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Modelling heart valve growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911943/heterozygous-deletion-of-akt1-rescues-cardiac-contractility-but-not-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines
#1
Rajika Roy, Maike Krenz
Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines (NSML) is associated with congenital heart disease in form of pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Genetically, NSML is primarily caused by mutations in the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Importantly, certain SHP2 mutations such as Q510E can cause a particularly severe form of HCM with heart failure in infancy. Due to lack of insight into the underlying pathomechanisms, an effective custom-tailored therapy to prevent heart failure in these patients has not yet been found...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714932/thrombospondins-a-role-in-cardiovascular-disease
#2
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Thrombospondins (TSPs) represent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins belonging to the TSP family that comprises five members. All TSPs have a complex multidomain structure that permits the interaction with various partners including other ECM proteins, cytokines, receptors, growth factors, etc. Among TSPs, TSP1, TSP2, and TSP4 are the most studied and functionally tested. TSP1 possesses anti-angiogenic activity and is able to activate transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a potent profibrotic and anti-inflammatory factor...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674029/atla-mediates-extracellular-dna-release-which-contributes-to-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-infective-endocarditis
#3
Chiau-Jing Jung, Ron-Bin Hsu, Chia-Tung Shun, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Jean-San Chia
Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (ΔatlA) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that extracellular DNA (eDNA) was embedded in S...
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620766/phenotype-transformation-of-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-due-to-applied-shear-stresses-within-a-microfluidic-chip
#4
Xinmei Wang, Joohyung Lee, Mir Ali, Jungkyu Kim, Carla M R Lacerda
Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses...
June 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567021/assessment-of-fetal-development-using-cardiac-valve-intervals
#5
Faezeh Marzbanrad, Ahsan H Khandoker, Yoshitaka Kimura, Marimuthu Palaniswami, Gari D Clifford
An automated method to assess the fetal physiological development is introduced which uses the component intervals between fetal cardiac valve timings and the Q-wave of fetal electrocardiogram (fECG). These intervals were estimated automatically from one-dimensional Doppler Ultrasound and noninvasive fECG. We hypothesize that the fetal growth can be estimated by the cardiac valve intervals. This hypothesis was evaluated by modeling the fetal development using the cardiac intervals and validating against the gold standard gestational age identified by Crown-Rump Length (CRL)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520540/virtual-surgery-for-conduit-reconstruction-of-the-right-ventricular-outflow-tract
#6
Chin Siang Ong, Yue-Hin Loke, Justin Opfermann, Laura Olivieri, Luca Vricella, Axel Krieger, Narutoshi Hibino
PURPOSE: Virtual surgery involves the planning and simulation of surgical reconstruction using three-dimensional (3D) modeling based upon individual patient data, augmented by simulation of planned surgical alterations including implantation of devices or grafts. Here we describe a case in which virtual cardiac surgery aided us in determining the optimal conduit size to use for the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. DESCRIPTION: The patient is a young adolescent male with a history of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, requiring right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit replacement...
May 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329138/small-intestinal-submucosa-tricuspid-valve-tube-graft-shows-growth-potential-remodelling-and-physiological-valve-function-in-a-porcine-model%C3%A2
#7
Diana M Ropcke, Christine Ilkjaer, Marcell J Tjornild, Soren N Skov, Steffen Ringgaard, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Sten L Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Tricuspid valve reconstruction using small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix (ECM) designed as a tube graft is possible in severe valve pathology. Using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital photograph imaging, valves were evaluated after 6 months in a porcine model. METHODS: Ten 60 kg pigs received a tricuspid valve tube graft. A baseline MRI was performed after 2 weeks ( n  = 8). A follow-up MRI was performed in three of five 6 months' survivors to assess function and haemodynamics of the tricuspid tube graft...
June 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179397/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-induces-aortic-valve-calcification-by-inhibiting-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signaling-in-valvular-interstitial-cells
#8
Bongkun Choi, Sahmin Lee, Sang-Min Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sun Ro Lee, Dae-Hee Kim, Jeong Yoon Jang, Sang-Wook Kang, Ki-Up Lee, Eun-Ju Chang, Jae-Kwan Song
BACKGROUND: Calcification of the aortic valve leads to increased leaflet stiffness and consequently to the development of calcific aortic valve disease. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of calcification remain unclear. Here, we identified that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, also known as CD26) increases valvular calcification and promotes calcific aortic valve disease progression. METHODS: We obtained the aortic valve tissues from humans and murine models (wild-type and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient-mice) and cultured the valvular interstitial cells (VICs) and valvular endothelial cells from the cusps...
May 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178293/%C3%AE-ct-of-ex-vivo-stained-mouse-hearts-and-embryos-enables-a-precise-match-between-3d-virtual-histology-classical-histology-and-immunochemistry
#9
Christian Dullin, Roser Ufartes, Emanuel Larsson, Sabine Martin, Marcio Lazzarini, Giuliana Tromba, Jeannine Missbach-Guentner, Diana Pinkert-Leetsch, Dörthe M Katschinski, Frauke Alves
The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109865/a-survey-of-membrane-receptor-regulation-in-valvular-interstitial-cells-cultured-under-mechanical-stresses
#10
Mir S Ali, Xinmei Wang, Carla M R Lacerda
Degenerative valvular diseases have been linked to the action of abnormal forces on valve tissues during each cardiac cycle. It is now accepted that the degenerative behavior of valvular cells can be induced mechanically in vitro. This approach of in vitro modeling of valvular cells in culture constitutes a powerful tool to study, characterize, and develop predictors of heart valve degeneration in vivo. Using such in vitro systems, we expect to determine the exact signaling mechanisms that trigger and mediate propagation of degenerative signals...
February 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989051/pga-polyglycolic-acid-p4hb-poly-4-hydroxybutyrate-based-bioengineered-valves-in-the-rat-aortic-circulation
#11
Agnieszka A Książek, Katharyn J Mitchell, Nikola Cesarovic, Colin C Schwarzwald, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber
BACKGROUND: Bioengineered living autologous valves with remodeling and growth capacity represent a promising concept for future cardiac and venous valve repair. A meticulous understanding of the mechanisms involved in recellularization and remodeling is essential for the safe and efficient clinical translation of this technology. In this context, the first investigations of bioengineered vascular grafts in immune-incompetent or transgenic rodents represented an important step. However, the in-vivo assessment of bioengineered synthetic scaffold-based (biodegradable) valve replacements in rodent models has not been achieved to date...
May 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789941/nanopatterned-acellular-valve-conduits-drive-the-commitment-of-blood-derived-multipotent-cells
#12
Rosa Di Liddo, Paola Aguiari, Silvia Barbon, Thomas Bertalot, Amit Mandoli, Alessia Tasso, Sandra Schrenk, Laura Iop, Alessandro Gandaglia, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Maria Teresa Conconi, Gino Gerosa
Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC) on acellular aortic (AVL) and pulmonary (PVL) valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665220/surgical-reconstruction-of-semilunar-valves-in-the-growing-child-should-we-mimic-the-venous-valve-a-simulation-study
#13
Peter E Hammer, Erin G Roberts, Sitaram M Emani, Pedro J Del Nido
OBJECTIVES: Neither heart valve repair methods nor current prostheses can accommodate patient growth. Normal aortic and pulmonary valves have 3 leaflets, and the goal of valve repair and replacement is typically to restore normal 3-leaflet morphology. However, mammalian venous valves have bileaflet morphology and open and close effectively over a wide range of vessel sizes. We propose that they might serve as a model for pediatric heart valve reconstruction and replacement valve design...
February 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624834/fruit-shape-diversity-in-the-brassicaceae-is-generated-by-varying-patterns-of-anisotropy
#14
Tilly Eldridge, Łukasz Łangowski, Nicola Stacey, Friederike Jantzen, Laila Moubayidin, Adrien Sicard, Paul Southam, Richard Kennaway, Michael Lenhard, Enrico S Coen, Lars Østergaard
Fruits exhibit a vast array of different 3D shapes, from simple spheres and cylinders to more complex curved forms; however, the mechanism by which growth is oriented and coordinated to generate this diversity of forms is unclear. Here, we compare the growth patterns and orientations for two very different fruit shapes in the Brassicaceae: the heart-shaped Capsella rubella silicle and the near-cylindrical Arabidopsis thaliana silique. We show, through a combination of clonal and morphological analyses, that the different shapes involve different patterns of anisotropic growth during three phases...
September 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468412/denosumab-could-be-a-potential-inhibitor-of-valvular-interstitial-cells-calcification-in-vitro
#15
Daniel Alejandro Lerman, Sai Prasad, Nasri Alotti
OBJECTIVE: Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody and novel antiresorptive agent that works by binding receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and inhibiting the signaling cascade that causes osteoclast maturation, activity, and survival. We aimed to elucidate the effect of Denosumab in the process of spontaneous and induced calcification in an in vitro porcine valvular interstitial cells (VICs) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VICs were extracted from fresh porcine hearts by serial collagenase digestion...
January 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423336/effect-of-aortic-pericardial-valve-choice-on-outcomes-and-left-ventricular-mass-regression-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#16
Fraser D Rubens, Yen-Yen Gee, Janet M C Ngu, Li Chen, Ian G Burwash
OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the effect of 2 contemporary pericardial valves on left ventricular mass regression and clinical outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: Patients were followed postoperatively in a dedicated valve clinic. A propensity score was derived for each patient and used to adjust all analyses. Longitudinal analysis was performed using a repeated measures growth curve model. Survival analysis was assessed with a Cox proportional hazards model...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955732/-effect-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-on-human-heart-valve-interstitial-cells-calcification-in-vitro
#17
Ling Qiuyang, Wu Ting, Ye Ting, Su Zhaoliang, Zong Gangjun
OBJECTIVE: To establish human heart valve interstitial cells calcification culture model in vitro, and observe the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on calcification of human heart valve interstitial cells. METHODS: Human heart valve interstitial cells were cultured in vitro, and divided into control group: cells were cultured in conventional media plus recombinant human BMP-2 treatment and experimental group: besides above treaments, calcification inducers ( recombinant human BMP-2, β-glycerophosphate, L-ascorbic acid, dexamethasone) were added to the culture media...
August 2015: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26786673/effect-of-heart-rate-on-the-hemodynamics-of-bileaflet-mechanical-heart-valves-prostheses-st-jude-medical-in-the-aortic-position-and-in-the-opening-phase-a-computational-study
#18
Mehdi Jahandardoost, Guy Fradet, Hadi Mohammadi
To date, to the best of the authors' knowledge, in almost all of the studies performed around the hemodynamics of bileaflet mechanical heart valves, a heart rate of 70-72 beats/min has been considered. In fact, the heart rate of ~72 beats/min does not represent the entire normal physiological conditions under which the aortic or prosthetic valves function. The heart rates of 120 or 50 beats/min may lead to hemodynamic complications, such as plaque formation and/or thromboembolism in patients. In this study, the hemodynamic performance of the bileaflet mechanical heart valves in a wide range of normal and physiological heart rates, that is, 60-150 beats/min, was studied in the opening phase...
March 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26476967/on-intrinsic-stress-fiber-contractile-forces-in-semilunar-heart-valve-interstitial-cells-using-a-continuum-mixture-model
#19
Yusuke Sakamoto, Rachel M Buchanan, Michael S Sacks
Heart valve interstitial cells (VICs) play a critical role in the maintenance and pathophysiology of heart valve tissues. Normally quiescent in the adult, VICs can become activated in periods of growth and disease. When activated, VICs exhibit increased levels of cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, and upregulated expression and strong contraction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) fibers. However, it remains unknown how expression and contraction of the α-SMA fibers, which vary among different VIC types, contribute to the overall VIC mechanical responses, including the nucleus and cytoskeleton contributions...
February 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26256093/comparative-chronic-valve-and-venous-effects-of-lumenless-versus-stylet-delivered-pacing-leads-in-patients-with-and-without-congenital-heart
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Apinya Bharmanee, Kathleen Zelin, Yamuna Sanil, Pooja Gupta, Peter P Karpawich
BACKGROUND: Standard, 5-7-Fr diameter pacing leads (PLs) can adversely affect atrioventricular valve (AVV) and venous (superior vena cava [SVC], innominate [INN]) integrities. Although chronic pacing/sensing performances have been reported on the steroid-eluting, lumenless, 4.1-Fr PL (Model 3830, Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), comparative valve and venous effects are largely unknown. METHODS: Patients (n = 134) were divided into two PL groups: Group 1 (n = 65, Model 3830) and Group 2 (n = 69, various 5-7 Fr models) and followed up to 9 years postimplant...
November 2015: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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