6
João Pedro Alves-Lopes, Olle Söder, Jan-Bernd Stukenborg
We have recently developed a 3D culture system that allows the reorganization of rat primary testicular cells into organoids with a functional blood-testis barrier, as well as the establishment and maintenance of germ cells. The innovative aspect of our model, the three-layer gradient system (3-LGS), comprises cells combined with Matrigel placed between two layers of Matrigel without cells, which creates a gradient of cells and allows the reorganization of testicular cells into organized structures after 5-7 d in culture...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299323/a-transcriptional-view-on-somatic-embryogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Anneke Horstman, Marian Bemer, Kim Boutilier
Somatic embryogenesis is a form of induced plant cell totipotency where embryos develop from somatic or vegetative cells in the absence of fertilization. Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in vitro by exposing explants to stress or growth regulator treatments. Molecular genetics studies have also shown that ectopic expression of specific embryo- and meristem-expressed transcription factors or loss of certain chromatin-modifying proteins induces spontaneous somatic embryogenesis. We begin this review with a general description of the major developmental events that define plant somatic embryogenesis and then focus on the transcriptional regulation of this process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis)...
August 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244172/human-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-need-of-a-stepwise-differentiation-protocol
#8
C Rombaut, H Mertes, B Heindryckx, E Goossens
Recently, complete in-vitro generation of male gametes starting from pluripotent stem cells was obtained in a mouse model with live offspring as a result. This breakthrough was probably due to the use of a stepwise differentiation protocol taking the tightly regulated in-vivo situation into account. As shown previously, factors of the TGFβ superfamily, metabolites of vitamin A, growth hormones, sex steroids and, most importantly, somatic cell support are major regulators of the development, survival, proliferation and differentiation of male gametes...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229621/stem-cell-therapy-for-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Evangelos K Oikonomou, Demetrios Moris, Dimitrios Schizas, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Konstantinos S Mylonas
BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) constitutes the most prevalent and heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies. Although surgery remains the gold standard treatment modality, stem cell therapy has been gaining ground as a complimentary or alternative treatment option in certain types of CHD. The aim of this study was to present the existing published evidence and ongoing research efforts on the implementation of stem cell-based therapeutic strategies in CHD. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, ClinicalTrials...
December 12, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228717/somatic-prdm2-c-4467dela-mutations-in-colorectal-cancers-control-histone-methylation-and-tumor-growth
#10
Tatjana Pandzic, Veronica Rendo, Jinyeong Lim, Chatarina Larsson, Jimmy Larsson, Ivaylo Stoimenov, Snehangshu Kundu, Muhammad Akhtar Ali, Mats Hellström, Liqun He, Anders M Lindroth, Tobias Sjöblom
The chromatin modifier PRDM2/RIZ1 is inactivated by mutation in several forms of cancer and is a putative tumor suppressor gene. Frameshift mutations in the C-terminal region of PRDM2, affecting (A)8 or (A)9 repeats within exon 8, are found in one third of colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability, but the contribution of these mutations to colorectal tumorigenesis is unknown. To model somatic mutations in microsatellite unstable tumors, we devised a general approach to perform genome editing while stabilizing the mutated nucleotide repeat...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222603/adequacy-of-planctomycetes-as-supplementary-food-source-for-daphnia-magna
#11
M C Marinho, O M Lage, José Catita, S C Antunes
The nutritional quality of daphnids diet can influence their growth, reproduction and survival. In aquatic ecosystems, bacteria can contribute significantly to Daphnia diet by supporting, for instances, their high needs for phosphorus. The laboratory feeding of the model organisms Daphnia spp. is algal based, but should be improved to allow their better performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two planctomycetes, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Rhodopirellula rubra, from exponential and stationary growth phases as alternative or supplementary food source for Daphnia magna...
December 8, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209536/activating-her2-mutations-as-emerging-targets-in-multiple-solid-cancers
#12
REVIEW
Claire M Connell, Gary J Doherty
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases activates signalling pathways regulating cellular proliferation and survival. HER2 is a non-ligand-binding member of this family and exerts its activity through heterodimerisation with other EGFR family members. HER2 functional activation promotes oncogenesis, leading to the investigation of HER2-directed agents in cancers with HER2 alterations. This has been best characterised in the context of HER2 gene amplification in breast and gastro-oesophageal cancers, for which HER2-directed drugs form part of standard treatment regimens...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204736/effect-of-bacterial-lipopolysaccharides-on-morphogenetic-activity-in-wheat-somatic-calluses
#13
Nina V Evseeva, Oksana V Tkachenko, Gennady L Burygin, Larisa Yu Matora, Yuriy V Lobachev, Sergei Yu Shchyogolev
We evaluated the effect of lipopolysaccharides from the plant-growth-promoting associative bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and from the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli K12 on the morphogenic potential of in vitro-growing somatic calluses of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29). A genetic model was used that included two near-isogenic lines of T. aestivum L. cv. Saratovskaya 29 with different embryogenic capacities; one of these lines carries the Rht-B1 dwarfing gene, whereas the other lacks it...
December 4, 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183573/age-dependent-physiological-dynamics-in-acid-base-balance-electrolytes-and-blood-metabolites-in-growing-goats
#14
S Redlberger, S Fischer, H Köhler, R Diller, P Reinhold
There is a paucity of published data reporting acid-base equilibrium in goats, and no information is available on how the acid-base complexity changes when suckling goat kids become ruminants. The aims of this study were to evaluate young healthy goats for age-related changes in serum proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes; differences in results when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or strong ion approaches were used were also assessed. To assess biological variability and reproducibility, two consecutive long-term studies, each lasting from the 6th to 56th week of life (wl), were performed in 15 (Study 1) and 10 (Study 2) animals...
November 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182973/diet-specific-trophic-transfer-of-mercury-in-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-biodynamic-perspective
#15
Rui Wang, Wen-Xiong Wang
This study tested the hypothesis that different diets could modulate mercury (Hg) trophic transfer by concurrently altering the transfer of energy (in terms of growth) and transfer of Hg (in terms of biodynamic process). Firstly, we conducted a 40-d laboratory bioaccumulation experiment, in which tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was exposed to inorganic mercury (Hg[II]) and methylmercury (MeHg) via feeding on three distinct diets (macrophyte, freshwater shrimp, and commercial pellets) at a fixed ingestion rate of 0...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179445/adamts16-mutations-sensitize-ovarian-cancer-cells-to-platinum-based-chemotherapy
#16
Maya Yasukawa, Yuexin Liu, Limei Hu, David Cogdell, Kshipra M Gharpure, Sunila Pradeep, Archana S Nagaraja, Anil K Sood, Wei Zhang
Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant tumors in women. The prognosis of ovarian cancer patients depends, in part, on their response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Our recent analysis of genomics and clinical data from the Cancer Genome Atlas demonstrated that somatic mutations of ADAMTS 1, 6, 8, 9, 15, 16, 18 and L1 genes were associated with higher sensitivity to platinum and longer progression-free survival, overall survival, and platinum-free survival duration in 512 patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma...
October 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151865/effect-of-cell-cycle-duration-on-somatic-evolutionary-dynamics
#17
Dominik Wodarz, Ajay Goel, Natalia L Komarova
Cellular checkpoints prevent damage and mutation accumulation in tissue cells. DNA repair is one mechanism that can be triggered by checkpoints and involves temporary cell cycle arrest and thus delayed reproduction. Repair-deficient cells avoid this delay, which has been argued to lead to a selective advantage in the presence of frequent damage. We investigate this hypothesis with stochastic modeling, using mathematical analysis and agent-based computations. We first model competition between two cell types: a cell population that enters temporary cell cycle arrest, corresponding to repair (referred to as arresting cells), and one that does not enter arrest (referred to as nonarresting cells)...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145629/the-reactome-pathway-knowledgebase
#18
Antonio Fabregat, Steven Jupe, Lisa Matthews, Konstantinos Sidiropoulos, Marc Gillespie, Phani Garapati, Robin Haw, Bijay Jassal, Florian Korninger, Bruce May, Marija Milacic, Corina Duenas Roca, Karen Rothfels, Cristoffer Sevilla, Veronica Shamovsky, Solomon Shorser, Thawfeek Varusai, Guilherme Viteri, Joel Weiser, Guanming Wu, Lincoln Stein, Henning Hermjakob, Peter D'Eustachio
The Reactome Knowledgebase (https://reactome.org) provides molecular details of signal transduction, transport, DNA replication, metabolism, and other cellular processes as an ordered network of molecular transformations-an extended version of a classic metabolic map, in a single consistent data model. Reactome functions both as an archive of biological processes and as a tool for discovering unexpected functional relationships in data such as gene expression profiles or somatic mutation catalogues from tumor cells...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131079/are-inflammatory-cytokines-associated-with-pain-during-acute-myocardial-infarction
#19
Laurin Imholz, Rebecca E Meister-Langraf, Mary Princip, Michaela Fux, Ulrich Schnyder, Jürgen Barth, Hansjörg Znoj, Jean-Paul Schmid, Roland von Känel
OBJECTIVE: Pain and inflammation during acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder and may also impact negatively on somatic outcome. We investigated the relationship between pain during AMI and levels of circulating proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-33 and tissue growth factor [TGF]-β1) cytokines. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Myocardial Infarction - Stress Prevention Intervention (MI-SPRINT) study...
2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107533/h3-3-k27m-cooperates-with-trp53-loss-and-pdgfra-gain-in-mouse-embryonic-neural-progenitor-cells-to-induce-invasive-high-grade-gliomas
#20
Manav Pathania, Nicolas De Jay, Nicola Maestro, Ashot S Harutyunyan, Justyna Nitarska, Pirasteh Pahlavan, Stephen Henderson, Leonie G Mikael, Angela Richard-Londt, Ying Zhang, Joana R Costa, Steven Hébert, Sima Khazaei, Nisreen Samir Ibrahim, Javier Herrero, Antonella Riccio, Steffen Albrecht, Robin Ketteler, Sebastian Brandner, Claudia L Kleinman, Nada Jabado, Paolo Salomoni
Gain-of-function mutations in histone 3 (H3) variants are found in a substantial proportion of pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), often in association with TP53 loss and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) amplification. Here, we describe a somatic mouse model wherein H3.3(K27M) and Trp53 loss alone are sufficient for neoplastic transformation if introduced in utero. H3.3(K27M)-driven lesions are clonal, H3K27me3 depleted, Olig2 positive, highly proliferative, and diffusely spreading, thus recapitulating hallmark molecular and histopathological features of pHGG...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Cell
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