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Modelling heart valve growth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687168/comparison-of-automated-and-conventional-microbiological-examination-of-donated-human-cardiac-tissue-in-heart-valve-banking
#1
Letícia Kraft, Felipe Francisco Tuon, Victoria Stadler Tasca Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Paula Hansen Suss, Marcelo Pilonetto, Francisco Diniz Affonso da Costa
Most tissue banks use the conventional method; however, the automated method has advantages over the conventional method. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional and automated methods of culture in human cardiac tissue using an artificial contamination model. Myocardial samples were contaminated with sequential concentration (104 to 10-1  CFU/mL) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Cultures were obtained from solution were the fragment was immersed and minced tissue, before and after the routine decellularization solution, with automated and conventional culture methods...
April 23, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657080/right-ventricular-energetics-and-power-in-pulmonary-regurgitation-vs-stenosis-using-four-dimensional-phase-contrast-magnetic-resonance
#2
Joao Filipe Fernandes, James M Hammel, Jia Zhou, Yunbin Xiao, Manuela Chen, Rita Alves, John Lof, Stuart M Grieve, Andreas Schuster, Titus Kuehne, Shelby Kutty
OBJECTIVE: We investigated a full energetic profile of pressure and volume loaded right ventricle (RV) in porcine models by evaluating kinetic energy (KE), stroke power, power output and power loss across pulmonary valves with stenosis (PS) or with regurgitation (PR). METHODS: Fifteen pigs (6 PS and 6 PR, 3 unoperated controls) were studied. Phase-contrast 4D-flow MRI was performed in models of PS and PR at baseline and at 10-12 weeks, in conjunction with cardiac catheterization...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604404/cardiovascular-tissue-engineering-from-basic-science-to-clinical-application
#3
REVIEW
E S Fioretta, L von Boehmer, S E Motta, V Lintas, S P Hoerstrup, M Y Emmert
Valvular heart disease is an increasing population health problem and, especially in the elderly, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The current treatment options, such as mechanical and bioprosthetic heart valve replacements, have significant restrictions and limitations. Considering the increased life expectancy of our aging population, there is an urgent need for novel heart valve concepts that remain functional throughout life to prevent the need for reoperation. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to overcome these constraints by creating regenerative, self-repairing valve substitutes with life-long durability...
March 28, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600566/endothelial-committed-oral-stem-cells-as-modelling-in-the-relationship-between-periodontal-and-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Jacopo Pizzicannella, Francesca Diomede, Ilaria Merciaro, Sergio Caputi, Armando Tartaro, Simone Guarnieri, Oriana Trubiani
In the present study we have mimicked, in vitro, an inflammatory process using Lipopolysaccharide derived from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (LPS-G) and human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells induced to endothelial differentiation (e-hPDLSCs). The research project has been organized into the three following steps: i) induction of hPDLSCs toward endothelial differentiation; ii) evaluation of the molecular signaling pathway involved in the response to the LPS-G, and iii) functional response evaluation of the living construct constituted by porcine decellularized valve/e-hPDLSCs treated with LPS-G...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352179/growth-and-remodeling-play-opposing-roles-during-postnatal-human-heart-valve-development
#5
Pim J A Oomen, Maria A Holland, Carlijn V C Bouten, Ellen Kuhl, Sandra Loerakker
Tissue growth and remodeling are known to govern mechanical homeostasis in biological tissue, but their relative contributions to homeostasis remain unclear. Here, we use mechanical models, fueled by experimental findings, to demonstrate that growth and remodeling have different effects on heart valve stretch homeostasis during physiological postnatal development. Two developmental stages were considered: early-stage (from infant to adolescent) and late-stage (from adolescent to adult) development. Our models indicated that growth and remodeling play opposing roles in preserving tissue stretch and with time...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327671/tissue-engineered-heart-valves-a-call-for-mechanistic-studies
#6
Kevin M Blum, Joseph D Drews, Christopher K Breuer
Heart valve disease carries a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Outcomes are significantly improved by valve replacement, but currently available mechanical and biological replacement valves are associated with complications of their own. Mechanical valves have a high rate of thromboembolism and require lifelong anticoagulation. Biological prosthetic valves have a much shorter lifespan, and they are prone to tearing and degradation. Both types of valves lack the capacity for growth, making them particularly problematic in pediatric patients...
February 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302947/fenfluramine-phentermine-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-cellular-proliferation-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Nalini M Rajamannan
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Fenfluraminephentermine (FenPhen) has been implicated in accelerated valvular heart disease, characterized by valvular regurgitation and thickening, and resembling the histopathologic lesions found in carcinoid. The study aim was to determine whether cellular proliferation is present in FenPhen-exposed valves, by utilizing an in-vitro model to test whether FenPhen has a direct mitogenic effect on cardiac valvular cells, as compared to serotonin. METHODS: Ex-vivo valves were tested for proliferation in surgically removed FenPhen-exposed valves (n = 10) and compared to proliferation levels in normal human cardiac valves removed at autopsy (n = 10)...
July 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031049/heart-valve-scaffold-fabrication-bioinspired-control-of-macro-scale-morphology-mechanics-and-micro-structure
#8
Antonio D'Amore, Samuel K Luketich, Giuseppe M Raffa, Salim Olia, Giorgio Menallo, Antonino Mazzola, Flavio D'Accardi, Tamir Grunberg, Xinzhu Gu, Michele Pilato, Marina V Kameneva, Vinay Badhwar, William R Wagner
Valvular heart disease is currently treated with mechanical valves, which benefit from longevity, but are burdened by chronic anticoagulation therapy, or with bioprosthetic valves, which have reduced thromboembolic risk, but limited durability. Tissue engineered heart valves have been proposed to resolve these issues by implanting a scaffold that is replaced by endogenous growth, leaving autologous, functional leaflets that would putatively eliminate the need for anticoagulation and avoid calcification. Despite the diversity in fabrication strategies and encouraging results in large animal models, control over engineered valve structure-function remains at best partial...
October 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911943/heterozygous-deletion-of-akt1-rescues-cardiac-contractility-but-not-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-noonan-syndrome-with-multiple-lentigines
#9
Rajika Roy, Maike Krenz
Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines (NSML) is associated with congenital heart disease in form of pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Genetically, NSML is primarily caused by mutations in the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Importantly, certain SHP2 mutations such as Q510E can cause a particularly severe form of HCM with heart failure in infancy. Due to lack of insight into the underlying pathomechanisms, an effective custom-tailored therapy to prevent heart failure in these patients has not yet been found...
November 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714932/thrombospondins-a-role-in-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Thrombospondins (TSPs) represent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins belonging to the TSP family that comprises five members. All TSPs have a complex multidomain structure that permits the interaction with various partners including other ECM proteins, cytokines, receptors, growth factors, etc. Among TSPs, TSP1, TSP2, and TSP4 are the most studied and functionally tested. TSP1 possesses anti-angiogenic activity and is able to activate transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a potent profibrotic and anti-inflammatory factor...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674029/atla-mediates-extracellular-dna-release-which-contributes-to-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-infective-endocarditis
#11
Chiau-Jing Jung, Ron-Bin Hsu, Chia-Tung Shun, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Jean-San Chia
Host factors, such as platelets, have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by oral commensal streptococci, inducing infective endocarditis (IE), but how bacterial components contribute to biofilm formation in vivo is still not clear. We demonstrated previously that an isogenic mutant strain of Streptococcus mutans deficient in autolysin AtlA (Δ atlA ) showed a reduced ability to cause vegetation in a rat model of bacterial endocarditis. However, the role of AtlA in bacterial biofilm formation is unclear...
September 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620766/phenotype-transformation-of-aortic-valve-interstitial-cells-due-to-applied-shear-stresses-within-a-microfluidic-chip
#12
Xinmei Wang, Joohyung Lee, Mir Ali, Jungkyu Kim, Carla M R Lacerda
Despite valvular heart diseases constituting a significant medical problem, the acquisition of information describing their pathophysiology remains difficult. Due to valvular size, role and location within the body, there is a need for in vitro systems that can recapitulate disease onset and progression. This study combines the development of an in vitro model and its application in the mechanical stimulation of valvular cell transformation. Specifically, porcine aortic valvular interstitial cells (PAVIC) were cultured on polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices with or without exposure to shear stresses...
October 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567021/assessment-of-fetal-development-using-cardiac-valve-intervals
#13
Faezeh Marzbanrad, Ahsan H Khandoker, Yoshitaka Kimura, Marimuthu Palaniswami, Gari D Clifford
An automated method to assess the fetal physiological development is introduced which uses the component intervals between fetal cardiac valve timings and the Q-wave of fetal electrocardiogram (fECG). These intervals were estimated automatically from one-dimensional Doppler Ultrasound and noninvasive fECG. We hypothesize that the fetal growth can be estimated by the cardiac valve intervals. This hypothesis was evaluated by modeling the fetal development using the cardiac intervals and validating against the gold standard gestational age identified by Crown-Rump Length (CRL)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520540/virtual-surgery-for-conduit-reconstruction-of-the-right-ventricular-outflow-tract
#14
Chin Siang Ong, Yue-Hin Loke, Justin Opfermann, Laura Olivieri, Luca Vricella, Axel Krieger, Narutoshi Hibino
PURPOSE: Virtual surgery involves the planning and simulation of surgical reconstruction using three-dimensional (3D) modeling based upon individual patient data, augmented by simulation of planned surgical alterations including implantation of devices or grafts. Here we describe a case in which virtual cardiac surgery aided us in determining the optimal conduit size to use for the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract. DESCRIPTION: The patient is a young adolescent male with a history of tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, requiring right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit replacement...
May 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329138/small-intestinal-submucosa-tricuspid-valve-tube-graft-shows-growth-potential-remodelling-and-physiological-valve-function-in-a-porcine-model%C3%A2
#15
Diana M Ropcke, Christine Ilkjaer, Marcell J Tjornild, Soren N Skov, Steffen Ringgaard, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Sten L Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Tricuspid valve reconstruction using small intestinal submucosal extracellular matrix (ECM) designed as a tube graft is possible in severe valve pathology. Using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital photograph imaging, valves were evaluated after 6 months in a porcine model. METHODS: Ten 60 kg pigs received a tricuspid valve tube graft. A baseline MRI was performed after 2 weeks ( n  = 8). A follow-up MRI was performed in three of five 6 months' survivors to assess function and haemodynamics of the tricuspid tube graft...
June 1, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179397/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-induces-aortic-valve-calcification-by-inhibiting-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signaling-in-valvular-interstitial-cells
#16
Bongkun Choi, Sahmin Lee, Sang-Min Kim, Eun-Jin Lee, Sun Ro Lee, Dae-Hee Kim, Jeong Yoon Jang, Sang-Wook Kang, Ki-Up Lee, Eun-Ju Chang, Jae-Kwan Song
BACKGROUND: Calcification of the aortic valve leads to increased leaflet stiffness and consequently to the development of calcific aortic valve disease. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of calcification remain unclear. Here, we identified that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, also known as CD26) increases valvular calcification and promotes calcific aortic valve disease progression. METHODS: We obtained the aortic valve tissues from humans and murine models (wild-type and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-deficient-mice) and cultured the valvular interstitial cells (VICs) and valvular endothelial cells from the cusps...
May 16, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178293/%C3%AE-ct-of-ex-vivo-stained-mouse-hearts-and-embryos-enables-a-precise-match-between-3d-virtual-histology-classical-histology-and-immunochemistry
#17
Christian Dullin, Roser Ufartes, Emanuel Larsson, Sabine Martin, Marcio Lazzarini, Giuliana Tromba, Jeannine Missbach-Guentner, Diana Pinkert-Leetsch, Dörthe M Katschinski, Frauke Alves
The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109865/a-survey-of-membrane-receptor-regulation-in-valvular-interstitial-cells-cultured-under-mechanical-stresses
#18
Mir S Ali, Xinmei Wang, Carla M R Lacerda
Degenerative valvular diseases have been linked to the action of abnormal forces on valve tissues during each cardiac cycle. It is now accepted that the degenerative behavior of valvular cells can be induced mechanically in vitro. This approach of in vitro modeling of valvular cells in culture constitutes a powerful tool to study, characterize, and develop predictors of heart valve degeneration in vivo. Using such in vitro systems, we expect to determine the exact signaling mechanisms that trigger and mediate propagation of degenerative signals...
February 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989051/pga-polyglycolic-acid-p4hb-poly-4-hydroxybutyrate-based-bioengineered-valves-in-the-rat-aortic-circulation
#19
Agnieszka A Książek, Katharyn J Mitchell, Nikola Cesarovic, Colin C Schwarzwald, Simon P Hoerstrup, Benedikt Weber
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Bioengineered living autologous valves with remodeling and growth capacity represent a promising concept for future cardiac and venous valve repair. A meticulous understanding of the mechanisms involved in recellularization and remodeling is essential for the safe and efficient clinical translation of this technology. In this context, the first investigations of bioengineered vascular grafts in immune-incompetent or transgenic rodents represented an important step...
May 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789941/nanopatterned-acellular-valve-conduits-drive-the-commitment-of-blood-derived-multipotent-cells
#20
Rosa Di Liddo, Paola Aguiari, Silvia Barbon, Thomas Bertalot, Amit Mandoli, Alessia Tasso, Sandra Schrenk, Laura Iop, Alessandro Gandaglia, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, Maria Teresa Conconi, Gino Gerosa
Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the correlation among nanoscale topography, mechanical properties, and biological behavior of cardiac valve substitutes. Porcine TriCol scaffolds are promising valve tissue engineering matrices with demonstrated self-repopulation potentiality. In order to define an in vitro model for investigating the influence of extracellular matrix signaling on the growth pattern of colonizing blood-derived cells, we cultured circulating multipotent cells (CMC) on acellular aortic (AVL) and pulmonary (PVL) valve conduits prepared with TriCol method and under no-flow condition...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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