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Modelling somatic growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087716/the-piggybac-transposon-derived-genes-tpb1-and-tpb6-mediate-essential-transposon-like-excision-during-the-developmental-rearrangement-of-key-genes-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#1
Chao-Yin Cheng, Janet M Young, Chih-Yi Gabriela Lin, Ju-Lan Chao, Harmit S Malik, Meng-Chao Yao
Ciliated protozoans perform extreme forms of programmed somatic DNA rearrangement during development. The model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila removes 34% of its germline micronuclear genome from somatic macronuclei by excising thousands of internal eliminated sequences (IESs), a process that shares features with transposon excision. Indeed, piggyBac transposon-derived genes are necessary for genome-wide IES excision in both Tetrahymena (TPB2 [Tetrahymena piggyBac-like 2] and LIA5) and Paramecium tetraurelia (PiggyMac)...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074003/dna-polymerase-beta-germline-variant-confers-cellular-response-to-cisplatin-therapy
#2
Antonia A Nemec, Laura Abriola, Jane S Merkel, Elisa deStanchina, Michelle DeVeaux, Daniel Zelterman, Peter M Glazer, Joann B Sweasy
: Resistance to cancer chemotherapies leads to deadly consequences, yet current research focuses only on the roles of somatically acquired mutations in this resistance. The mutational status of the germline is also likely to play a role in the way cells respond to chemotherapy. The carrier status for the POLB rs3136797 germline mutation encoding P242R DNA polymerase beta (Pol β) is associated with poor prognosis for lung cancer, specifically in response to treatment with cisplatin. Here, it is revealed that the P242R mutation is sufficient to promote resistance to cisplatin in human cells and in mouse xenografts...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070867/analytical-modeling-for-computing-lead-stress-in-a-novel-epicardial-micropacemaker
#3
Li Zhou, Yaniv Bar-Cohen, Raymond A Peck, Giorgio V Chirikian, Brett Harwin, Ramen H Chmait, Jay D Pruetz, Michael J Silka, Gerald E Loeb
Implantation and maintenance of a permanent cardiac pacing system in children remains challenging due to small patient size, congenital heart defects and somatic growth. We are developing a novel epicardial micropacemaker for children that can be implanted on the epicardium within the pericardial space via a minimally-invasive technique. The key design configurations include a novel open-coiled lead in which living tissue replaces the usual polymeric support for the coiled conductor. To better understand and be able to predict the behavior of the implanted lead, we performed a radiographic image-based modeling study on a chronic animal test...
January 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053272/trans-generational-function-of-tetrahymena-piwi-protein-twi8p-at-distinctive-non-coding-rna-loci
#4
Brian M Farley, Kathleen Collins
Trans-generational transmission of genome-regulatory epigenetic information can determine phenotypes in the progeny of sexual reproduction. Sequence specificity of trans-generational regulation derives from small RNAs assembled into Piwi-protein complexes. Known targets of trans-generational regulation are primarily transposons and transposon-derived sequences. Here, we extend the scope of Piwi-mediated trans-generational regulation to include unique non-coding RNA loci. Ciliates such as Tetrahymena have a phenotypically silent germline micronucleus and an expressed somatic macronucleus, which is differentiated anew from a germline genome copy in sexual reproduction...
January 4, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011715/generation-of-hoxc13-knockout-pigs-recapitulates-human-ectodermal-dysplasia-9
#5
Kai Han, Liuping Liang, Li Li, Zhen Ouyang, Bentian Zhao, Qi Wang, Zhaoming Liu, Yu Zhao, Xiaoshuai Ren, Fei Jiang, Chengdan Lai, Kepin Wang, Sen Yan, Liang Huang, Lin Guo, Kang Zeng, Liangxue Lai, Nana Fan
Atrichia and sparse hair phenotype cause distress to many patients. Ectodermal dysplasia-9 (ED-9) is a congenital condition characterized by hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy without other disorders, and Hoxc13 is a pathogenic gene for ED-9. However, mice carrying Hoxc13 mutation present several other serious disorders, such as skeletal defects, progressive weight loss and low viability. Mouse models cannot faithfully mimic human ED-9. In this study, we generated an ED-9 pig model via Hoxc13 gene knockout through single-stranded oligonucleotides (c...
December 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009305/probabilistic-modeling-of-reprogramming-to-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#6
Lin L Liu, Justin Brumbaugh, Ori Bar-Nur, Zachary Smith, Matthias Stadtfeld, Alexander Meissner, Konrad Hochedlinger, Franziska Michor
Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is typically an inefficient and asynchronous process. A variety of technological efforts have been made to accelerate and/or synchronize this process. To define a unified framework to study and compare the dynamics of reprogramming under different conditions, we developed an in silico analysis platform based on mathematical modeling. Our approach takes into account the variability in experimental results stemming from probabilistic growth and death of cells and potentially heterogeneous reprogramming rates...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998972/looking-beyond-drivers-and-passengers-in-cancer-genome-sequencing-data
#7
REVIEW
S De, S Ganesan
Cancer arises as a result of acquired changes in the DNA sequence of the genome of somatic cells. A subset of the genetic changes, dubbed driver mutations, propels tumor growth, and the remaining changes are passengers, apparently inconsequential for neoplastic transformation. Massive genome sequencing of thousands of tumors from all major cancer types has enabled cataloging of the so-called driver and passenger mutations, and facilitated molecular classification of cancer, guiding precision medicine approach for the patients...
December 20, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973729/accurate-estimates-of-age-at-maturity-from-the-growth-trajectories-of-fishes-and-other-ectotherms
#8
Andrew E Honsey, David F Staples, Paul A Venturelli
Age at maturity (AAM) is a key life history trait that provides insight into ecology, evolution, and population dynamics. However, maturity data can be costly to collect or may not be available. Life history theory suggests that growth is biphasic for many organisms, with a change-point in growth occurring at maturity. If so, then it should be possible to use a biphasic growth model to estimate AAM from growth data. To test this prediction, we used the Lester biphasic growth model in a likelihood profiling framework to estimate AAM from length at age data...
August 26, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940616/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#9
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935819/a-novel-brain-tumour-model-in-zebrafish-reveals-the-role-of-yap-activation-in-mapk-pi3k-induced-malignant-growth
#10
Marie Mayrhofer, Victor Gourain, Markus Reischl, Pierre Affaticati, Arnim Jenett, Jean-Stephane Joly, Matteo Benelli, Francesca Demichelis, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Dirk Sieger, Marina Mione
Somatic mutations activating MAPK/PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumour based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK/PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells. HRAS(V12) was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho‑(p)ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component...
November 24, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935184/impaired-ecosystem-process-despite-little-effects-on-populations-modeling-combined-effects-of-warming-and-toxicants
#11
Nika Galic, Volker Grimm, Valery E Forbes
Freshwater ecosystems are exposed to many stressors, including toxic chemicals and global warming, which can impair, separately or in combination, important processes in organisms and hence higher levels of organization. Investigating combined effects of warming and toxicants has been a topic of little research, but neglecting their combined effects may seriously misguide management efforts. To explore how toxic chemicals and warming, alone and in combination, propagate across levels of biological organization, including a key ecosystem process, we developed an individual-based model (IBM) of a freshwater amphipod detritivore, Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, feeding on leaf litter...
December 9, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910069/lkb1-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-uterine-cancer-mouse-models-and-translational-studies
#12
Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillón
The LKB1 tumor suppressor was identified in 1998 as the gene mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), a hereditary cancer predisposition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and a high incidence of cancers, particularly carcinomas, at a variety of anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and female reproductive tract. Women with PJS have a high incidence of carcinomas of the uterine corpus (endometrium) and cervix. The LKB1 gene is also somatically mutated in human cancers arising at these sites...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873321/life-history-traits-of-the-long-nosed-skate-dipturus-oxyrinchus
#13
A Bellodi, C Porcu, R Cannas, Al Cau, M F Marongiu, A Mulas, S Vittori, M C Follesa
This work investigates life-history traits of the long-nosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus, which is a common by-catch in Sardinian waters. The reproductive variables were analysed from 979 specimens sampled during scientific and commercial hauls. Females (10·4-117·5 cm total length, LT ) attained larger sizes than males (14·5-99·5 cm LT ). To evaluate age and growth, a sub-sample of 130 individuals (76 females and 54 males) were used. The age was estimated by annuli counts of sectioned vertebral centra...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843891/establishment-and-maintenance-of-the-human-na%C3%A3-ve-cd4-t-cell-compartment
#14
REVIEW
Susana L Silva, Ana E Sousa
The naïve CD4(+) T-cell compartment is considered essential to guarantee immune competence throughout life. Its replenishment with naïve cells with broad diverse receptor repertoire, albeit with reduced self-reactivity, is ensured by the thymus. Nevertheless, cumulative data support a major requirement of post-thymic proliferation both for the establishment of the human peripheral naïve compartment during the accelerated somatic growth of childhood, as well as for its lifelong maintenance. Additionally, a dynamic equilibrium is operating at the cell level to fine-tune the T-cell receptor threshold to activation and survival cues, in order to counteract the continuous naïve cell loss by death or conversion into memory/effector cells...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832915/can-stopping-nerves-stop-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Jami L Saloman, Kathryn M Albers, Andrew D Rhim, Brian M Davis
The nervous system is viewed as a tissue affected by cancer and as a conduit for the transmission of cancer pain and perineural invasion. Here, we review recent studies that indicate a more direct role. Several studies have shown that reducing stress or suppressing sympathetic drive correlates with improved outcomes and prolonged survival. Recent studies using animal models of visceral and somatic cancer further support a role for the nervous system in cancer progression. Specifically, nerve ablation had a profound impact on disease progression, including delayed development of precancerous lesions, and decreased tumor growth and metastasis...
December 2016: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810487/triclosan-exposure-results-in-alterations-of-thyroid-hormone-status-and-retarded-early-development-and-metamorphosis-in-cyprinodon-variegatus
#16
Joseph G Schnitzler, Bruno Frédérich, Mélanie Dussenne, Peter H M Klaren, Frédéric Silvestre, Krishna Das
Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds...
December 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797914/oocyte-somatic-cell-interactions-in-the-human-ovary-novel-role-of-bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-growth-differentiation-factors
#17
REVIEW
Hsun-Ming Chang, Jie Qiao, Peter C K Leung
BACKGROUND: Initially identified for their capability to induce heterotopic bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional growth factors that belong to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. Using cellular and molecular genetic approaches, recent studies have implicated intra-ovarian BMPs as potent regulators of ovarian follicular function. The bi-directional communication of oocytes and the surrounding somatic cells is mandatory for normal follicle development and oocyte maturation...
December 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790870/critical-roles-of-cyclin-d1-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblast-cell-reprogramming
#18
Hye-Rim Oh, Junghoon Kim, Jungho Kim
Although pluripotent stem cells hold great promise in the fields of human disease modeling and regenerative medicine, the molecular basis of Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM)-induced cellular reprogramming remains unclear. To investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in cellular reprogramming, we studied the immediate effects of expression of the OSKM reprogramming factors on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in this study. Induction of the OSKM reprogramming factors significantly altered primary MEF growth properties...
December 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780883/human-umbilical-perivascular-cells-a-novel-source-of-mscs-to-support-testicular-niche-regeneration
#19
Leila Maghen, Ekaterina Shlush, Itai Gat, Melissa Filice, Tanya Barretto, Keith Jarvi, Kirk Lo, Andree S Gauthier-Fisher, Clifford L Librach
The expansion of functional testicular biopsy-derived human spermatogonial stem cells (hSSC) ex-vivo may enable the restoration of fertility in pre-pubertal males having undergone gonadotoxic therapies or men with severe male factor infertility. Various somatic cells are known to regulate SSC homeostasis and spermatogenesis in the developing and adult testis. Prior attempts to recapitulate this niche demonstrated the requirement of feeder cells, such as endogenous testicular somatic cells, for germ cell expansion ex-vivo...
October 25, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774607/erythrocytosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-portends-poor-prognosis-by-respiratory-dysfunction-secondary-to-mitochondrial-dna-mutations
#20
Shizhong Ke, Shuzhen Chen, Zihui Dong, Christopher S Hong, Qi Zhang, Liang Tang, Pinghua Yang, Jian Zhai, Hexin Yan, Feng Shen, Zhengping Zhuang, Wen Wen, Hongyang Wang
: Erythrocytosis is a common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Although increased erythropoietin (EPO) is found in these patients, the clinical significance and molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are unclear. We demonstrate an inverse relationship between EPO production and overall prognosis in our cohort of 664 patients as well as in data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. In the subset of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with erythrocytosis, we identified somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA, resulting in impairment of respiratory metabolism, which sequentially led to depletion of α-ketoglutarate, stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-α, and expression of target genes such as EPO...
January 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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