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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339890/pennsylvania-state-core-competencies-for-education-on-opioids-and-addiction
#1
Michael A Ashburn, Rachel L Levine
Objective.:  The objective of this project was to develop core competencies for education on opioids and addiction to be used in all Pennsylvania medical schools. Methods.:  The Pennsylvania Physician General created a task force that was responsible for the creation of the core competencies. A literature review was completed, and a survey of graduating medical students was conducted. The task force then developed, reviewed, and approved the core competencies...
March 2, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339586/framing-tobacco-dependence-as-a-brain-disease-implications-for-policy-and-practice
#2
Kylie Morphett, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Coral Gartner
Introduction: Like other forms of drug dependence, tobacco dependence is increasingly being described as a "chronic brain disease." The potential consequences of this medical labelling have been examined in relation to other addictions, but the implications for tobacco control have been neglected. Some have posited that biomedical conceptions of addiction will reduce stigma and increase uptake of efficacious treatments. Others have countered that it could increase stigma, reduce treatment seeking, and deter unassisted quitting...
January 21, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333571/screening-and-assessment-of-substance-use-in-hospice-care-examining-content-from-a-national-sample-of-psychosocial-assessments
#3
Paul Sacco, John G Cagle, Melissa L Moreland, Elizabeth A S Camlin
BACKGROUND: Quality of care provided by hospice and palliative care agencies depends on a thorough understanding of the patient, the family, their history, and current risk factors. It is therefore imperative for social workers and other providers in these settings to assess patients and caregivers for substance use disorders and potential for substance misuse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine how hospice social workers in the United States screen and assess for alcohol and substance use and risk of medication diversion among patients and family caregivers...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333316/convergent-balancing-selection-on-the-mu-opioid-receptor-in-primates
#4
Carolyn G Sweeney, Juliette M Rando, Helen N Panas, Gregory M Miller, Donna M Platt, Eric J Vallender
The mu opioid receptor is involved in many natural processes including stress response, pleasure, and pain. Mutations in the gene also have been associated with opiate and alcohol addictions as well as with responsivity to medication targeting these disorders. Two common and mutually exclusive polymorphisms have been identified in humans, A118G (N40D), found commonly in non-African populations, and C17T (V6A), found almost exclusively in African populations. While A118G has been studied extensively for associations and in functional assays, C17T is much less well understood...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328578/sustained-improvements-in-pain-mood-function-and-opioid-use-post-interdisciplinary-pain-rehabilitation-in-patients-weaned-from-high-and-low-dose-chronic-opioid-therapy
#5
Kelly L Huffman, Taylor E Rush, Youran Fan, Giries W Sweis, Brinder Vij, Edward C Covington, Judith Scheman, Manu Mathews
Increased prescribing of opioids for chronic non cancer pain is associated with significant social costs, including overdose and addiction. In this context, there is interest in interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation programs (ICPRP) focusing on self-management and minimizing opioid use. This study examined outcomes of patients weaned from opioids in an ICPRP from 2007-2012. Participants included 413 patients on high dose (HD) chronic opioid therapy (COT; >100mg), 528 on low dose (LD) COT and 516 not on opioids (NO)...
March 21, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328384/the-surgeon-general-s-facing-addiction-report-an-historic-document-for-healthcare
#6
Sharon Levy, J Paul Seale, Victoria A Osborne, Kevin L Kraemer, Daniel P Alford, Jeffrey Baxter, Deborah S Finnell, Hillary Kunins, Alexander Y Walley, David C Lewis, Doreen MacLane-Baeder, Adam J Gordon
The publication of Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General's Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health presents an historic moment not only for the field of addiction medicine, but also for the United States as a nation. The Board of Directors of the Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA), on behalf of our organization, would like to express our appreciation of the efforts of Dr. Vivek Murthy and the Surgeon General's Office to publish the first surgeon general's report covering substance misuse and substance use disorders...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326119/comparing-the-self-report-and-measured-smartphone-usage-of-college-students-a-pilot-study
#7
Heyoung Lee, Heejune Ahn, Trung Giang Nguyen, Sam-Wook Choi, Dae Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: Nowadays smartphone overuse has become a social and medical concern. For the diagnosis and treatment, clinicians use the self-report information, but the report data often does not match actual usage pattern. The paper examines the similarity and variance in smartphone usage patterns between the measured data and self-reported data. METHODS: Together with the self-reported data, the real usage log data is collected from 35 college students in a metropolitan region of Northeast Asia, using Android smartphone monitoring application developed by the authors...
March 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324813/among-patients-with-unhealthy-alcohol-use-those-with-hiv-are-less-likely-than-those-without-to-receive-evidence-based-alcohol-related-care-a-national-va-study
#8
Emily C Williams, Gwen T Lapham, Susan M Shortreed, Anna D Rubinsky, Jennifer F Bobb, Kara M Bensley, Sheryl L Catz, Julie E Richards, Katharine A Bradley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use has important adverse effects on people living with HIV (PLWH). This study of patients with recognized unhealthy alcohol use estimated and compared rates of alcohol-related care received by PLWH and HIV- patients. METHODS: Outpatients from the Veterans Health Administration who had one or more positive screen(s) for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C≥5) documented in their medical records 10/2009-5/2013 were eligible. Primary and secondary outcomes were brief intervention documented ≤14days after a positive alcohol screen, and a composite measure of any alcohol-related care (brief intervention, specialty addictions treatment or pharmacotherapy documented ≤365 days), respectively...
March 6, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324627/hospitalized-opioid-dependent-patients-exploring-predictors-of-buprenorphine-treatment-entry-and-retention-after-discharge
#9
Christina S Lee, Jane M Liebschutz, Bradley J Anderson, Michael D Stein
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have explored predictors of entry into and retention in buprenorphine treatment following linkage from an acute medical hospitalization. METHODS: This secondary analysis of a completed clinical trial focuses on medically hospitalized, opioid-dependent patients (n = 72) who were randomized to an intervention including buprenorphine induction and dose stabilization during hospitalization followed by post-discharge transition to office-based buprenorphine treatment (OBOT)...
March 21, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323547/the-extent-that-health-professionals-suspect-and-address-addiction-to-medicines-in-primary-care-findings-from-a-survey-in-northwest-england
#10
Geoff Bates, Madeleine Cochrane, Adam John Mackridge
Addiction to medicines available over the counter or via prescription is of growing international concern. The authors of the current article ran an online survey of health professionals in general medical practice and community pharmacy settings in Northwest England to explore the frequency of suspecting and responding to addiction to medicines. Health professionals reported frequently identifying addiction to medicines among patients including those with long-term pain, mental health problems, sleep disorders, and other substance use disorders, but that these addictions often go unchallenged...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322526/-bere-problematico-e-problemi-di-salute-in-toscana-e-in-friuli-venezia-giulia-uno-studio-epidemiologico-attraverso-i-medici-di-medicina-generale
#11
Allaman Allamani, Stefano Bravi, Pasquale Pepe, Fabio Voller, Francesco Marcatto, Donatella Ferrante, Jakob Manthey, Jürgen Rehm, Pierluigi Struzzo
"OBJECTIVES: to identify the differences among patients of general practictioners (GPs) in both Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) Region (Northern Italy), which are different for drinking cultures, as to motivation of consultation, hazardous drinking and alcohol dependence, health problems, and use of health services. DESIGN: cross-sectional study by means of both a medical examination and a subsequent structured interview carried out with a questionnaire...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319167/association-between-internet-addiction-and-depression-in-thai-medical-students-at-faculty-of-medicine-ramathibodi-hospital
#12
Thummaporn Boonvisudhi, Sanchai Kuladee
OBJECTIVE: To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression in Thai medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296623/medicalizing-the-opioid-epidemic-in-the-u-s-in-the-era-of-health-care-reform
#13
David E Smith
The medicalization of the current opioid epidemic in the era of health care reform and parity, and its possible dismantling, poses many challenges. Between 2002 and 2013, drug overdose rates quadrupled. Parallel to an increase in prescription opioid overdose, heroin overdose deaths are increasing as patients shift to cheaper and more accessible heroin from the prescription opioids which physicians are prescribing less often due to increasing regulatory restrictions, as well as enhanced education and awareness...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296573/the-adverse-effects-and-treatment-results-of-smoking-cessation-pharmacotherapy-during-fasting-non-fasting-state
#14
Sinem Iliaz, Seda Tural Onur, Mehmet Atilla Uysal, Efsun Gonca Uğur Chousein, Elif Tanriverdi, Belma Akbaba Bagci, Ayse Bahadir, Didem Gorgun Hattatoglu, Mediha Gonenc Ortakoylu, Sibel Yurt
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the most common addictions worldwide. Muslim smokers reduce the number of cigarettes they smoke during Ramadan due to the long fasting hours. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to share our experience in a smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan by analyzing the efficacy and adverse effects of once-daily dosing of bupropion or varenicline in a fasting group compared with conventional dosing in a non-fasting group. METHODS: We analyzed 57 patients who attended our smoking cessation clinic during Ramadan of 2014 and 2015, and at least one follow-up visit...
March 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285326/endogenous-opioid-system-a-promising-target-for-future-smoking-cessation-medications
#15
REVIEW
Haval Norman, Manoranjan S D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Nicotine addiction continues to be a health challenge across the world. Despite several approved medications, smokers continue to relapse. Several human and animal studies have evaluated the role of the endogenous opioid system as a potential target for smoking cessation medications. METHODS: In this review, studies that have elucidated the role of the mu (MORs), delta (DORs), and kappa (KORs) opioid receptors in nicotine reward, nicotine withdrawal, and reinstatement of nicotine seeking will be discussed...
March 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285325/mglu1-receptor-as-a-drug-target-for-treatment-of-substance-use-disorders-time-to-gather-stones-together
#16
REVIEW
Olga A Dravolina, Edwin Zvartau, Wojciech Danysz, Anton Y Bespalov
Modulation of the mGlu1 receptor was repeatedly shown to inhibit various phenomena associated with exposure to abused drugs. Efficacy in preclinical models was observed with both positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) using essentially non-overlapping sets of experimental methods. Taken together, these data indicate that the mGlu1 receptor certainly plays a significant role in the plasticity triggered by the exposure to abused drugs and is involved in the maintenance of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors...
March 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281329/addiction-an-underestimated-problem-in-psoriasis-healthcare
#17
A Zink, M Herrmann, T Fischer, F Lauffer, N Garzorz-Stark, A Böhner, C D Spinner, T Biedermann, K Eyerich
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of enormous socio-economic impact. Despite approval of numerous highly efficient and costly therapies, a minor proportion of severely affected patients actually receives sufficient treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether addictions are associated with psoriasis and to develop evidence-based recommendations for dermatologists in their daily clinical practice in order to improve medical assessment of psoriasis and patients' quality of life...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277828/cultivating-change-door-to-door-educational-outreach-to-improve-prescribing-practices-in-rural-veterans-with-ptsd
#18
Macgregor Montaño, Nancy C Bernardy, Kathleen Sherrieb
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for the management of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) recommend against the use of benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines and PTSD are both associated with addiction-related risks. VA prescribing trends show continued use of benzodiazepines and polysedative use in veterans with PTSD, particularly in rural areas. The authors examine the use of an educational intervention to improve pharmacologic management of veterans with PTSD in rural clinics. METHODS: The VA Academic Detailing Service Informatics Toolset provides prescribing, demographic and risk factor data for veterans with PTSD treated at the White River Junction VA Medical Center (WRJ VA) and affiliated rural clinics in Vermont and New Hampshire...
March 9, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275020/intellectual-disability-complicated-by-sexual-addiction-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-condition
#19
Nicholas Tze Ping Pang, Ruziana Masiran
A young man presented with high libido for 3 years, associated with preoccupation with sexual thoughts combined with his pursuit of pornographic materials. He had strong psychological cravings for and had spent large amount of money on sex, resulting in a dispute with his family. There were no mood or psychotic symptoms. Medical history revealed recent diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis. Cognitive assessment showed subtle deficiencies in reasoning and executive functions. There was occasional use of alcohol...
March 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272130/pharmacological-treatment-of-adhd-in-addicted-patients-what-does-the-literature-tell-us
#20
Pieter-Jan Carpentier, Frances R Levin
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Evaluate pharmacologic treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in patients with substance use disorder (SUD) • Assess the causes of the diminished efficacy of ADHD medication in patients with comorbid SUD OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorder (SUD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur, and the presence of ADHD complicates the treatment of the addiction...
March 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
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