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Complex chronic disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933290/nutraceuticals-and-repurposed-drugs-of-phytochemical-origin-in-prevention-and-interception-of-chronic-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#1
Adriana Albini, Barbara Bassani, Denisa Baci, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Matteo Gallazzi, Paola Corradino, Antonino Bruno, Douglas M Noonan
Chronic, degenerative diseases are often characterized by inflammation and aberrant angiogenesis. For many of these pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, current therapies have limited efficacy, thus the validation of novel (chemo)preventive and interceptive approaches, of new or repurposed agents, alone or in combination with registered drugs, are urgently required. Phytochemicals (triterpenoids, flavonoids, retinoids) and their derivatives, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) as well as biguanides (metformin and phenformin) originally developed from phytochemical backbones, are multi-target agents showing anti-angiogenic and anti-anti-inflammatory proprieties...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930861/targeted-gene-panel-sequencing-for-early-onset-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-chronic-diarrhea
#2
Britt-Sabina Petersen, Dietrich August, Renate Abt, Moudjahed Alddafari, Lida Atarod, Safa Baris, Hemant Bhavsar, Florian Brinkert, Mary Buchta, Alla Bulashevska, Ronnie Chee, Ana I Cordeiro, Naghi Dara, Gregor Dückers, Aisha Elmarsafy, Natalie Frede, Nermeen Galal, Patrick Gerner, Erik-Oliver Glocker, Sigune Goldacker, Jutta Hammermann, Peter Hasselblatt, Zuzana Havlicekova, Katrin Hübscher, Milos Jesenak, Neslihan E Karaca, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Mahboubeh M Kharaghani, Sara S Kilic, Ayca Kiykim, Christoph Klein, Christian Klemann, Robin Kobbe, Daniel Kotlarz, Martin W Laass, T Ronan Leahy, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Sally Mitton, João F Neves, Birol Öztürk, Luis F Pereira, Jan Rohr, Jessica L R Restrepo, Gunda Ruzaike, Nadia Saleh, Suranjith Seneviratne, Ebru Senol, Carsten Speckmann, Daniel Tegtmeyer, Paul Thankam, Jutte van der Werff Ten Bosch, Horst von Bernuth, Sebastian Zeissig, Yvonne Zeissig, Andre Franke, Bodo Grimbacher
BACKGROUND: In contrast to adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), where many genetic loci have been shown to be involved in complex disease etiology, early-onset IBD (eoIBD) and associated syndromes can sometimes present as monogenic conditions. As a result, the clinical phenotype and ideal disease management in these patients often differ from those in adult-onset IBD. However, due to high costs and the complexity of data analysis, high-throughput screening for genetic causes has not yet become a standard part of the diagnostic work-up of eoIBD patients...
September 19, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930657/foundations-of-immunometabolism-and-implications-for-metabolic-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Highly ordered interactions between immune and metabolic responses are evolutionarily conserved and paramount for tissue and organismal health. Disruption of these interactions underlies the emergence of many pathologies, particularly chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we examine decades of research identifying the complex immunometabolic signaling networks and the cellular and molecular events that occur in the setting of altered nutrient and energy exposures and offer a historical perspective...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930362/rapid-development-of-specialty-population-registries-and-quality-measures-from-electronic-health-record-data-an-agile-framework
#4
Vaishnavi Kannan, Jason S Fish, Jacqueline M Mutz, Angela R Carrington, Ki Lai, Lisa S Davis, Josh E Youngblood, Mark R Rauschuber, Kathryn A Flores, Evan J Sara, Deepa G Bhat, DuWayne L Willett
BACKGROUND: Creation of a new electronic health record (EHR)-based registry often can be a "one-off" complex endeavor: first developing new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, followed by developing registry-specific data extractions from the EHR for analysis. Each development phase typically has its own long development and testing time, leading to a prolonged overall cycle time for delivering one functioning registry with companion reporting into production. The next registry request then starts from scratch...
June 14, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929716/-developing-an-algorithm-based-on-health-and-social-sources-to-stratify-general-population-in-different-levels-of-health-socio-sanitary-frailty-and-disability
#5
Laura Andreoni, Antonio Giampiero Russo
OBJECTIVES: to describe an innovative algorithm to classify the general population, in homogeneous groups of severity and complexity of disease and real needs, by using three dimensions: health, frailty, and disability. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study includes the population covered by the Agency for health protection of Metropolitan Area of Milan (3,4 million of habitants). We identified two cohorts of residents: the first at 01...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929298/chronic-kidney-disease-and-anticoagulation-from-vitamin-k-antagonists-and-heparins-to-direct-oral-anticoagulant-agents
#6
REVIEW
Savino Sciascia, Massimo Radin, Karen Schreiber, Roberta Fenoglio, Simone Baldovino, Dario Roccatello
Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or unfractionated heparin (UFH)] are at high risk of bleeding events (both non-major and major clinically relevant bleeding). While anticoagulation reduces the risk of thromboembolic events, the co-existing bleeding risk and the fact that the most commonly used anticoagulation agents are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges...
September 19, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929236/-criteria-for-treating-mrsa-in-sputum
#7
REVIEW
J Lorenz, M Unnewehr, B Schaaf, S Gatermann
Methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are of particular significance for the management of patients with airway infections, since the disease course is often complicated and treatment rendered difficult by multiple resistance. Their prevalence is now slowly declining, but still alarmingly high. Hospital-acquired infections are predominant, but hospital-associated and community-acquired infections do occur, as do rare infections with livestock-acquired strains. Non-nosocomial strains are characterized by different pathogenic factors and a different spectrum of antibacterial resistance; they often have a threatening disease course...
September 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928949/plasmapheresis-in-neurological-disorders-six-years-experience-from-university-clinical-center-tuzla
#8
Osman Sinanović, Sanela Zukić, Adnan Burina, Nermina Pirić, Renata Hodžić, Mirza Atić, Mirna Alečković-Halilović, Enisa Mešić
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal blood purification technique that is designed to remove substances with a large molecular weight. The TPE procedure includes removal of antibodies, alloantibodies, immune complexes, monoclonal protein, toxins or cytokines, and involves the replenishment of a specific plasma factor. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical response to TPE in various neurological patients, and to assess the clinical response to this therapy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928745/chronic-inflammation-in-immune-aging-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptor-crosstalk-with-the-telomere-complex
#9
REVIEW
Shyam Sushama Jose, Kamila Bendickova, Tomas Kepak, Zdenka Krenova, Jan Fric
Age-related decline in immunity is characterized by stem cell exhaustion, telomere shortening, and disruption of cell-to-cell communication, leading to increased patient risk of disease. Recent data have demonstrated that chronic inflammation exerts a strong influence on immune aging and is closely correlated with telomere length in a range of major pathologies. The current review discusses the impact of inflammation on immune aging, the likely molecular mediators of this process, and the various disease states that have been linked with immunosenescence...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928366/fibromyalgia-and-microglial-tnf-%C3%AE-translational-research-using-human-blood-induced-microglia-like-cells
#10
Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Masako Hosoi, Makoto Tsuda, Kohei Hayakawa, Chie Hayaki, Rie Iwaki, Noriaki Sagata, Ryota Hashimoto, Kazuhide Inoue, Nobuyuki Sudo, Shigenobu Kanba
Fibromyalgia is a refractory disease characterized by chronic intractable pain and psychological suffering, the cause of which has not yet been elucidated due to its complex pathology. Activation of immune cells in the brain called microglia has attracted attention as a potential underlying pathological mechanism in chronic pain. Until recently, however, technological and ethical considerations have limited the ability to conduct research using human microglia. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a technique to create human-induced microglia-like (iMG) cells from human peripheral blood monocytes...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928227/community-based-noncommunicable-disease-care-for-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon
#11
Stephen Sethi, Rebecka Jonsson, Rony Skaff, Frank Tyler
In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Humanitarian agencies initially responded to the acute health care needs of refugees by delivering services to informal settlements via mobile medical clinics...
September 19, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927989/identification-of-susceptible-genes-for-complex-chronic-diseases-based-on-disease-risk-functional-snps-and-interaction-networks
#12
Wan Li, Lina Zhu, Hao Huang, Yuehan He, Junjie Lv, Weimin Li, Lina Chen, Weiming He
Complex chronic diseases are caused by the effects of genetic and environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one common type of genetic variations, played vital roles in diseases. We hypothesized that disease risk functional SNPs in coding regions and protein interaction network modules were more likely to contribute to the identification of disease susceptible genes for complex chronic diseases. This could help to further reveal the pathogenesis of complex chronic diseases. Disease risk SNPs were first recognized from public SNP data for coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension (HT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927419/tumor-necrosis-factor-superfamily-ligand-mrna-expression-profiles-differ-between-humans-and-mice-during-homeostasis-and-between-various-murine-kidney-injuries
#13
Satish Kumar Devarapu, Julia Felicitas Grill, Junhui Xie, Marc Weidenbusch, Mohsen Honarpisheh, Volker Vielhauer, Hans-Joachim Anders, Shrikant R Mulay
BACKGROUND: Several tumour necrosis factor (TNF) based therapeutics have already been approved for human use and several others are emerging. Therefore, we determined the mRNA expression levels of the TNF superfamily ligands (TNFSF) - e.g. TNF-α, lymphotoxin (LT)-α, LT-β, Fas-L (CD95-L), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), 4-1BBL, OX40-L (CD252) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in healthy human and mouse solid organs. METHODS: We used quantitative real time-PCR to analyse mRNA expression levels of TNFSF ligands...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926539/the-immunology-of-the-allergy-epidemic-and-the-hygiene-hypothesis
#14
Bart N Lambrecht, Hamida Hammad
The immunology of the hygiene hypothesis of allergy is complex and involves the loss of cellular and humoral immunoregulatory pathways as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle and the disappearance of chronic infectious diseases. The influence of diet and reduced microbiome diversity now forms the foundation of scientific thinking on how the allergy epidemic occurred, although clear mechanistic insights into the process in humans are still lacking. Here we propose that barrier epithelial cells are heavily influenced by environmental factors and by microbiome-derived danger signals and metabolites, and thus act as important rheostats for immunoregulation, particularly during early postnatal development...
September 19, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926324/treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-the-importance-of-disease-progression-in-the-prognosis
#15
Rodrigo Andrade, Manuel Gonçalves-Pinho, António Roma-Torres, Isabel Brandão
INTRODUCTION: Anorexia nervosa is a severe, usually chronic, life-threatening disease of complex etiology characterized by food restriction, overestimation of the importance of body weight and image, intense fear of weight gain and distortion of body image. Anorexia nervosa is associated with high rates of mortality, suicide and decreased quality of life. Our aim is to present an anorexia nervosa treatment program offered in a major university hospital in Portugal, and to determine the impact of illness duration before admission on the outcome...
August 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925945/measurement-of-respiratory-chain-enzyme-activity-in-human-renal-biopsy-specimens
#16
Arun Ghose, Christopher M Taylor, Alexander J Howie, Anapurna Chalasani, Iain Hargreaves, David V Milford
Background: Mitochondrial disorders can present as kidney disease in children and be difficult to diagnose. Measurement of mitochondrial function in kidney tissue may help diagnosis. This study was to assess the feasibility of obtaining renal samples and analysing them for respiratory chain enzyme activity. Methods: The subjects were children undergoing a routine diagnostic renal biopsy, in whom a clinical condition of renal inflammation, scarring and primary metabolic disorder was unlikely. A fresh sample of kidney was snap frozen and later assayed for the activities of respiratory chain enzyme complexes I, II/III, and IV using spectrophotometric enzyme assay, and expressed as a ratio of citrate synthase activity...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924245/understanding-the-factors-affecting-self-management-of-copd-from-the-perspectives-of-healthcare-practitioners-a-qualitative-study
#17
Oladapo J Ogunbayo, Sian Russell, James J Newham, Karen Heslop-Marshall, Paul Netts, Barbara Hanratty, Eileen Kaner
Self-management is recognised as an essential criteria for the provision of high quality care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The management of COPD is usually delivered by a wide range of healthcare practitioners. This study aimed to understand the factors affecting self-management of COPD from the perspectives of the different multidisciplinary healthcare teams involved in COPD care. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from primary care, specialist respiratory and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) teams...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924241/clinical-impact-of-the-subclonal-architecture-and-mutational-complexity-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#18
F Nadeu, G Clot, J Delgado, D Martín-García, T Baumann, I Salaverria, S Beà, M Pinyol, P Jares, A Navarro, H Suárez-Cisneros, M Aymerich, M Rozman, N Villamor, D Colomer, M González, M Alcoceba, M J Terol, B Navarro, E Colado, Á R Payer, X S Puente, C López-Otín, A López-Guillermo, A Enjuanes, E Campo
Genome studies of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have revealed the remarkable subclonal heterogeneity of the tumors, but the clinical implications of this phenomenon are not well known. We assessed the mutational status of 28 CLL driver genes by deep-targeted next-generation sequencing and copy number alterations (CNA) in 406 previously untreated patients and 48 sequential samples. We detected small subclonal mutations (0.6-25% of cells) in nearly all genes (26/28), and they were the sole alteration in 22% of the mutated cases...
September 19, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923429/frequency-of-auditory-involvement-and-of-associated-factors-in-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#19
Adriana Ivonne Céspedes Cruz, Myriam Méndez Núñez, Eunice Solís Vallejo, Maritza Zeferino Cruz, Alfonso Ragnar Torres Jiménez, Verónica Ocampo Sánchez, Beatriz Flores Meza, Norma Quintana Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of arthritis in children under 16 years of age for more than 6 weeks in the absence of any other known cause. The extra-articular manifestations, especially in the audiovestibular system, are related to the involvement of the joints of the ossicular chain as a result of the inflammatory process in the synovium. Previous clinical studies in pediatric patients have shown conductive or sensorineural hearing loss...
September 8, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922992/policy-maker-attitudes-to-the-ageing-of-the-hiv-cohort-in-botswana
#20
Kabo Matlho, Refelwetswe Lebelonyane, Tim Driscoll, Joel Negin
BACKGROUND: The roll out of antiretroviral therapy in Botswana, as in many countries with near universal access to treatment, has transformed HIV into a complex yet manageable chronic condition and has led to the emergence of a population aging with HIV. Although there has been some realization of this development at international level, no clear defined intervention strategy has been established in many highly affected countries. Therefore we explored attitudes of policy-makers and service providers towards HIV among older adults (50 years or older) in Botswana...
December 2017: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
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