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Complex chronic disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922780/community-matrons-as-problem-solvers-for-people-living-with-multi-co-morbid-disease
#1
Sue Randall, Colin Thunhurst, Gill Furze
Working with patients in their own homes gives community matrons an advantage of seeing patients in the context of their everyday lives. This allows comprehensive assessment of need with an aim of promoting health or promoting stability for people living with chronic disease. Complex issues are resolved through problem-solving and this can result in patients being maintained in their own homes and thus in reduced unplanned hospitalisation. Data were collected from participants using semi-structured interviews and audio diaries...
December 2, 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921425/-oxldl-%C3%AE-2-glycoprotein-i-complex-as-a-pro-atherogenic-autoantigen-is-atherosclerosis-an-autoimmune-disease
#2
Pavel Kraml
Oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Oxidation stress and inflammation are closely interrelated and they can potentiate one another. In the subendothelial space of the arterial intima, monocytes/macrophages become activated and phagocyte oxidized LDL (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors. It has been demonstrated that oxLDL forms complex with plasma β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and becomes autoantigenic triggering synthesis of specific antiphosholipid antibodies...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921197/counselees-perspectives-of-genomic-counseling-following-online-receipt-of-multiple-actionable-complex-disease-and-pharmacogenomic-results-a-qualitative-research-study
#3
Kevin Sweet, Shelly Hovick, Amy C Sturm, Tara Schmidlen, Erynn Gordon, Barbara Bernhardt, Lisa Wawak, Karen Wernke, Joseph McElroy, Laura Scheinfeldt, Amanda E Toland, J S Roberts, Michael Christman
Genomic applications raise multiple challenges including the optimization of genomic counseling (GC) services as part of the results delivery process. More information on patients' motivations, preferences, and informational needs are essential to guide the development of new, more efficient practice delivery models that capitalize on the existing strengths of a limited genetic counseling workforce. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of counselees from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative following online receipt of multiple personalized genomic test reports...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#4
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919897/genetic-evidence-for-cytochrome-b-qi-site-inhibition-by-4-1h-quinolone-3-diarylethers-and-antimycin-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#5
P Holland Alday, Igor Bruzual, Aaron Nilsen, Sovitj Pou, Rolf Winter, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Michael K Riscoe, J Stone Doggett
Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye disease. Endochin-like-quinolones (ELQs) are preclinical compounds that are efficacious against apicomplexan-caused diseases including toxoplasmosis, malaria and babesiosis. Of the ELQs, ELQ-316 has demonstrated the greatest efficacy against acute and chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. Although genetic analyses in other organisms have highlighted the importance of the cytochrome bc1 complex Qi site for ELQ sensitivity, the mechanism of action of ELQs against T...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917712/the-role-of-antiplatelet-therapy-in-primary-prevention-a-review
#6
Lauge Østergaard, Emil L Fosbøl, Matthew T Roe
The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease after an ischemic event is well established. However, the role for antiplatelet therapy for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is more complex because of the interplay of efficacy vs safety in individuals without established cardiovascular disease who have a relatively low, but linear trajectory of cardiovascular risk. Several large randomized trials have investigated the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy (primarily aspirin) for patients without established cardiovascular disease...
December 5, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917630/a-novel-cybb-mutation-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-in-iran
#7
Shaghayegh Tajik, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Massoud Houshmand, Fariborz Zandieh, Shamim Khandan, Zahra Pourpak
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder due to a genetic defect in one of the components of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. This complex is composed of membrane-bound gp91-phox and p22-phox subunits, and cytosolic subunits consisting of p47-phox, p67-phox, and p40-phox. A mutation in CYBB gene encoding gp91-phox located on chromosome Xp21.1, leads to X-linked CGD. Herein, we report a 4-year-old Iranian boy presented with episodes of recurrent fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and abdominal abscesses...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917262/toll-like-receptors-in-pathophysiology-of-liver-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Safak Kiziltas
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in host defense by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns alongside inflammatory processes by recognizing damage associated molecular patterns. Given constant exposure to pathogens from gut, strict control of TLR-associated signaling pathways is essential in the liver, which otherwise may lead to inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons and may generate a predisposition to several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915422/state-of-the-art-review-of-the-right-ventricle-in-copd-patients-it-is-time-to-look-closer
#9
REVIEW
Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi
Since the first description of pulmonary circulation in the 16th century, the knowledge of the complex interaction between the heart and lungs has greatly improved. Hypoxemia plays a classical role in the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, more recent results have revealed the presence of RV vascular structural and functional changes even in patients with mild COPD, without hypoxemia or pulmonary hypertension at rest...
December 3, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915351/the-role-of-nephrologist-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#10
Zoltán H Endre
Participation by nephrologists is needed in most intensive care units, even when such units are 'closed'. This participation should assist with diagnosis and management of intrinsic and complex renal diseases such as vasculitis, complex metabolic and electrolyte disorders including hyponatremia, and acute kidney injury (AKI) with and without underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD). Early nephrologist involvement will also facilitate transition to continuing care and follow-up after an episode of AKI, but may also assist in avoiding dialysis where treatment is futile...
December 3, 2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914975/techniques-for-chronic-monitoring-of-brain-activity-in-freely-moving-sheep-using-wireless-longitudinal-eeg-recording
#11
N Perentos, A U Nicol, A Q Martins, J E Stewart, P Taylor, A J Morton
BACKGROUND: Large mammals with complex central nervous systems offer new possibilities for translational research into basic brain function. Techniques for monitoring brain activity in large mammals, however, are not as well developed as they are in rodents. NEW METHOD: We have developed a method for chronic monitoring of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in unrestrained sheep. We describe the methods for behavioural training prior to implantation, surgical procedures for implantation, a protocol for reliable anaesthesia and recovery, methods for EEG data collection, as well as data pertaining to suitability and longevity of different types of electrodes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914923/alloantigen-gene-transfer-to-hepatocytes-promotes-tolerance-to-pancreatic-islet-graft-by-inducing-cd8-regulatory-t-cells
#12
Valentin Le Guen, Jean-Paul Judor, Françoise Boeffard, Vanessa Gauttier, Nicolas Ferry, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Sophie Brouard, Sophie Conchon
BACKGROUND & AIM: Induction of donor-specific immune tolerance is a good alternative to chronic life-long immunosuppression for transplant patients. Donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represent the main targets of the allogeneic immune response of transplant recipients. Liver-targeted gene transfer with viral vectors induces tolerance toward the encoded antigen. The aim of this work was to determine whether alloantigen gene transfer to hepatocytes induces tolerance and promotes graft acceptance...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914813/normal-human-gingival-fibroblasts-undergo-cytostasis-and-apoptosis-after-long-term-exposure-to-butyric-acid
#13
Michihiro Shirasugi, Keisuke Nishioka, Toshiro Yamamoto, Takaaki Nakaya, Narisato Kanamura
The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914804/nutrition-and-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#14
Luca Semerano, Chantal Julia, Ouidade Aitisha, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota...
November 30, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914739/infection-by-mycobacterium-bovis-in-a-dog-from-brazil
#15
Vivianne Cambuí Figueiredo Rocha, Salomão Cambuí de Figueiredo, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales, Camila Dias Porto, Julio Lopes Sequeira, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Antônio Carlos Paes, Vanessa Riesz Salgado
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease caused by bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC). This disease rarely affects dogs. Canine infections are usually caused by M. tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis infections are rare in dogs and associated with consumption of raw milk or contaminated products. Here, we report a Boxer dog who had a M. bovis infection and was admitted to a Brazilian veterinary hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of chronic ehrlichiosis. Despite receiving treatment for chronic ehrlichiosis, it progressed to death...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914701/il-2-anti-il-2-complexes-ameliorate-lupus-nephritis-by-expansion-of-cd4-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t%C3%A2-cells
#16
Ji-Jing Yan, Jae-Ghi Lee, Joon Young Jang, Tai Yeon Koo, Curie Ahn, Jaeseok Yang
Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can delay disease progression and reduce mortality in lupus-prone mice. Here, we tested whether complex (IL-2C) consisting of IL-2 and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (JES6-1) ameliorates lupus nephritis by expanding Tregs as an alternative to problematic Treg infusion therapy. IL-2C treatment of NZB/W F1 mice induced an effective and sustained expansion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in both the kidneys and spleen along with decreased renal infiltration of T cells, B cells, and innate immune cells...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914129/polymorphisms-of-promoter-region-of-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-in-iranian-azeri-turkish-patients-with-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#18
Reza Abdolmohammadi, Mortaza Bonyadi
Behçet's disease (BD) is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Alterations of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression related to the polymorphic alleles of TNF gene may implicate a pathogenetic role in increased activity of this cytokine in BD. A current study aimed at investigating the possible association between BD and its clinical features in Iranian Azeri Turks with two functional TNF-α gene polymorphisms (at the positions of -238 and -857). A total number of 166 Iranian subjects were enrolled into two different groups; patients with BD (n = 64), and ethnically matched healthy controls (n = 101)...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913515/cellular-immune-responses-in-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization
#19
James C Zimring, Krystalyn E Hudson
In excess of 340 blood group antigens have now been described that vary between individuals. Thus, any unit of blood that is nonautologous represents a significant dose of alloantigen. Most blood group antigens are proteins, which differ by a single amino acid between donors and recipients. Approximately 1 out of every 70 individuals are transfused each year (in the United States alone), which leads to antibody responses to red blood cell (RBC) alloantigens in some transfusion recipients. When alloantibodies are formed, in many cases, RBCs expressing the antigen in question can no longer be safely transfused...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#20
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
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