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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156608/fatty-acids-antioxidants-and-physical-activity-in-brain-aging
#1
REVIEW
Hércules Rezende Freitas, Gustavo da Costa Ferreira, Isis Hara Trevenzoli, Karen de Jesus Oliveira, Ricardo Augusto de Melo Reis
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156522/the-prevention-of-tnf-%C3%AE-ifn-%C3%AE-mixture-induced-inflammation-in-human-keratinocyte-and-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-in-nc-nga-mice-by-mineral-balanced-deep-sea-water
#2
Kyu-Shik Lee, So-Young Chun, Min-Gu Lee, Soyoung Kim, Tae-Jung Jang, Kyung-Soo Nam
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease caused by environmental and chemical allergens. Despite the complexity of its pathogenesis, many investigations have shown that substances having anti-inflammatory activities alleviated the pathology of AD. Here, we evaluated the effects of mineral-balanced deep sea water (DSW) on AD-like skin damage in both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that mineral-balanced DSW regressed inflammatory chemokines, such as macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA expression in HaCaT immortal human keratinocyte treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/ interferon (IFN)-γ mixture...
November 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156050/viral-factors-affecting-the-clinical-outcomes-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Hung-Chih Yang, Yi-Fen Shih, Chun-Jen Liu
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exhibits a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from spontaneous resolution of hepatitis B to severe adverse consequences, including the development of cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The heterogeneous clinical courses of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reflect the complex host-virus interactions, and point to the difficulty and necessity of identifying the patients at risk. With the advance of HBV virology, several viral factors have been found to be associated with the long-term clinical outcomes of CHB patients...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155496/insulin-resistance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
REVIEW
Hong Xu, Juan J Carrero
This review provides an overview of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). IR is a pathological state in which target tissues fail to respond normally to insulin. IR is understood as a consequence of CKD and its prevalence rises particularly in advanced CKD stages. Mechanisms leading to IR are complex and multifactorial, involving post-receptor signaling defects, unhealthy lifestyles, metabolic acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, vitamin D deficiency, anemia, and uremic toxicity, as shown by human and experimental studies over the last 30 years...
December 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155387/the-impact-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-outcomes-following-percutaneous-coronary-interventions-versus-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-in-patients-with-complex-coronary-artery-disease-5-year-follow-up-of-the-syntax-trial
#5
Milan Milojevic, Stuart J Head, Michael J Mack, Friedrich W Mohr, Marie-Claude Morice, Keith D Dawkins, David R Holmes, Patrick W Serruys, A Pieter Kappetein
AIMS: To investigate short-term and 5-year follow-up results from patients randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with paclitaxel-eluting stents in the SYNTAX trial, focusing on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline glomerular filtration rate estimates (eGFR) were available in 1638 patients (PCI=852 and CABG=786). The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes threshold was used to define staging of CKD...
November 21, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155345/the-relationship-between-hematoma-and-pachymeninges-in-an-interdural-hematoma-diagnosis-and-surgical-strategy
#6
Ko-Ting Chen, Hsu-Chen Huang, Ya-Jui Lin, Ming-Houng Chen, Tsung-Che Hsieh
BACKGROUND: The exact location of a hematoma in relation to the pachymeninges contributes to typical radiographic presentations. However, because of the complexity of hematoma evolution and neomembrane formation, an unexpected intraoperative finding may lead to a change of surgical strategy. Besides, the concentration of hemoglobin and its degradation products, the integrity of red blood cells (RBCs), and the infiltration of fibroblasts, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and macrophages are factors that affect the imaging characteristics on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the hematoma ages...
November 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155255/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-cardiovascular-health-and-aging-a-focus-on-physical-activity-and-nutrition
#7
REVIEW
Robert G Wallace, Laura C Twomey, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Jonathan Turner, Niall Moyna, Philip M Cummins, Ronan P Murphy
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transport of blood and nutrients to tissues, and is pivotal to the physiological health and longevity. Epigenetic modification is a natural, age-associated process resulting in highly contextualised gene expression with clear implications for cell differentiation and disease onset. Biological/epigenetic age is independent of chronological age, constituting a highly reflective snapshot of an individual's overall health. Accelerated vascular aging is of major concern, effectively lowering disease threshold...
November 16, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155205/cystic-echinococcosis-in-turkana-kenya-30-years-of-imaging-in-an-endemic-region
#8
N Solomon, E Zeyhle, K Subramanian, P J Fields, T Romig, P Kern, J Y Carter, J Wachira, A Mengiste, C N L Macpherson
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a widespread, complex zoonosis, causes chronic disease associated with high morbidity. The pastoral Turkana people of Kenya have one of the highest prevalence rates of CE in the world. Between 1983 and 2015, a CE control program in the Turkana region used ultrasound (US) screening surveys and surgical outreach visits to evaluate CE prevalence and treat those with the disease. As the gold standard modality for diagnosing CE, US reveals a great deal of information about the disease in affected populations...
November 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154966/determinants-of-fibrosis-progression-and-regression-in-nash
#9
REVIEW
Detlef Schuppan, Rambabu Surabattula, Xiao Yu Wang
Cirrhosis has become the major liver related clinical endpoint in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, progression to cirrhosis is less predictable in NASH compared to other chronic liver diseases. This is due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of NASH, which is determined by life style and nutrition, multiple genetic and epigenetic factors, and a prominent role of hepatic and extrahepatic comorbidities. Thus modest changes in these cofactors can also induce fibrosis regression, at least in precirrhotic patients...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154814/effects-of-aquarobic-exercise-and-burdock-intake-on-serum-blood-lipids-and-vascular-elasticity-in-korean-elderly-women
#10
Min-Seong Ha, Ji-Hyeon Kim, You-Sin Kim, Do-Yeon Kim
BACKGROUND: The elderly's health issues are often complex and tend to lead to chronic diseases; such issues can be due to a fitness decline resulting from a lack of physical activities. The burdock root is a blood purifier, lymphatic system strengthener, and natural diuretic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of aquarobic exercise and burdock intake on serum blood lipids and vascular elasticity in elderly women by implementing a 12-week program with these interventions...
November 14, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154073/a-new-topical-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-pediatric-patients-based-on-ficus-carica-l-fig-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#11
Shirin Abbasi, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Delara Babaie, SeyedMohammad Shams, Zahra Sadr, Mehdi Gheysari, Vahid Reza Askari, Hassan Rakhshandeh
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic, relapsing and inflammatory skin disease characterized by pruritus and xerosis (dry skin). Its prevalence is on the increase worldwide, particularly in children. As the pathogenesis of AD involves a complex interaction of genetic, environmental and immunological factors, its definitive treatment is difficult. OBJECTIVE: This clinical trial was designed as equivalence study to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of edible dried fig fruit on the severity of AD as measured with scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD), in comparison with Hydrocortisone 1...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154059/traditional-herbal-medicine-use-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-gondar-ethiopia-do-their-health-care-providers-know
#12
Kaleab Taye Haile, Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Chilot Abiyu Demeke, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Daniel Asfaw Erku
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the chronic nature of the disease, the complexities of treatment modalities and the difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens. Yet, research on herbal medicine use in this patient population is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with the use of traditional herbal medicine among PLWHA in Gondar, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted on 360 PLWHA attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from September 1 to 30, 2016...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153351/choosing-wisely-an-international-and-multimorbid-perspective
#13
Edouard J Battegay, Marcus Cheetham
Some medical diagnostic and therapeutic interventions are non-beneficial or even harmful. The Choosing Wisely campaign has encouraged the generation of "top five" lists of unnecessary low-value services in different specialist areas. In the USA alone, where the campaign was launched, these lists include a total of 450 evidence-based recommendations. Medical scientific societies in further countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, England, Switzerland and Germany have since initiated Choosing Wisely campaigns...
November 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153343/prevalence-of-anemia-in-hospitalized-internal-medicine-patients-correlations-with-comorbidities-and-length-of-hospital-stay
#14
Carlo Zaninetti, Catherine Klersy, Concetta Scavariello, Raffaella Bastia, Carlo L Balduini, Rosangela Invernizzi
BACKGROUND: Several studies have documented a linear growth of the prevalence of anemia with aging. Especially in hospitalized elderly patients, anemia can aggravate the course of chronic disorders, and ultimately get worse the clinical outcomes. METHODS: To evaluate the distribution, the main causes, and the possible correlations of anemia with comorbidities and length of hospitalization in a population of internal medicine inpatients, we carried out an observational study on a cohort of 923 consecutive admissions relative to 856 subjects...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153170/a-100-year-review-stress-physiology-including-heat-stress
#15
R J Collier, B J Renquist, Y Xiao
Stress is an external event or condition that places a strain on a biological system. The animal response to a stress involves the expenditure of energy to remove or reduce the impact of the stress. This increases maintenance requirements of the animal and results in loss of production. The biological response to stress is divided into acute and chronic phases, with the acute phase lasting hours to a few days and the chronic phase lasting several days to weeks. The acute response is driven by homeostatic regulators of the nervous and endocrine systems and the chronic phase by homeorhetic regulators of the endocrine system...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153094/differences-between-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-and-small-lymphocytic-lymphoma-cells-by-proteomic-profiling-and-snp-microarray-analysis
#16
Jennifer A Tooze, Edita Hamzic, Fenella Willis, Ruth Pettengell
The majority of malignant cells in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) circulate in the peripheral blood whereas small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) cells reside in tissues. The aim of this study was to detect differences in chemokine receptor expression, DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis and proteomic profiling to help elucidate why the cells remain in their respective environments. We identified by flow cytometric studies of chemokine receptors and DNA SNP microarray analysis significant differences between cells from CLL and SLL patients...
December 2017: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152994/decreased-connectivity-and-increased-bold-complexity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-individuals-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#17
Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152155/chibby-1-a-new-component-of-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#18
REVIEW
Manuela Mancini, Simona Soverini, Gabriele Gugliotta, Maria Alessandra Santucci, Gianantonio Rosti, Michele Cavo, Giovanni Martinelli, Fausto Castagnetti
Chibby 1 (CBY1) is a small and evolutionarily conserved protein, which act as β-catenin antagonist. CBY1 is encoded by C22orf2 (22q13.1) Its antagonistic function on β-catenin involves the direct interaction with: The C-terminal activation domain of β-catenin, which hinders β-catenin binding with Tcf/Lef transcription factors hence repressing β-catenin transcriptional activation. 14-3-3 scaffolding proteins (σ or ξ), which drive CBY1 nuclear export into a stable tripartite complex with β-catenin. The relative proximity of C22orf2 gene encoding for CBY1 to the BCR breakpoint on chromosome 22q11, whose translocation and rearrangement with the c-ABL is the causative event of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), suggested that gene haploinsufficiency may play a role in the disease pathogenesis and progression...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151591/us-health-policy-and-prescription-drug-coverage-of-fda-approved-medications-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#19
G Gomez, F C Stanford
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is now the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States, which amounts to an estimated $147 billion in health care spending annually. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted in 2010, included provisions for private and public health insurance plans that expanded coverage for lifestyle/behavior modification and bariatric surgery for the treatment of obesity. Pharmacotherapy, however, has not been included despite their evidence-based efficacy. We set out to investigate the coverage of FDA-approved medications for obesity within Medicare, Medicaid, and ACA-established marketplace health insurance plans...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151307/quality-of-life-and-fall-risk-in-frail-hospitalized-elderly-patients
#20
Zeynel Abidin Öztürk, Sedat Özdemir, İbrahim Halil Türkbeyler, Zeynep Demir
Background/aim: Frailty is a complex, multifactorial, and important geriatric syndrome characterized by decline in physiological reserves and functional deficiency in multiple systems. The aim of the current study is to investigate the prevalence of frailty and to determine the correlation between quality of life (QoL) and falling risk in geriatric hospitalized patients. Materials and methods: A total of 420 patients, aged 65 years and above, were enrolled in the study. All participants were hospitalized at a university hospital in the internal medicine clinics...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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