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Michelle L Delco, John G Kennedy, Lawrence J Bonassar, Lisa A Fortier
The diagnosis of ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is increasing as a result of advancements in non-invasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging, improved arthroscopic surgical technology and heightened awareness among clinicians. Unlike OA of the knee, primary or age-related ankle OA is rare, with the majority of ankle OA classified as post-traumatic (PTOA). Ankle trauma, more specifically ankle sprain, is the single most common athletic injury, and no effective therapies are available to prevent or slow progression of PTOA...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
R Jin, A Krasinskas, N-A Le, J V Konomi, J Holzberg, R Romero, M B Vos
BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of the endogenous fibrinolytic system and is known to be increased in obesity, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously demonstrated that PAI-1 levels were closely related to the amount of hepatic steatosis in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize plasma PAI-1 in relationship to severity of inflammation and fibrosis, as well as to plasma lipids in children with NAFLD...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Mohammed A Zwawi, Faissal A Moslehy, Christopher Rose, Victor Huayamave, Alain J Kassab, Eduardo Divo, Brendan J Jones, Charles T Price
: This study utilized a computational biomechanical model and applied the least energy path principle to investigate two pathways for closed reduction of high grade infantile hip dislocation. The principle of least energy when applied to moving the femoral head from an initial to a final position considers all possible paths that connect them and identifies the path of least resistance. Clinical reports of severe hip dysplasia have concluded that reduction of the femoral head into the acetabulum may occur by a direct pathway over the posterior rim of the acetabulum when using the Pavlik harness, or by an indirect pathway with reduction through the acetabular notch when using the modified Hoffman-Daimler method...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Bengt Zöller, Xinjun Li, Henrik Ohlsson, Jianguang Ji, Ashfaque A Memon, Peter J Svensson, Karolina Palmér, Björn Dahlbäck, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Familial aggregation (clustering) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the clustering of VTE within a family. Though several genes, such as antithrombin, protein C, protein S, factor V, and prothrombin are associated with the familial clustering of VTE, these loci only partially explain the familial aggregation of VTE. The epidemiology of the familial aggregation of VTE exhibits typical characteristics of complex traits. The family history of VTE in first-degree relatives is associated with a two to three times increased familial relative risk (FRR)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
David J Cote, Heloise M Dubois, Aditya V Karhade, Timothy R Smith
Background Patients who undergo craniotomy for brain tumor have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) registry, patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor from 2006 and 2014 were analyzed to identify risk factors for postoperative VTE. Methods The study population, identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes, included all NSQIP-reported patients who underwent a craniotomy for brain tumor resection. Results There were 629 instances of VTE among 19,409 craniotomies for brain tumor (3...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
C Mozet, T Kuhnt, B Sattler, J Remmele, U Thome, H Stepan, R Kluge, A Dietz, M Knoedler
Objective: The diagnosis of cancer in pregnancy is rare, but might become more relevant even for head and neck cancer patients due to a shift of age of primipara towards the last third of reproductive years. Unsureness exists about the risk and benefit of diagnostic and therapeutic cancer modalities for the unborn and established recommendations are still missing. But, according to recent data, even multimodal therapeutic approaches (e. g. surgery, radiation, chemotherapy) seem possible in face of pregnancy and should be traded against the risk of prematurity...
October 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
J Esser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Lary A Robinson, Crystal J Jaing, Christine Pierce Campbell, Anthony Magliocco, Yin Xiong, Genevra Magliocco, James B Thissen, Scott Antonia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Aurélie Moskal, Heinz Freisling, Graham Byrnes, Nada Assi, Michael T Fahey, Mazda Jenab, Pietro Ferrari, Anne Tjønneland, Kristina En Petersen, Christina C Dahm, Camilla Plambeck Hansen, Aurélie Affret, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Claire Cadeau, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, Khalid Iqbal, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Androniki Naska, Giovanna Masala, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Sabina Sieri, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Petra H Peeters, Bas H Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dagrun Engeset, Idlir Licaj, Guri Skeie, Eva Ardanaz, Genevieve Buckland, José M Huerta Castaño, José R Quirós, Pilar Amiano, Elena Molina-Portillo, Anna Winkvist, Robin Myte, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Inge Huybrechts, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Heather Ward, Marc J Gunter, Nadia Slimani
BACKGROUND: Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Vivek Subbiah, Oliver Holmes, Kyle Gowen, Daniel Spritz, Behrang Amini, Wei-Lien Wang, Alexa B Schrock, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Ralph Zinner, Sarina Piha-Paul, Maria Zarzour, Julia A Elvin, Rachel L Erlich, David L Stockman, Jo-Anne Vergilio, James H Suh, Philip J Stephens, Vincent Miller, Jeffrey S Ross, Siraj M Ali
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an aggressive rare tumor, primarily occurring in young adults with frequent local-regional metastases and recurrence after local control. The tumor is characterized by the presence of EWSR1-ATF1 or EWSR1-CREB1 and immunohistochemical positivity for S-100 protein without melanocytic marker positivity. Due to poor responses to standard sarcoma regimens, GNET has a poor prognosis, and development of effective systemic therapy is desperately needed to treat these patients...
October 21, 2016: Oncology
Uday B Maachani, Uma Shankavaram, Tamalee Kramp, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen, Anita T Tandle
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Pei Y Liu, Nicholas Sokolowski, Su T Guo, Faraz Siddiqi, Bernard Atmadibrata, Thomas J Telfer, Yuting Sun, Lihong Zhang, Denise Yu, Joshua Mccarroll, Bing Liu, Rui H Yang, Xiang Y Guo, Andrew E Tee, Ken Itoh, Jenny Wang, Maria Kavallaris, Michelle Haber, Murray D Norris, Belamy B Cheung, Jennifer A Byrne, David S Ziegler, Glenn M Marshall, Marcel E Dinger, Rachel Codd, Xu D Zhang, Tao Liu
BET bromodomain inhibitors are very promising novel anticancer agents, however, single therapy does not cause tumor regression in mice, suggesting the need for combination therapy. After screening a library of 2697 small molecule compounds, we found that two classes of compounds, the quinone-containing compounds such as nanaomycin and anti-microtubule drugs such as vincristine, exerted the best synergistic anticancer effects with the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in neuroblastoma cells. Mechanistically, the quinone-containing compound nanaomycin induced neuroblastoma cell death but also activated the Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathway, and the BET bromodomain proteins BRD3 and BRD4 formed a protein complex with Nrf2...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Ana M Contreras-Sandoval, María Merino, Marcos Vasquez, Iñaki F Trocóniz, Pedro Berraondo, María J Garrido
Blockade of PD-L1 with specific monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD-L1) represents a therapeutic strategy to increase the capability of the immune system to modulate the tumor immune-resistance. The relationship between anti-PD-L1 tumor exposition and anti-tumor effect represents a challenge that has been addressed in this work through the identification of certain biomarkers implicated in the antibody's mechanism of action, using a syngeneic melanoma mouse model. The development of an in-vitro/in-vivo platform has allowed us to investigate the PD-L1 behavior after its blockage with anti-PD-L1 at cellular level and in animals...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Maggie Y Jiang, Tammy L Lee, Su-Shin Hao, Sepi Mahooti, Stephen M Baird, Daniel J Donoghue, Martin Haas
Prostate Cancer represents the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States, and the third leading cause of cancer death among men in Europe. We have previously shown that cells possessing Cancer Stem Cell (CSC) characteristics can be grown from human PrCa tissue harvested at the time of prostatectomy. However, the cellular origin of these CSCs was not previously known. In most cases, simple hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections are sufficient to make a definitive diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma (PrCa) in needle biopsy samples...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Kari Branham, Hiroko Matsui, Pooja Biswas, Aditya A Guru, Michael Hicks, John J Suk, He Li, David Jakubosky, Tao Long, Amalio Telenti, Naoki Narai, John R Heckenlively, Kelly A Frazar, Paul A Sieving, Radha Ayyagari
While more than 250 genes are known to cause inherited retinal degenerations (IRD), nearly 40-50% of families have the genetic basis for their disease unknown. In this study we sought to identify the underlying cause of inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) in a family by whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis. Clinical characterization including standard ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, visual field testing, electroretinography, and review of medical and family history was performed. WGS was performed on affected and unaffected family members using Illumina HiSeq X10...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Jeffrey J Widrick, Matthew Alexander, Benjamin Sanchez, Devin Gibbs, Genri Kawahara, Alan Beggs, Louis Kunkel
Sapje zebrafish lack the protein dystrophin and are the smallest vertebrate model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their small size makes them ideal for large-scale drug discovery screens. However, the extent that sapje mimic the muscle dysfunction of higher vertebrate models of DMD is unclear. We used an optical birefringence assay to differentiate affected dystrophic sapje larvae from their unaffected siblings and then studied trunk muscle contractility at 4-7 days post fertilization. Preparation cross-sectional area (CSA) was similar for affected and unaffected larvae, yet tetanic forces of affected preparations were only 30-60% of normal...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Seung Kyum Kim, Joshua J Avila, Michael P Massett
Understanding the genetic influence on vascular reactivity is important for identifying genes underlying impaired vascular function. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic contribution to intrinsic vascular function and to identify loci associated with phenotypic variation in vascular reactivity in mice. Concentration response curves to phenylephrine (PE), potassium chloride (KCl), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were generated in aortic rings from male mice (12-wk old) from 27 inbred mouse strains...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
B Staber, J Guilleminot
In this work, we address the constitutive modeling, in a probabilistic framework, of the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissues. The aim is on the one hand to mimic the mean behavior and variability that are typically encountered in the experimental characterization of such materials, and on the other hand to derive mathematical models that are almost surely consistent with the theory of nonlinear elasticity. Towards this goal, we invoke information theory and discuss a stochastic model relying on a low-dimensional parametrization...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Karla Kirkegaard, Nicholas J van Buuren, Roberto Mateo
If a freshly minted genome contains a mutation that confers drug resistance, will it be selected in the presence of the drug? Not necessarily. During viral infections, newly synthesized viral genomes occupy the same cells as parent and other progeny genomes. If the antiviral target is chosen so that the drug-resistant progeny's growth is dominantly inhibited by the drug-susceptible members of its intracellular family, its outgrowth can be suppressed. Precedent for 'dominant drug targeting' as a deliberate approach to suppress the outgrowth of inhibitor-resistant viruses has been established for envelope variants of vesicular stomatitis virus and for capsid variants of poliovirus and dengue virus...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
David R Vinson, Dustin W Ballard, Dustin G Mark, Jie Huang, Mary E Reed, Adina S Rauchwerger, David H Wang, James S Lin, Mamata V Kene, Tamara S Pleshakov, Dana K Sax, Jordan M Sax, D Ian McLachlan, Cyrus K Yamin, Clifford J Swap, Hilary R Iskin, Ridhima Vemula, Bethany S Fleming, Andrew R Elms, Drahomir Aujesky
INTRODUCTION: The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) is a validated prognostic score to estimate the 30-day mortality of emergency department (ED) patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A simplified version (sPESI) was derived but has not been as well studied in the U.S. We sought to validate both indices in a community hospital setting in the U.S. and compare their performance in predicting 30-day all-cause mortality and classification of cases into low-risk and higher-risk categories...
September 24, 2016: Thrombosis Research
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