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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144308/numerical-simulation-of-filtration-performance-in-submerged-membrane-bioreactors-effect-of-particle-packed-structure
#1
Zhidong Wang, Kuizu Su, Tong Shu, Weihong Wang
It is widely known that the accumulation of solid matter forming a cake layer on the membrane surface is one of the major limitations of the filtration performance in submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBR). This study is focused on the influence of the cake porosity of different particle microscopic packed structures on the filtration performance of hollow fiber systems. An integrated model based on the finite element method to simulate numerically the flow in an SMBR is presented. The model coupled the Navier-Stokes and Darcy Brinkman equations to simulate a complete filtration run...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082215/modelling-tumor-induced-angiogenesis-combination-of-stochastic-sprout-spacing-and-sprout-progression
#2
F Hosseini, N Naghavi
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis initiated by cancerous cells is the process by which new blood vessels are formed to enhance oxygenation and growth of tumor. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we present a new multiscale mathematical model for the formation of a vascular network in tumor angiogenesis process. METHODS: Our model couples an improved sprout spacing model as a stochastic mathematical model of sprouting along an existing parent blood vessel, with a mathematical model of sprout progression in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to some tumor angiogenic factors (TAFs)...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077067/simulation-and-experimental-studies-on-grain-selection-and-structure-design-of-the-spiral-selector-for-casting-single-crystal-ni-based-superalloy
#3
Hang Zhang, Qingyan Xu
Grain selection is an important process in single crystal turbine blades manufacturing. Selector structure is a control factor of grain selection, as well as directional solidification (DS). In this study, the grain selection and structure design of the spiral selector were investigated through experimentation and simulation. A heat transfer model and a 3D microstructure growth model were established based on the Cellular automaton-Finite difference (CA-FD) method for the grain selector. Consequently, the temperature field, the microstructure and the grain orientation distribution were simulated and further verified...
October 27, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061888/innovation-and-the-growth-of-human-population
#4
V P Weinberger, C Quiñinao, P A Marquet
Biodiversity is sustained by and is essential to the services that ecosystems provide. Different species would use these services in different ways, or adaptive strategies, which are sustained in time by continuous innovations. Using this framework, we postulate a model for a biological species (Homo sapiens) in a finite world where innovations, aimed at increasing the flux of ecosystem services (a measure of habitat quality), increase with population size, and have positive effects on the generation of new innovations (positive feedback) as well as costs in terms of negatively affecting the provision of ecosystem services...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054768/a-branching-process-model-of-heterogeneous-dna-damages-caused-by-radiotherapy-in-in-vitro-cell-cultures
#5
T Bastogne, J-L Marchand, S Pinel, P Vallois
This paper deals with the dynamic modeling and simulation of cell damage heterogeneity and associated mutant cell phenotypes in the therapeutic responses of cancer cell populations submitted to a radiotherapy session during in vitro assays. Each cell is described by a finite number of phenotypic states with possible transitions between them. The population dynamics is then given by an age-dependent multi-type branching process. From this representation, we obtain formulas for the average size of the global survival population as well as the one of subpopulations associated with 10 mutation phenotypes...
October 18, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989302/on-the-keller-rubinow-model-for-liesegang-ring-formation
#6
J M Duley, A C Fowler, I R Moyles, S B G O'Brien
We study the model of Keller & Rubinow (Keller & Rubinow 1981 J. Chem. Phys74, 5000-5007. (doi:10.1063/1.441752)) describing the formation of Liesegang rings due to Ostwald's supersaturation mechanism. Keller and Rubinow provided an approximate solution both for the growth and equilibration of the first band, and also for the formation of secondary bands, based on a presumed asymptotic limit. However, they did not provide a parametric basis for the assumptions in their solution, nor did they provide any numerical corroboration, particularly of the secondary band formation...
September 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976599/biomechanical-investigation-of-two-long-bone-growth-modulation-techniques-by-finite-element-simulations
#7
Manuel Schneider, Jan Buschbaum, Alexander Joeris, Oliver Röhrle, Jonathan Dwyer, James B Hunter, Richard A K Reynolds, Theodor F Slongo, Boyko Gueorguiev, Peter Varga
Implants used to correct pathological varus-valgus deformities (VVD) and leg length discrepancies (LLD) may not be optimized for the specific treatment, as suggested by their off-label use. Detailed analysis of this issue has been limited by the poorly understood mechanical behavior of the growing physis and ignorance of the loads acting on the implants. The aim of this study was to predict and compare the loading conditions of a growth modulation implant in VVD and LLD treatments. Idealized finite element (FE) models of the juvenile distal femur treated with the eight-Plate implant were developed for VVD and LLD...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968837/denser-growing-fiber-connections-induce-3-hinge-gyral-folding
#8
Fangfei Ge, Xiao Li, Mir Jalil Razavi, Hanbo Chen, Tuo Zhang, Shu Zhang, Lei Guo, Xiaoping Hu, Xianqiao Wang, Tianming Liu
Recent studies have shown that quantitative description of gyral shape patterns offers a novel window to examine the relationship between brain structure and function. Along this research line, this paper examines a unique and interesting type of cortical gyral region where 3 different gyral crests meet, termed 3-hinge gyral region. We extracted 3-hinge gyral regions in macaque/chimpanzee/human brains, quantified and compared the relevant DTI-derived fiber densities in 3-hinge and 2-hinge gyral regions. Our observations consistently showed that DTI-derived fiber densities in 3-hinge regions are much higher than those in 2-hinge regions...
August 30, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964113/memory-effects-transient-growth-and-wave-breakup-in-a-model-of-paced-atrium
#9
Alejandro Garzón, Roman O Grigoriev
The mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrillation have been investigated for over a century, but we are still finding surprising results that change our view of this phenomenon. The present study focuses on the transition from normal rhythm to spiral wave chaos associated with a gradual increase in the pacing rate. While some of our findings are consistent with existing experimental, numerical, and theoretical studies of this problem, one result appears to contradict the accepted picture. Specifically we show that, in a two-dimensional model of paced homogeneous atrial tissue, transition from discordant alternans to conduction block, wave breakup, reentry, and spiral wave chaos is associated with the transient growth of finite amplitude disturbances rather than a conventional instability...
September 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951908/vertically-standing-nanoporous-al-ag-zig-zag-silver-nanorod-arrays-for-highly-active-sers-substrates
#10
Ankita Rajput, Samir Kumar, Jitendra P Singh
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has emerged as a promising technique for chemical and biological sensing. "Hot spots" are the areas on noble metal nanostructures where light is highly concentrated into small volumes and enhances the local electromagnetic field near the metal nanostructures. These hot spots have been claimed to provide extraordinary enhancements to the SERS signal. Here, we report the fabrication of nanoporous zig-zag Ag nanostructures with built-in high density hot spots. The zig-zag Ag nanostructures were fabricated by glancing angle deposition of Ag and Al, with Al deposited on the edges of the zig-zag structure during growth...
September 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951659/macrodamage-accumulation-model-for-a-human-femur
#11
Farah Hamandi, Tarun Goswami
The objective of this study was to more fully understand the mechanical behavior of bone tissue that is important to find an alternative material to be used as an implant and to develop an accurate model to predict the fracture of the bone. Predicting and preventing bone failure is an important area in orthopaedics. In this paper, the macrodamage accumulation models in the bone tissue have been investigated. Phenomenological models for bone damage have been discussed in detail. In addition, 3D finite element model of the femur prepared from imaging data with both cortical and trabecular structures is delineated using MIMICS and ANSYS® and simulated as a composite structure...
2017: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943156/a-continuum-theoretical-model-and-finite-elements-simulation-of-bacterial-flagellar-filament-phase-transition
#12
REVIEW
Xiaoling Wang, Shuo Meng, Jingshi Han
The Bacterial flagellar filament can undergo a polymorphic phase transition in response to both mechanical and chemical variations in vitro and in vivo environments. Under mechanical stimuli, such as viscous flow or forces induced by motor rotation, the filament changes its phase from left-handed normal (N) to right-handed semi-coiled (SC) via phase nucleation and growth. Our detailed mechanical analysis of existing experiments shows that both torque and bending moment contribute to the filament phase transition...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894138/mechanical-bone-growth-stimulation-by-magnetic-fibre-networks-obtained-through-a%C3%A2-competent-finite-element-technique
#13
Wolfram A Bosbach
Fibre networks combined with a matrix material in their void phase make the design of novel and smart composite materials possible. Their application is of great interest in the field of advanced paper or as bioactive tissue engineering scaffolds. In the present study, we analyse the mechanical interaction between metallic fibre networks under magnetic actuation and a matrix material. Experimentally validated FE models are combined for that purpose in one joint simulation. High performance computing facilities are used...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886659/coarsening-and-aging-of-lattice-polymers-influence-of-bond-fluctuations
#14
Henrik Christiansen, Suman Majumder, Wolfhard Janke
We present results for the nonequilibrium dynamics of collapse for a model flexible homopolymer on simple cubic lattices with fixed and fluctuating bonds between the monomers. Results from our Monte Carlo simulations show that, phenomenologically, the sequence of events observed during the collapse are independent of the bond criterion. While the growth of the clusters (of monomers) at different temperatures exhibits a non-universal power-law behavior when the bonds are fixed, the introduction of fluctuations in the bonds by considering the existence of diagonal bonds produces a temperature independent growth, which can be described by a universal nonequilibrium finite-size scaling function with a non-universal metric factor...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874278/characterization-of-the-age-dependent-shape-of-the-pediatric-thoracic-spine-and-vertebrae-using-generalized-procrustes-analysis
#15
James R Peters, Robert M Campbell, Sriram Balasubramanian
Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA) is a superimposition method used to generate size-invariant distributions of homologous landmark points. Several studies have used GPA to assess the three-dimensional (3D) shapes of or to evaluate sex-related differences in the human brain, skull, rib cage, pelvis and lower limbs. Previous studies of the pediatric thoracic vertebrae suggest that they may undergo changes in shape asa result of normative growth. This study uses GPA and second order polynomial equations to model growth and age- and sex-related changes in shape of the pediatric thoracic spine...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854662/population-growth-of-dysaphis-pyri-hemiptera-aphididae-on-different-pear-cultivars-with-discussion-on-curve-fitting-in-life-table-studies
#16
Remzi Atlihan, Ismail Kasap, M Salih Özgökçe, Evin Polat-Akköprü, Hsin Chi
Population growth parameters of the Dysaphis pyri (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were evaluated on four different cultivars (Coscia, Ankara, Williams, and Santa-Maria) of pear (Pyrus communis L.) under field conditions in the Van region of Turkey. Aphids were kept on leaves of 10-yr-old pear trees in Plexiglas clip-cells (20 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height, with the upper side covered with muslin). For the description of the stage differentiation during population growth, we analyzed raw data of developmental time, survival, and fecundity using the age-stage, two-sex life table to take the variable developmental rate among individuals into account...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836505/on-state-evolution-in-lateral-and-vertical-vo2-threshold-switching-devices
#17
Dasheng Li, Abhishek A Sharma, Nikhil Shukla, Hanjong Paik, Jonathan M Goodwill, Suman Datta, Darrell G Schlom, James A Bain, Marek Skowronski
We report the results of finite element simulations of the ON state characteristic of VO2-based threshold switching devices and compare the results with experimental data. The model is based on thermally induced threshold switching (thermal runaway) and successfully reproduces the I-V characteristics showing the formation and growth of the conductive filament in the ON state. Furthermore, we compare the I-V characteristics for two VO2 films with different electrical conductivities in the insulating and metallic phases as well as those based on TaO x and NbO x functional layers...
August 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823079/mechanobiological-model-of-arterial-growth-and-remodeling
#18
Maziyar Keshavarzian, Clark A Meyer, Heather N Hayenga
A coupled agent-based model (ABM) and finite element analysis (FEA) computational framework is developed to study the interplay of bio-chemo-mechanical factors in blood vessels and their role in maintaining homeostasis. The agent-based model implements the power of REPAST Simphony libraries and adapts its environment for biological simulations. Coupling a continuum-level model (FEA) to a cellular-level model (ABM) has enabled this computational framework to capture the response of blood vessels to increased or decreased levels of growth factors, proteases and other signaling molecules (on the micro scale) as well as altered blood pressure...
August 19, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819754/development-of-the-hybrid-cells-in-series-model-to-simulate-ammonia-nutrient-pollutant-transport-along-the-umgeni-river
#19
Kayode O Olowe, Muthukrishnavellaisamy Kumarasamy
Discharge of organic waste results in high nutrient pollution of the water bodies which is a major menace to the environment. A high quantity of nutrients such as ammonia causes a reduction in the dissolved oxygen level and induces algal growth in the water bodies. Water quality models have been the tools to evaluate the rate at which streams can disperse the pollutants they receive. Many water quality models are flawed either because of their inadequacy to completely simulate the advection component of the pollutant transport, or because of the limited application of the models, due to inaccurate estimation of model parameters...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799362/on-the-time-required-to-freeze-water
#20
J R Espinosa, C Navarro, E Sanz, C Valeriani, C Vega
By using the seeding technique the nucleation rate for the formation of ice at room pressure will be estimated for the TIP4P/ICE model using longer runs and a smaller grid of temperatures than in the previous work. The growth rate of ice will be determined for TIP4P/ICE and for the mW model of water. Although TIP4P/ICE and mW have a similar melting point and melting enthalpy, they differ significantly in the dynamics of freezing. The nucleation rate of mW is lower than that of TIP4P/ICE due to its higher interfacial free energy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
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