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Medication addiction

Mehdi Ranjbaran, Faeze Mohammadshahi, Sorour Mani, Mahmood Karimy
Background: Tendency toward addiction is provided before drug use begins. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for addiction potential in the students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study among 305 students from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2016. We selected the students by stratified random sampling and collected the data by family and sociodemographic factors questionnaires and Addiction Potential Scale...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Sameer Shaikh, Mohammad Aljanakh, Ibrahim Khalil Al Ibrahim, Mohammad Sohail Memon
Numerous substances may have an adverse influence on the oral region by virtue of their potentially harmful effects. Dental practitioners are often the first to see these effects in the head and neck region. Knowledge of the damaging consequences of agents such as alcohol, tobacco, areca nut, medications, alcohol-containing mouthwashes, dental devices and materials can assist the practitioners in clinical decision-making and accurate diagnosis of associated lesions. More importantly, timely diagnosis and prompt reporting of such harmful effects improve the quality of care...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Abdolali Moosavyzadeh, Farzaneh Ghaffari, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Arman Zargaran, Azarakhsh Mokri, Soghrat Faghihzadeh, Mohsen Naseri
According to historical evidence, the abuse of opium has been reported all over the globe-specifically throughout Eastern nations-since the sixteenth century. Before that, opium had mostly been applied as medication. Reference has been made in traditional Persian medical literature to the method of cultivation, properties, side effects and toxicity. In sixteenth century Iran, during the reign of the Safavids, opium abuse began. It was from then that prominent Persian scholars started to think of solutions to this societal problem...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Georgia Smith, Hannah Farrimond
Amid fears about the medicalisation of old age, the high prevalence of sleeping medication use in older cohorts is a significant public health concern. Long-term use is associated with a plethora of negative effects, such as cognitive impairment and risk of addiction. However, little is known about the lived experience of older adults using sleeping medication longer term. Episodic interviews lasting approximately 90 minutes were conducted with 15 independently living adults, aged 65-88 years, who were using sedative-hypnotic or tricyclic sleeping medication for more than 11 years on average...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
Nicholas Lintzeris, Lauren A Monds, Consuelo Rivas, Stefanie Leung, Adrian Dunlop, David Newcombe, Carina Walters, Susanna Galea, Nancy White, Mark Montebello, Apo Demirkol, Nicola Swanson, Robert Ali
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Transfer from methadone to buprenorphine is problematic for many opioid-dependent patients, with limited documented evidence or practical clinical guidance, particularly for the range of methadone doses routinely prescribed for most patients (>50 mg). This study aimed to implement and evaluate recent national Australian guidelines for transferring patients from methadone to buprenorphine. DESIGN AND METHODS: A multisite prospective cohort study...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Sergey Motov, Lewis S Nelson
Hydromorphone (HM) is a potent opioid analgesic that is commonly administered in the emergency department (ED) and other acute care settings, such as medical surgical wards. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the ED administration of HM relative to other opioids. Although HM is an effective analgesic, its use has been commonly implicated in adverse drug events and medication errors. In addition, intravenous HM has potent euphoric effects that may contribute to its abuse liability. There are limited data regarding how acute parenteral administration of opioid analgesics in the setting of high rates of preexisting chronic opioid use (medical or nonmedical) may contribute to or reinforce addictive behavior, making the potential contribution of rising HM administration to subsequent prescription opioid abuse and overdose uncertain...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Caitlin V Bucher, A J Day, Maria Carvalho
Since the number of prescriptions for opioid medications have continued to rise, there have been questions about the safety of using opioids in pain management. Traditionally, opioid analgesics were reserved for a few select conditions, such as terminal illness and surgery, but currently opioids have been readily prescribed for multiple conditions. The objective of this manuscript is to clarify the current state of opioid use and to discuss alternative transdermal analgesic therapies in pain management. Transdermal compounded medications are patient-specific and customizable to include different types of drugs, in various dosage strengths, that are to be delivered simultaneously in one application...
January 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
Elena Bilevicius, Alanna Single, Lindsay A Bristow, Melody Foot, Michael Ellery, Matthew T Keough, Edward A Johnson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and gambling problems are common in young adults. Self-medication theory states that young adults with depression drink and/or gamble to escape negative emotions. Research shows that depression is a risk factor for drinking/gambling problems, but more work is needed to examine mediators underlying these associations. One potential mediator is shame. Shame is a self-directed emotion that follows a negative life event and is characterized by intense feelings of inferiority, worthlessness, and embarrassment...
February 19, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Andrzej Grzybowski, Waldemar Elikowski, Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka
RATIONALE: To analyze cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity of acute unilateral visual loss due to combined central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and cilioretinal artery occlusion (CLRAO). PATIENT CONCERNS: Among patients with retinal vein or artery occlusion hospitalized at the Department of Ophthalmology between January 2011 and August 2017, subjects with combined CRVO/CLRAO were selected. All of them underwent ophthalmologic and cardiologic examination, including fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, 12-lead electrocardiogram, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, carotid Doppler sonography, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and a panel of laboratory tests...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katherine Smith Fornili
The purpose of this column is to summarize important aspects of the racialized War on Drugs, including (a) the school-to-prison pipeline, (b) the for-profit prison system ("prison industrial complex"), (c) racialized mass incarceration, and (d) the disproportionately negative impact of the War on Drugs on families and communities of color. Analysis of critical race theory (CRT), the study of the relationships between race, racism, and power, will provide a cohesive framework for examining these four aspects...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Mark Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Treatment guidelines discourage long-term opioid treatment for patients with chronic pain and major depression, but this treatment occurs commonly, producing higher daily doses, longer duration, and more adverse events. METHODS: Review of prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, and other observational studies of the relation between depression and opioid use, abuse, and addiction. RESULTS: Depressed patients initiate opioid therapy slightly more often than non-depressed patients, but are twice as likely to transition to long-term use...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
Teresa A Rummans, M Caroline Burton, Nancy L Dawson
The opioid crisis that exists today developed over the past 30 years. The reasons for this are many. Good intentions to improve pain and suffering led to increased prescribing of opioids, which contributed to misuse of opioids and even death. Following the publication of a short letter to the editor in a major medical journal declaring that those with chronic pain who received opioids rarely became addicted, prescriber attitude toward opioid use changed. Opioids were no longer reserved for treatment of acute pain or terminal pain conditions but now were used to treat any pain condition...
March 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Sara Faccidomo, Katarina S Swaim, Briana L Saunders, Taruni S Santanam, Seth M Taylor, Michelle Kim, Grant T Reid, Vallari R Eastman, Clyde W Hodge
RATIONALE: There is a clear need for discovery of effective medications to treat behavioral pathologies associated with alcohol addiction, such as chronic drinking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this preclinical study was to assess effects of chronic alcohol drinking on the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) proteome to identify and validate novel targets for medications development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to assess effects of chronic voluntary home-cage (24-h access) alcohol drinking on the NAcb proteome of C57BL/6J mice...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Athena K Petrides, Stacy E F Melanson, Michalis Kantartjis, Rachel D Le, Christiana A Demetriou, James G Flood
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) has become an increasingly popular matrix to assess compliance in pain management and addiction settings as it reduces the likelihood of adulteration. However, drug concentrations and windows of detection are not as well studied in OF as in urine (UR). We compared the clinical utility and analytical performance of OF and UR as matrices for detecting common benzodiazepines and opioids. METHODS: OF and UR concentrations of 5 benzodiazepines and 7 opioids were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 263 paired OF and UR specimens...
February 27, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Laura B Ferguson, R Adron Harris, Roy Dayne Mayfield
The alcohol research field has amassed an impressive number of gene expression datasets spanning key brain areas for addiction, species (humans as well as multiple animal models), and stages in the addiction cycle (binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative effect, and preoccupation/anticipation). These data have improved our understanding of the molecular adaptations that eventually lead to dysregulation of brain function and the chronic, relapsing disorder of addiction. Identification of new medications to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD) will likely benefit from the integration of genetic, genomic, and behavioral information included in these important datasets...
March 1, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Nicole S Hernandez, Kelsey Y Ige, Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Gian Carlo Molina-Castro, Christopher A Turner, Matthew R Hayes, Heath D Schmidt
Novel molecular targets are needed to develop new medications for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Here we investigated a role for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. We showed that peripheral administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 dose dependently reduced cocaine seeking in rats at doses that did not affect ad libitum food intake, meal patterns or body weight. We also demonstrated that systemic exendin-4 penetrated the brain where it putatively bound receptors on both neurons and astrocytes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
February 14, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elaine Setiawan, Sophia Attwells, Alan A Wilson, Romina Mizrahi, Pablo M Rusjan, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Sarita Sharma, Stephen Kish, Sylvain Houle, Jeffrey H Meyer
BACKGROUND: People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (VT ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure...
February 26, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
O Anagnostou, A Fotiou, E Kanavou, A Antaraki, M Terzidou, C Richardson, E Kafetzopoulos
OBJECTIVES: People who inject drugs (PWID) represent the main risk group for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in most middle and high-income countries. Testing PWID is considered as an important prevention measure. Identification of PWID characteristics associated with HCV testing may contribute to strategies targeting the containment of the HCV and HIV epidemics in Greece. METHODS: Anonymous behavioural data from 2747 heroin users were collected upon entry in 38 opioid substitution treatment (OST) clinics in Greece during the period 2013-2015...
February 2018: HIV Medicine
M R Hoyt, U Shah, J Cooley, M Temple
OBJECTIVES: Management of labor analgesia and post-cesarean delivery pain is challenging in the patient taking buprenorphine as opioid addiction maintenance therapy. We observed whether substituting clonidine for fentanyl in an epidural solution would provide adequate analgesia for labor and after cesarean delivery. METHODS: We substituted our standard 2 µg/mL fentanyl in 0.0625% bupivacaine epidural solution with 2 µg/mL clonidine in 0.0625% bupivacaine, or 1...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
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