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Medication addiction

Marina Parca Cavelagna Teixeira, Tatiana Peloso Reis Queiroga, Maria Dos Anjos Mesquita
Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio...
July 2016: Einstein
Gordon D Ko, Sara L Bober, Sean Mindra, Jason M Moreau
Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
Karen E van den Hondel, Anne Linde Saaltink, Peter Paul M Bender
BACKGROUND: Forensic physicians are responsible for first-line medical care of detainees (individuals held in custody) in the police station. The Dutch police law contains a 'duty of care', which gives the police responsibility for the apparent mentally ill and/or confused people they encounter during their work. The police can ask a forensic physician to do a primary psychiatric assessment of any apparent mentally ill detainee. The forensic physician determines if the apparent mentally ill behavior of the detainee is due to a somatic illness, or has a psychiatric cause for which the detainee needs admission to a psychiatric hospital...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Disa Dahlman, Åsa Palm, Christina Sunesdotter, Katja Troberg, Camilla Wallin
Low-threshold primary care for patients in opiate maintenance therapy. A pilot project in Malmö, Sweden, integrates primary care and OMT  This report illustrates how integration of primary care and opiate maintenance therapy (OMT) may improve OMT patients health and minimize obstacles for care seeking. OMT patients have poor health. Around 80 % have hepatitis C, a majority smoke tobacco, and socio-economic status is generally low. However, somatic health is often under-prioritized in this group. To improve OMT patients physical health', two OMT clinics and one primary care center in Malmö, Sweden, started a pilot project in 2014...
October 14, 2016: Läkartidningen
Daniel V Mogford, Rebecca J Lawrence
Aims and method To investigate the burden of medical comorbidity in a population receiving in-patient treatment for drug and alcohol problems. All patients admitted over a 6-month period were included in the data-set. We recorded diagnostic information on admission that allowed the calculation of predicted 10-year survival using a previously validated comorbidity index. Results Despite the majority of the sample having a predicted 10-year survival chance of greater than 75%, a sizeable minority (16.7%) are carrying a high burden of medical comorbidity, with a predicted 10-year survival chance of less than 50%...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Jonathan Avery, Bernadine H Han, Erin Zerbo, Guojiao Wu, Elizabeth Mauer, Joseph Avery, Stephen Ross, Julie B Penzner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatry residents provide care for individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders (SUDs). Small studies have shown that clinicians in general possess negative attitudes towards these dually diagnosed individuals. This is a serious concern, as clinicians' stigmatizing attitudes towards individuals with mental illnesses may have a particularly potent adverse impact on treatment. The goal of this study was to examine the attitudes of psychiatry residents towards individuals with diagnoses of schizophrenia, multiple SUDs, co-occurring schizophrenia and SUDs, and major depressive disorder...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
David S Mathai, Christopher D Verrico, Daryl Shorter, John H Coverdale, Thomas R Kosten
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Certain medical consequences seem unique to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) and not cannabis use. We report the case of an adolescent, whose drug expectancies appear to minimize the severity of SC-related adverse events. METHODS/RESULTS: An 18-year-old male presented with altered mental status and seizure, complicated by respiratory failure. He was stabilized and on discharge, despite counseling on the harms of SC usage, the patient planned to resume use, insisting that the hospitalization was "just one bad high"...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Ali Roohbakhsh, Kobra Shirani, Gholamreza Karimi
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly potent and addictive drug with major medical, psychiatric, cognitive, socioeconomic, and legal consequences. It is well absorbed following different routes of administration and distributed throughout the body. METH is known as psychomotor stimulant with potent physiological outcomes on peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in physical and psychological disorders. Autophagy is a highly conserved and regulated catabolic pathway which is critical for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis and regulating cell growth...
October 13, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Tyra Dark, Heather A Flynn, George Rust, Heidi Kinsell, Jeffrey S Harman
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of anxiety-related emergency department (ED) visits in the United States and assess the care provided during those visits. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to identify all ED visits in which the patient received a primary anxiety diagnosis or declared anxiety as the reason for the visit (N=1,029). Patient characteristics, treatment provided, and dispositions of these nationally representative visits were assessed...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz
: Morphine and other opioids are amongst most effective prescription medications for the treatment of pain. Addiction and hyperalgesia associated with their long-term use, limits the clinical utility of these drugs. In view of a role of somatodendritic serotonin-1A receptors in addiction and analgesic effects of morphine, the present study concerns effects of co-use of buspirone, a partial agonist at serotonin-1A receptor, on reinforcing, hyperalgesic and motor effects of morphine in rats...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Andrea L Murphy, Ruth Martin-Misener, Stan P Kutcher, Claire L O'Reilly, Timothy F Chen, David M Gardner
BACKGROUND: The role of community pharmacists is changing globally with pharmacists engaging in more clinically-oriented roles, including in mental health care. Pharmacists' interventions have been shown to improve mental health related outcomes but various barriers can limit pharmacists in their care of patients. We aimed to explore the experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions in community pharmacies to generate findings to inform practice improvements...
October 12, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Sohita Dhillon
Hydrocodone bitartrate extended-release (Hysingla(®) ER; referred to hereafter as hydrocodone ER) was the first single-entity hydrocodone formulation recognized by the US FDA as having abuse-deterrent properties. It is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. Once-daily oral hydrocodone ER provides consistent plasma hydrocodone concentrations and sustained analgesia over the 24-h dosing interval...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Atsushi Kimishima, Cody J Wenthur, Lisa M Eubanks, Shun Sato, Kim D Janda
Although cocaine abuse and addiction continue to cause serious health and societal problems, an FDA-approved medication to treat cocaine addiction has yet to be developed. Employing a pharmacokinetic strategy, an anti-cocaine vaccine, provides an attractive avenue to address these issues, however, current vaccines have shown varying degrees of efficacy, indicating that further formulation is necessary. As a means to improve vaccine efficacy, we examined the effects of varying anti-cocaine vaccine formulations by combining a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist with a TLR5 agonist in the presence of alum...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Morgane Besson, Benoît Forget
Although smoking prevalence has declined in recent years, certain subpopulations continue to smoke at disproportionately high rates and show resistance to cessation treatments. Individuals showing cognitive and affective impairments, including emotional distress and deficits in attention, memory, and inhibitory control, particularly in the context of psychiatric conditions, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and mood disorders, are at higher risk for tobacco addiction. Nicotine has been shown to improve cognitive and emotional processing in some conditions, including during tobacco abstinence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Takashi Yoshioka
Addiction is a disease that can cause an individual to lose his or her life. However, addiction can be considered a form of self medication or survival skill. If affected individuals attend a mutual aid group, individuals with such addiction can share their common experiences and they are willing to will grow along spiritual lines.
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Michio Takemura
Research on kleptomania has lagged behind that of other mental disorders, and very few clinicians specialize in treating such patients. Futhermore, the descriptive outline of kleptomania in the DSM-5 is vague. In 2008, we started a registration system for patients suffering from habitual theft, which has recorded 1430 cases since its inauguration. In this report, we explain the concept of kleptomania and describe our clinical experience in the treatment of patients suffering from this mental disorder. The most frequent complication of kleptomania was found to be eating disorder (especially bulimia)...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Percy Bondallaz, Bernard Favrat, Haïthem Chtioui, Eleonora Fornari, Philippe Maeder, Christian Giroud
Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
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