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Energy cost of running

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695271/the-metabolic-costs-of-walking-and-running-up-a-30-degree-incline-implications-for-vertical-kilometer-foot-races
#1
REVIEW
Amanda Louise Ryan Ortiz, Nicola Giovanelli, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Vertical kilometer (VK) races, in which runners gain 1000 m of elevation in <5000 m of distance, are becoming popular. However, few studies on steep uphill running (>25°) exist. Previously, we determined that ~30° is the optimal angle for uphill running, costing the least amount of metabolic energy for a specific vertical velocity. To inform the training and strategy of VK racers, we quantified the metabolic cost of walking and running at various velocities up a 30° incline...
July 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690549/running-economy-from-a-muscle-energetics-perspective
#2
REVIEW
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666387/toolkit-for-the-construction-of-reproducing-kernel-based-representations-of-data-application-to-multidimensional-potential-energy-surfaces
#3
Oliver T Unke, Markus Meuwly
In the early days of computation, slow processor speeds limited the amount of data that could be generated and used for scientific purposes. In the age of big data, the limiting factor usually is the method with which large amounts of data are analyzed and useful information is extracted. A typical example from chemistry are high-level ab initio calculations for small systems, which have nowadays become feasible even if energies at many different geometries are required. Molecular dynamics simulations often require several thousand distinct trajectories to be run...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661317/minimizing-energy-use-and-ghg-emissions-of-lift-stations-utilizing-real-time-pump-control-strategies
#4
Mohammad Badruzzaman, Travis Crane, Darren Hollifield, David Wilcoxson, Joseph G Jacangelo
  Wastewater collection system lift station operations require a substantial amount of energy, and can be as a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for wastewater utilities. Many lift stations operate with local or basic controls that have no hydraulic relationship with other collection system lift stations. This study demonstrated a unique energy-efficient control method of lift station operation that utilizes hydraulic modeling results generated from site-specific conditions to optimize the pumping units and reduce simultaneous running cycles on a real time basis...
November 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658509/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-length-and-running-performance-in-well-trained-male-endurance-runners
#5
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
The present study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642437/human-in-the-loop-optimization-of-exoskeleton-assistance-during-walking
#6
Juanjuan Zhang, Pieter Fiers, Kirby A Witte, Rachel W Jackson, Katherine L Poggensee, Christopher G Atkeson, Steven H Collins
Exoskeletons and active prostheses promise to enhance human mobility, but few have succeeded. Optimizing device characteristics on the basis of measured human performance could lead to improved designs. We have developed a method for identifying the exoskeleton assistance that minimizes human energy cost during walking. Optimized torque patterns from an exoskeleton worn on one ankle reduced metabolic energy consumption by 24.2 ± 7.4% compared to no torque. The approach was effective with exoskeletons worn on one or both ankles, during a variety of walking conditions, during running, and when optimizing muscle activity...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592172/hydrogen-storage-technologies-for-future-energy-systems
#7
Patrick Preuster, Alexander Alekseev, Peter Wasserscheid
Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564744/locomotion-mode-affects-the-physiological-strain-during-exercise-at-walk-run-transition-speed-inelderly-men
#8
Raul Freire, Paulo Farinatti, Felipe Cunha, Brenno Silva, Walace Monteiro
This study investigated cardiorespiratory responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged walking and running exercise performed at the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) in untrained healthy elderly men. 20 volunteers (mean±SE, age: 68.4±1.2 yrs; height: 170.0±0.02 cm; body mass: 74.7±2.3 kg) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET); b) specific protocol to detect WRTS; and c) two 30-min walking and running bouts at WRTS. Expired gases were collected during exercise bouts via the Ultima CardiO2 metabolic analyzer...
July 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546906/recent-progress-in-energy-driven-water-splitting
#9
REVIEW
Si Yin Tee, Khin Yin Win, Wee Siang Teo, Leng-Duei Koh, Shuhua Liu, Choon Peng Teng, Ming-Yong Han
Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527378/life-cycle-assessment-of-superheated-steam-drying-technology-as-a-novel-cow-manure-management-method
#10
Mohammadmatin Hanifzadeh, Zahra Nabati, Pairote Longka, Pomthong Malakul, Defne Apul, Dong-Shik Kim
Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501263/economic-and-environmental-review-of-waste-to-energy-systems-for-municipal-solid-waste-management-in-medium-and-small-municipalities
#11
J M Fernández-González, A L Grindlay, F Serrano-Bernardo, M I Rodríguez-Rojas, M Zamorano
The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery...
May 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500783/on-mixed-electron-photon-radiation-therapy-optimisation-using-the-column-generation-approach
#12
Marc-André Renaud, Monica Serban, Jan Seuntjens
PURPOSE: Despite considerable increase in the number of degrees of freedom handled by recent radiotherapy optimisation algorithms, treatments are still typically delivered using a single modality. Column generation is an iterative method for solving large optimisation problems. It is well suited for mixed-modality (e.g., photon-electron) optimisation as the aperture shaping and modality selection problem can be solved rapidly, and the performance of the algorithm scales favourably with increasing degrees of freedom...
May 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485300/gait-studies-for-a-quadrupedal-microrobot-reveal-contrasting-running-templates-in-two-frequency-regimes
#13
Benjamin Goldberg, Neel Doshi, Kaushik Jayaram, Robert J Wood
Performance metrics such as speed, cost of transport, and stability are the driving factors behind gait selection in legged locomotion. To help understand the effect of gait on the performance and dynamics of small-scale ambulation, we explore four quadrupedal gaits over a wide range of stride frequencies on a 1.43 g, biologically-inspired microrobot, the Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Despite its small size, HAMR can precisely control leg frequency, phasing, and trajectory, making it an exceptional platform for gait studies at scales relevant to insect locomotion...
June 15, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468871/a-disparity-between-locomotor-economy-and-territory-holding-ability-in-male-house-mice
#14
Jeremy S Morris, James S Ruff, Wayne K Potts, David R Carrier
Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance, and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468814/metabolic-cost-of-human-hopping
#15
Anne K Gutmann, John E A Bertram
To interpret the movement strategies employed in locomotion, it is necessary to understand the source of metabolic cost. Muscles must consume metabolic energy to do work, but also must consume energy to generate force. The energy lost during steady locomotion and, hence, the amount of mechanical work muscles need to perform to replace it can be reduced and, in theory, even eliminated by elastically storing and returning some portion of this energy via the tendons. However, even if muscles do not need to perform any mechanical work, they still must generate sufficient force to tension tendons and support body weight...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459360/strength-training-for-middle-and-long-distance-performance-a-meta-analysis
#16
Nicolas Berryman, Inigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the net effects of strength training on middle- and long-distance performance through a meta-analysis of the available literature. METHODS: Three databases were searched from which 28 out of 554 potential studies met all inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength-training intensity, duration and frequency, and population performance level, age, sex and sport were outcomes that may influence the magnitude of the effect...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459289/is-there-an-optimum-speed-for-economical-running
#17
Matthew I Black, Joseph C Handsaker, Sam J Allen, Stephanie E Forrester, Jonathan P Folland
The influence of running speed and sex on running economy is unclear and may have been confounded by measurements of oxygen cost that do not account for known differences in substrate metabolism, across a limited range of speeds, and differences in performance standard. Therefore, this study assessed the energy cost of running over a wide-range of speeds in high-level and recreational runners to investigate the effect of speed (considered in absolute and relative terms) and sex (males vs. females of equivalent performance standard) on running economy...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456110/quantitative-assessment-of-energy-and-resource-recovery-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-based-on-plant-wide-simulations
#18
T Fernández-Arévalo, I Lizarralde, F Fdz-Polanco, S I Pérez-Elvira, J M Garrido, S Puig, M Poch, P Grau, E Ayesa
The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448434/static-memory-deduplication-for-performance-optimization-in-cloud-computing
#19
Gangyong Jia, Guangjie Han, Hao Wang, Xuan Yang
In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted...
April 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416181/a-comparison-of-a-novel-robust-decentralised-control-strategy-and-mpc-for-industrial-high-purity-high-recovery-multicomponent-distillation
#20
Isuru A Udugama, Florian Wolfenstetter, Robert Kirkpatrick, Wei Yu, Brent R Young
In this work we have developed a novel, robust practical control structure to regulate an industrial methanol distillation column. This proposed control scheme is based on a override control framework and can manage a non-key trace ethanol product impurity specification while maintaining high product recovery. For comparison purposes, a MPC with a discrete process model (based on step tests) was also developed and tested. The results from process disturbance testing shows that, both the MPC and the proposed controller were capable of maintaining both the trace level ethanol specification in the distillate (XD) and high product recovery (β)...
April 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
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