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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784059/diabetes-intervention-accentuating-diet-and-enhancing-metabolism-diadem-i-a-randomised-controlled-trial-to-examine-the-impact-of-an-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-consisting-of-a-low-energy-diet-and-physical-activity-on-body-weight-and-metabolism-in-early
#1
Shahrad Taheri, Odette Chagoury, Hadeel Zaghloul, Sara Elhadad, Salma Hayder Ahmed, Omar Omar, Sherryl Payra, Salma Ahmed, Neda El Khatib, Rasha Abou Amona, Katie El Nahas, Matthew Bolton, Henem Chaar, Noor Suleiman, Amin Jayyousi, Mahmoud Zirie, Ibrahim Janahi, Wahiba Elhag, Abdulla Alnaama, Abduljaleel Zainel, Dahlia Hassan, Tim Cable, Mary Charlson, Martin Wells, Abdulla Al-Hamaq, Samya Al-Abdulla, Abdul Badi Abou-Samra
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are syndemic and will have a significant impact on affected individuals and healthcare services worldwide. Evidence shows that T2DM remission can be achieved with significant weight loss in those who are younger with early diabetes and requiring fewer medications for glycaemic control. DIADEM-I aims to examine the impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) using a low-energy diet (LED) meal replacement approach combined with physical activity in younger individuals with early T2DM...
May 21, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#2
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778483/effect-of-replacing-maize-silage-with-red-clover-silage-in-the-diet-on-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-cows
#3
Franziska Schulz, Edwin Westreicher-Kristen, Joachim Molkentin, Karin Knappstein, Andreas Susenbeth
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing maize silage plus soybean meal with red clover silage (RCS) plus wheat on the fatty acid (FA) profile in the milk fat of cows. Forty-four lactating German Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods composed of 13 d of adaptation to diets followed by an 8-d sampling phase. Experimental diets offered as total mixed ration consisted of a constant forage-to-concentrate ratio (75:25) with target proportions of RCS to maize silage of 15:60 (RCS15 ), 30:45 (RCS30 ), 45:30 (RCS45 ), and 60:15 (RCS60 ) on a dry matter basis...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778472/effects-of-ad-libitum-milk-replacer-feeding-and-butyrate-supplementation-on-behavior-immune-status-and-health-of-holstein-calves-in-the-postnatal-period
#4
C Gerbert, D Frieten, C Koch, G Dusel, K Eder, T Stefaniak, J Bajzert, P Jawor, A Tuchscherer, H M Hammon
Animal welfare in dairy calf husbandry depends on calf rearing and is probably improved by intensive milk feeding programs. In addition, butyrate supplementation in milk replacer (MR) stimulates postnatal growth and may affect the immune system in calves. We have investigated the combined effects of ad libitum MR feeding and butyrate supplementation on feeding behavior, health, and the immune responses in calves. Holstein calves (n = 64) were examined from birth until wk 11 of age. Calves received MR either ad libitum (Adl) or restrictively (Res) with (AdlB+, ResB+) or without (AdlB-, ResB-) 0...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775738/humoral-and-mucosal-immune-responses-in-meagre-argyrosomus-regius-juveniles-fed-diets-with-varying-inclusion-levels-of-carob-seed-germ-meal
#5
Francisco Antonio Guardiola, Carolina Barroso, Paula Enes, Ana Couto, Patricia Díaz-Rosales, António Afonso, Erika Kanashiro, Helena Peres, Elisabete Matos, Aires Oliva-Teles, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Benjamín Costas
Many studies have assessed the effects of incorporation of plant feedstuffs in fish diets on growth performance, whereas few studies have addressed the effects of fish meal replacement by plant protein sources on fish immune parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on immune response of different inclusion levels of carob seed germ meal (CSGM) as partial replacement for fish meal in diets for meagre (Argyrosomus regius) juveniles. Fish were fed four experimental diets with increased CSGM inclusion levels [0% (control), 7...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773586/seafood-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-science-advisory-from-the-american-heart-association
#6
REVIEW
Eric B Rimm, Lawrence J Appel, Stephanie E Chiuve, Luc Djoussé, Mary B Engler, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Dariush Mozaffarian, David S Siscovick, Alice H Lichtenstein
Since the 2002 American Heart Association scientific statement "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease," evidence from observational and experimental studies and from randomized controlled trials continues to emerge to further substantiate the beneficial effects of seafood long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. A recent American Heart Association science advisory addressed the specific effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events...
May 17, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768250/metabolic-regulation-of-synaptic-activity
#7
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem
Brain tissue is bioenergetically expensive. In humans, it composes approximately 2% of body weight and accounts for approximately 20% of calorie consumption. The brain consumes energy mostly for ion and neurotransmitter transport, a process that occurs primarily in synapses. Therefore, synapses are expensive for any living creature who has brain. In many brain diseases, synapses are damaged earlier than neurons start dying. Synapses may be considered as vulnerable sites on a neuron. Ischemic stroke, an acute disturbance of blood flow in the brain, is an example of a metabolic disease that affects synapses...
May 16, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767061/biochemical-and-histopathological-changes-in-sheep-fed-different-detoxified-karanj-pongamia-glabra-seed-cake-as-partial-protein-supplements
#8
Nira M Soren, Anil K Sharma, Vadali R B Sastry
The study investigated the long-term effect of feeding processed solvent extracted karanj ( Pongamia glabra ) cake (SKC) on gross pathology and histopathological changes in some vital organs, and on the activities of serum enzymes in Jalauni lambs. Twenty-four male lambs were divided into 4 groups and allotted randomly to a soybean meal (SBM) based control (CON) and 3 treatment groups receiving concentrate mixtures, containing water washed (WW), 2.5% lime (LM) and 0.4% binder (BN) treated SKC replacing 50% nitrogen of SBM to meet the protein requirements...
June 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762674/available-energy-and-amino-acid-digestibility-of-defatted-rice-bran-fed-to-growing-pigs
#9
B B Huang, C F Huang, Z Q Lyu, Y F Chen, P L Li, L Liu, C H Lai
This study was conducted to determine and compare available energy and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 9 samples of defatted rice bran (DFRB) fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE and ME based on chemical analysis. In Exp. 1, sixty crossbred growing pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire; 40.7 ± 3.5 kg BW) were fed 1 of 10 diets in a completely randomized design to determine the available energy of DFRB. The diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 9 experimental diets formulated by replacing the corn and soybean meal with 29...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757447/humic-acid-and-enzymes-inclusion-in-canola-based-diets-generate-different-responses-in-growth-performance-protein-utilization-dynamics-and-hemato-biochemical-parameters-in-broiler-chickens
#10
A R P Disetlhe, U Marume, V Mlambo
The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of a humic acid and enzymes on growth performance, protein utilization, and blood parameters in broilers fed canola-based diets. Canola meal (CM) is characterized as low protein compared to soybean meal. Two-hundred-twenty broiler chickens were randomly allotted to the following 5 dietary treatments: 1. Control (commercial broiler diet); 2. CM (17.5% canola meal inclusion); 3. CMEnz (CM + 0.3 g/kg enzymes [Axtra XAP]); 4. CMPh (CM + 1.5% potassium humate, PH) and 5...
May 10, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757415/insects-for-income-generation-through-animal-feed-effect-of-dietary-replacement-of-soybean-and-fish-meal-with-black-soldier-fly-meal-on-broiler-growth-and-economic-performance
#11
V O Onsongo, I M Osuga, C K Gachuiri, A M Wachira, D M Miano, C M Tanga, S Ekesi, D Nakimbugwe, K K M Fiaboe
The ever-increasing animal feed costs are driving many vulnerable communities involved in animal husbandry out of business. The high cost is mainly driven by the protein source, which represents the most expensive component in animal feed. In conventional feed, protein is obtained mainly from soybean and fish meal (SFM). The present study explored potential of partially replacing this SFM with black soldier fly prepupae meal (BSFPM) in Cobb 500 broiler chicken diets. A SFM-based diet was compared to three experimental diets formulated by partially substituting SFM with BSFPM at 13...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757055/urine-specific-gravity-as-a-practical-marker-for-identifying-sub-optimal-fluid-intake-of-runners-12-h-post-exercise
#12
Eric Kyle O'Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska, Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson
The legitimacy of urine specific gravity (USG) as a standalone measure to detect hydration status has recently been challenged. As an alternative to hydration status, the purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic capability of using the traditional USG marker of >1.020 to detect insufficient recovery fluid consumption with consideration for moderate versus high sweat losses (2.00-2.99 or > 3% body mass respectively). Adequate recovery fluid intake (ARFI) was operationally defined as ≥100% beverage fluid intake plus food water from 1 or 2 meals and a snack...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753487/replacing-human-edible-feed-ingredients-with-by-products-increases-net-food-production-efficiency-in-dairy-cows
#13
Johanna Karlsson, Rolf Spörndly, Mikaela Lindberg, Kjell Holtenius
Global demand is increasing for food, and use of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs for dairy cows is an important concern. The present study examined whether feeding a by-product-based concentrate combined with high-quality grass silage to high-producing dairy cows affected feed intake and milk production compared with a conventional diet, as well as the effect on efficiency of human food production. In a changeover experiment with four 21-d periods, 24 dairy cows in mid-lactation were offered 9...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739677/soy-isoflavones-improve-cardiovascular-disease-risk-markers-in-women-during-the-early-menopause
#14
T Sathyapalan, M Aye, A S Rigby, N J Thatcher, S R Dargham, E S Kilpatrick, S L Atkin
BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy may be beneficial for cardiovascular disease risk (CVR) in post-menopausal women. Soy isoflavones may act as selective estrogen receptor modulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether soy isoflavones had an effect on CVR markers. METHODS: The expected 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality were calculated as a secondary endpoint from a double blind randomised parallel study involving 200 women (mean age 55 years, Caucasian, Hull, UK, 2012) in the early menopause who were randomised to 15 g soy protein with 66 mg isoflavone (SPI) or 15 g soy protein alone (depleted of all isoflavones; SP) given as a snack bar between meals daily for 6 months...
April 10, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737039/crystal-structure-of-a-novel-kunitz-type-inhibitor-alocasin-with-anti-aedes-aegypti-activity-targeting-midgut-proteases
#15
S Vajravijayan, S Pletnev, V Z Pletnev, N Nandhagopal, K Gunasekaran
BACKGROUND: Pesticidal property of many Kunitz type inhibitors is reported previously. But, the mechanism of action is not well established. In the present study, activity of alocasin against Aedes aegypti is demonstrated and the structure-activity relationship of this Kunitz type inhibitor is explained through X-ray structure analyses. RESULTS: Alocasin was purified from mature rhizomes of Alocasia as a single polypeptide chain of approximately 20 kDa. The structure at 2...
May 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730709/lysine-supplement-benefits-the-growth-performance-protein-synthesis-and-muscle-development-of-megalobrama-amblycephala-fed-diets-with-fish-meal-replaced-by-rice-protein-concentrate
#16
Wan-Cun Cai, Wen-Bin Liu, Guang-Zhen Jiang, Kai-Zhou Wang, Cun-Xin Sun, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of lysine supplement on the growth performance of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed diets with fish meal (FM) replaced by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with the potential mechanisms characterized. Fish were fed three diets, including the FM diet (containing FM), the RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC), and the MRPC diet (the RPC diet supplemented with lysine) for 8 weeks. Weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, and nitrogen and energy utilization of fish fed the FM diet were all significantly higher than those of the RPC treatment, but they showed no statistical difference with those of the MRPC group...
May 5, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729908/adaptation-responses-in-milk-fat-yield-and-methane-emissions-of-dairy-cows-when-wheat-was-included-in-their-diet-for-16-weeks
#17
P J Moate, J L Jacobs, M C Hannah, G L Morris, K A Beauchemin, P S Alvarez Hess, R J Eckard, Z Liu, S Rochfort, W J Wales, S R O Williams
Short-term studies have shown that feeding dairy cows diets containing a high proportion (>40%) of wheat may result in reduced milk fat concentration and reduced CH4 emissions (g of CH4 /cow per d), but no long-term studies have been done on these responses. This study compared the milk production and CH4 responses when 24 dairy cows were fed diets containing high proportions of either wheat or corn over 16 wk. Cows were assigned to 2 groups and offered a diet (CRN) containing 10.0 kg of dry matter/d of crushed corn grain, 1...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725236/the-change-in-quality-characteristics-of-hanwoo-in-home-meal-replacement-products-under-different-cooking-and-freezing-methods
#18
Honggyun Kim, Dong Hyeon Park, Geun-Pyo Hong, Sang-Yoon Lee, Mi-Jung Choi, Youngjae Cho
The market size of home meal replacement (HMR) products has been gradually growing worldwide, even in Korea. In Korean HMR products, meat is the most important food ingredient compared with rice and vegetables. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate changes in physiochemical and sensory aspects of beef under different preparation processes. For preparing four treatments, beef eye of round (ER) added with salt and sugar (treatment 1) and that without salt and sugar (treatment 2) were mixed with rice and frozen at -50°C...
February 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717756/dietary-behaviors-among-young-and-older-adults-in-brazil
#19
I Nogueira Bezerra, A O de Carvalho Gurgel, R G Bastos Barbosa, G Bezerra da Silva Junior
OBJECTIVES: To describe healthy and unhealthy dietary behaviors among young and older Brazilian adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on secondary data from the Brazilian National Health Survey 2013/2014, conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). SETTINGS: Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 59,402 Brazilian adults (18 years or over), representative of the whole community-dwelling Brazilian adult population...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695706/evaluation-of-a-12-week-lifestyle-education-intervention-with-or-without-partial-meal-replacement-in-thai-adults-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomised-trial
#20
Kusuma Chaiyasoot, Rungnapha Sarasak, Banchamaphon Pheungruang, Suwitcha Dawilai, Pornpoj Pramyothin, Adhiratha Boonyasiri, Orawan Supapueng, Friedrich C Jassil, Preyanuj Yamwong, Rachel L Batterham
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There have been no studies examining the efficacy of meal replacement (MR) on weight loss and metabolic syndrome (MS) improvement in Southeast Asians. Thus, we undertook a 12-week randomised trial to evaluate the effect of a lifestyle education intervention alone (LEI) or with partial MR (LEI + MR) in obese Thai adults with MS. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 110 patients were randomised to receive either LEI or LEI + MR. Both groups received LEI to achieve weight loss...
April 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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