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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#1
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103937/an-intracellular-pathogen-response-pathway-promotes-proteostasis-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans
#2
Kirthi C Reddy, Tal Dror, Jessica N Sowa, Johan Panek, Kevin Chen, Efrem S Lim, David Wang, Emily R Troemel
Maintenance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is crucial for organismal health. Disruption of proteostasis can lead to the accumulation of protein aggregates, which are associated with aging and many human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease [1-3]. Through analysis of the C. elegans host response to intracellular infection, we describe here a novel response pathway that enhances proteostasis capacity and appears to act in parallel to well-studied proteostasis pathways. These findings are based on analysis of the transcriptional response to infection by the intracellular pathogen Nematocida parisii [4]...
October 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017172/the-emerging-roles-of-cib1-in-cancer
#3
Xianwang Wang, Xiaochun Peng, Xueqing Zhang, Hanyi Xu, Chengbiao Lu, Lian Liu, Jiaxing Song, Yingjie Zhang
Calcium and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1) is an EF-hand calcium binding protein, which is involved in many cellular processes, including calcium signaling, cell survival and proliferation, cell migration, cell adhesion and apoptosis. A number of studies have found that CIB1 is ubiquitously expressed and is related to various human diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiac hypertrophy and male infertility. The mechanism of CIB1 in human diseases is still not clear, although multiple functions of CIB1 are modulated by interacting with numerous interacting partners...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984602/modulation-of-immune-responses-to%C3%A2-herpes-simplex-virus-type%C3%A2-1-by-ifnl3-and-irf7-polymorphisms-a%C3%A2-study-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Andrea Saul Costa, Simone Agostini, Franca Rosa Guerini, Roberta Mancuso, Milena Zanzottera, Enrico Ripamonti, Vittorio Racca, Raffaello Nemni, Mario Clerici
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has long been suspected to play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. IFN-lambda (IFN-λ) is one of the key cytokine in innate antiviral defenses and, in particular, has an appreciable antiviral activity against HSV-1 infection. IFN-λ expression is regulated by the interaction between two different proteins: Mediator Complex 23 (MED23) and Interferon-Responsive Transcription Factor 7 (IRF7); single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes as well as in IFNL3 were shown to be differently distributed in AD patients...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915562/detecting-the-genetic-link-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity-using-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gwas-data
#5
Qi-Shuai Zhuang, Hao Zheng, Xiao-Dan Gu, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the major form of dementia in the elderly. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicate that obesity may act as a risk factor for AD, while the genetic link between the two conditions remains unclear. This bioinformatics analysis aimed to detect the genetic link between AD and obesity on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels based on genome-wide association studies data. A total of 31 SNPs were found to be shared by AD and obesity, which were linked to 7 genes...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901441/profiling-of-differentially-expressed-genes-in-adipose-tissues-of-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis
#6
Ke Chen, Linghao Wang, Wenjun Yang, Changfa Wang, Gui Hu, Zhaohui Mo
Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is a rare disorder characterized by aberrant multiple and symmetric subcutaneous adipose tissue accumulation in the face, neck, shoulders, back, chest and abdomen, severely affecting the quality of life of patients. At present, precise MSL etiology and pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. The present study first utilized a digital gene expression technique with a next‑generation sequencing platform to profile differentially expressed genes in three cases of MSL vs. normal control tissue...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792504/common-gene-network-signature-of-different-neurological-disorders-and-their-potential-implications-to-neuroaids
#7
Vidya Sagar, S Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Paola C Martinez, V S R Atluri, M Nair
The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s) for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723664/detecting-the-genetic-link-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-obesity-using-bioinformatics-analysis-of-gwas-data
#8
Qi-Shuai Zhuang, Hao Zheng, Xiao-Dan Gu, Liang Shen, Hong-Fang Ji
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the major form of dementia in the elderly. In recent years, accumulating evidence indicate that obesity may act as a risk factor for AD, while the genetic link between the two conditions remains unclear. This bioinformatics analysis aimed to detect the genetic link between AD and obesity on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene, and pathway levels based on genome-wide association studies data. A total of 31 SNPs were found to be shared by AD and obesity, which were linked to 7 genes...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717130/polymicrobial-infections-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#9
Diana Pisa, Ruth Alonso, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Alberto Rábano, Luis Carrasco
Several studies have advanced the idea that the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be microbial in origin. In the present study, we tested the possibility that polymicrobial infections exist in tissue from the entorhinal cortex/hippocampus region of patients with AD using immunohistochemistry (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and highly sensitive (nested) PCR. We found no evidence for expression of early (ICP0) or late (ICP5) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in brain sections. A polyclonal antibody against Borrelia detected structures that appeared not related to spirochetes, but rather to fungi...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660014/apolipoprotein-e-a-multifunctional-protein-with-implications-in-various-pathologies-as-a-result-of-its-structural-features
#10
REVIEW
Irina Florina Tudorache, Violeta Georgeta Trusca, Anca Violeta Gafencu
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a 34 kDa glycoprotein, mediates hepatic and extrahepatic uptake of plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden macrophages. In humans, three structural different apoE isoforms occur, with subsequent functional changes and pathological consequences. Here, we review data supporting the involvement of apoE structural domains and isoforms in normal and altered lipid metabolism, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as stress-related pathological states...
2017: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655823/can-an-fda-approved-alzheimer-s-drug-be-repurposed-for-alleviating-neuronal-symptoms-of-zika-virus
#11
Devika Sirohi, Richard J Kuhn
Zika virus caught the world by surprise by its rapid spread and frightening disease outcomes. This major epidemic motivated many scientists to focus their attention on controlling this emerging pathogen. As many as 45 vaccine candidates are being developed, but progress in the antiviral arena has been slower. In a recent article (mBio 8:e00350-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00350-17), Costa and colleagues showed that an FDA-approved drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease may moderate Zika virus-induced neuronal damage...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642806/the-efficacy-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-green-tea-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-overview-of-pre-clinical-studies-and-translational-perspectives-in-clinical-practice
#12
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte, Maria Rosaria Muzio, Vincenzo Schiavone, Arturo Cuomo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia characterized by cognitive and memory impairment. One of the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of AD, is the oxidative stress being involved in AD's development and progression. In addition, several studies proved that chronic viral infections, mainly induced by Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2), and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could be responsible for AD's neuropathology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622343/association-of-alzhemier-s-disease-with-hepatitis-c-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#13
Herng-Ching Lin, Sudha Xirasagar, Hsin-Chien Lee, Chung-Chien Huang, Chao-Hung Chen
Associations of hepatitis C virus infection with Alzheimer's disease have not been studied among higher risk, bipolar disorder patients. This population-based case-control study investigated the risks of hepatitis C virus infection among Alzheimer's disease patients with bipolar disorder in the years preceding their Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. We used 2000-2013 data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Among patients with bipolar disorder, 73 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (cases), who were compared with 365 individuals with bipolar disorder but without Alzheimer's disease (randomly selected controls matched on sex, age, and index year with cases)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587718/%C3%AE-amyloid-precursor-protein-intracellular-domain-controls-mitochondrial-function-by-modulating-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-induced-kinase-1-transcription-in-cells-and-in-alzheimer-mice-models
#14
Thomas Goiran, Eric Duplan, Mounia Chami, Alexandre Bourgeois, Wejdane El Manaa, Lila Rouland, Julie Dunys, Inger Lauritzen, Han You, Vuk Stambolic, Maria-Grazia Biféri, Martine Barkats, Sanjay W Pimplikar, Nicolas Sergeant, Morvane Colin, Vanessa A Morais, Raphaelle Pardossi-Piquard, Frédéric Checler, Cristine Alves da Costa
BACKGROUND: Mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics alterations are two major hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases. Dysfunctional mitochondria accumulate in Alzheimer's disease-affected brains by yet unexplained mechanisms. METHODS: We combined cell biology, molecular biology, and pharmacological approaches to unravel a novel molecular pathway by which presenilins control phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced kinase 1 (Pink-1) expression and transcription. In vivo approaches were carried out on various transgenic and knockout animals as well as in adeno-associated virus-infected mice...
May 3, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482505/sirna-nanoparticle-conjugate-in-gene-silencing-a-future-cure-to-deadly-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Rituparna Acharya, Suman Saha, Sayantan Ray, Sugata Hazra, Manoj K Mitra, Jui Chakraborty
Alzheimers, cancer, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are considered to be some of the most deadly diseases of the 21st century on account of their severity and rapid increase in the number of affected population and with scarce cases of recovery, they still remain a troubling paradox. Specifically, with millions of cancer patients worldwide and lack of proper cure for the same, understanding the deadly disease at the molecular level and planning a therapeutic strategy in the same line is the need of the hour...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477284/holocranohistochemistry-enables-the-visualization-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-expression-in-the-murine-olfactory-system-and-discovery-of-its-systemic-anti-microbial-effects
#16
Julianna J Tomlinson, Bojan Shutinoski, Li Dong, Fanyi Meng, Dina Elleithy, Nathalie A Lengacher, Angela P Nguyen, Greg O Cron, Qiubo Jiang, Erik D Roberson, Robert L Nussbaum, Nour K Majbour, Omar M El-Agnaf, Steffany A Bennett, Diane C Lagace, John M Woulfe, Subash Sad, Earl G Brown, Michael G Schlossmacher
Braak and Del Tredici have proposed that typical Parkinson disease (PD) has its origins in the olfactory bulb and gastrointestinal tract. However, the role of the olfactory system has insufficiently been explored in the pathogeneses of PD and Alzheimer disease (AD) in laboratory models. Here, we demonstrate applications of a new method to process mouse heads for microscopy by sectioning, mounting, and staining whole skulls ('holocranohistochemistry'). This technique permits the visualization of the olfactory system from the nasal cavity to mitral cells and dopamine-producing interneurons of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb...
June 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476157/microglia-amplify-inflammatory-activation-of-astrocytes-in-manganese-neurotoxicity
#17
Kelly S Kirkley, Katriana A Popichak, Maryam F Afzali, Marie E Legare, Ronald B Tjalkens
BACKGROUND: As the primary immune response cell in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the microenvironment and respond rapidly to stress, infection, and injury, making them important modulators of neuroinflammatory responses. In diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-induced dementia, activation of microglia precedes astrogliosis and overt neuronal loss. Although microgliosis is implicated in manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity, the role of microglia and glial crosstalk in Mn-induced neurodegeneration is poorly understood...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294067/the-infectious-etiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Marta Sochocka, Katarzyna Zwolińska, Jerzy Leszek
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a part of the first line of defense of the body against invasive pathogens, and plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and repair. A proper inflammatory response ensures the suitable resolution of inflammation and elimination of harmful stimuli, but when the inflammatory reactions are inappropriate it can lead to damage of the surrounding normal cells. The relationship between infections and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) etiology, especially lateonset AD (LOAD) has been continuously debated over the past three decades...
2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246183/bioassays-and-inactivation-of-prions
#19
REVIEW
Kurt Giles, Amanda L Woerman, David B Berry, Stanley B Prusiner
The experimental study of prions requires a model for their propagation. However, because prions lack nucleic acids, the simple techniques used to replicate bacteria and viruses are not applicable. For much of the history of prion research, time-consuming bioassays in animals were the only option for measuring infectivity. Although cell models and other in vitro tools for the propagation of prions have been developed, they all suffer limitations, and animal bioassays remain the gold standard for measuring infectivity...
August 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208151/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-confers-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-japanese-encephalitis
#20
Sahil Kulkarni, Sandeepan Mukherjee, Anupama Pandey, Ritwik Dahake, Usha Padmanabhan, Abhay S Chowdhary
OBJECTIVE: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a debilitating disease caused by infection with the JE virus (JEV; family: Flaviviridae), which leaves neurological sequelae in survivors but more often leads to mortality. Neurodegeneration caused by inflammation is the primary pathology behind the clinical manifestation of encephalitis caused by JEV. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used in immunoprophylaxis for tuberculosis and in the adjuvant therapy of many malignancies, and has exhibited neuroprotective activities in experimental models of Parkinson and Alzheimer disease...
2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
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