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Energy cost of running

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922209/unconventional-pretreatment-of-lignocellulose-with-low-temperature-plasma
#1
Jens Vanneste, Thijs Ennaert, Annick Vanhulsel, Bert F Sels
Lignocellulose represents a potential supply of sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and chemicals. There is, however, an important cost and efficiency challenge associated with the conversion of such lignocellulosics. Since its structure is complex and not prone to undergo chemical reactions very easily, chemical and mechanical pretreatments are usually necessary in order to be able to refine them into the compositional building blocks (carbohydrates and lignin), from which value-added platform molecules such as glucose, ethylene glycol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, etc...
December 6, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#2
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885098/energy-costs-and-performance-of-transfemoral-amputees-and-non-amputees-during-walking-and-running-a-pilot-study
#3
Larry J Mengelkoch, Jason T Kahle, M Jason Highsmith
BACKGROUND: Limited information is available concerning the effects of prosthetic foot components on energy costs and ambulatory performance for transfemoral amputees. OBJECTIVES: Compare energy costs (VO2; gait economy) and ambulatory performance (self-selected walking speeds, self-selected running speeds, peak running speeds) differences during walking and running for transfemoral amputees and matched, non-amputee runners. STUDY DESIGN: Repeated measures...
November 24, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#4
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875261/the-apparently-contradictory-energetics-of-hopping-and-running-the-counter-intuitive-effect-of-constraints-resolves-the-paradox
#5
Anne K Gutmann, John E A Bertram
Metabolic rate appears to increase with rate of force application for running. Leg function during ground contact is similar in hopping and running so one might expect that this relationship would hold for hopping as well. Surprisingly, metabolic rate appeared to decrease with increasing force rate for hopping. However, this paradox is the result of comparing different cross sections of the metabolic cost landscapes for hopping and running. The apparent relationship between metabolic rate and force rate observed in treadmill running is likely not a fundamental characteristic of muscle physiology, but a result of runners responding to speed constraints, i...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860362/safe-and-ecological-refluxing-with-a-closed-loop-air-cooling-system-a-universal-replacement-for-conventional-tap-water-condensers-in-the-lab
#6
Stefan Böhmdorfer, Gottfried Eilenberger, Thomas Zweckmair, Ivan Sumerskii, Antje Potthast, Thomas Rosenau
Off-the-shelf computer cooling hardware was used to construct a Closed-Loop Air Cooling System (CLACS) that is distinguished by scalability, low energy and no tap water consumption. Constructed to be generally used with laboratory condensers, the system was tested with several common low and high boiling solvents and showed a condensation performance equivalent to conventional tap water cooling. Reaction yields were therefore unaffected. Also, long-lasting Soxhlet extractions showed no performance loss relative to conventional cooling...
November 8, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802142/a-different-angle-comparative-analyses-of-whole-animal-transport-costs-running-uphill
#7
Lewis G Halsey, Craig R White
Comparative work on animals' costs of terrestrial locomotion has focussed on the underpinning physiology and biomechanics. Often, much of an animal's energy budget is spent on moving around thus there is also value in interpreting such data from an ecological perspective. When animals move through their environment they encounter topographical variation, and this is a key factor that can dramatically affect their energy expenditure. We collated published data on the costs for birds and mammals to locomote terrestrially on inclines, and investigated the scaling relationships using a phylogenetically informed approach...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782608/a-compact-low-cost-marx-bank-for-generating-capillary-discharge-plasmas
#8
A E Dyson, C Thornton, S M Hooker
We describe in detail a low power Compact Marx Bank (CMB) circuit that can provide 20 kV, 500 A pulses of approximately 100-200 ns duration. One application is the generation of capillary discharge plasmas of density ≈10(18) cm(-3) used in laser plasma accelerators. The CMB is triggered with a high speed solid state switch and gives a high voltage output pulse with a ns scale rise time into a 50 Ω load (coaxial cable) with <4 ns voltage jitter. Its small size (10 cm  ×  25 cm  ×  5 cm) means that it can be placed right next to the capillary discharge in the target chamber to avoid the need to impedance match...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680426/perceived-exertion-is-lower-when-using-a-functional-electrical-stimulation-neuroprosthesis-compared-with-an-ankle-foot-orthosis-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-preliminary-study
#9
Seema R Khurana, Alexandria G Beranger, Elizabeth R Felix
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the direct comparison of energy cost, efficiency, and effort between an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device for foot drop in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Twenty adults (32-74 years old; 55% female) with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis resulting in foot drop participated in a crossover, counterbalanced preliminary study. Each participant was tested on different days, with each session consisting of a separate walk trial per prosthetic device...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662761/turbulence-in-microfluidics-cleanroom-free-fast-solventless-and-bondless-fabrication-and-application-in-high-throughput-liquid-liquid-extraction
#10
Camila L de Camargo, Letícia S Shiroma, Gabriela F Giordano, Angelo L Gobbi, Luis C S Vieira, Renato S Lima
This paper addresses an important breakthrough in the deployment of ultra-high adhesion strength microfluidic technologies to provide turbulence at harsh flow rate conditions. This paper is only, to our knowledge, the second reporting on the generation of high flow rate-assisted turbulence in microchannels. This flow solves a crucial bottleneck in microfluidics: the generation of high throughput homogeneous mixings. We focused on the fabrication of bulky polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips (without any interfaces) rather than the laborious surface modifications that were employed in the first reporting about turbulence-assisted microfluidics...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649926/ferebus-highly-parallelized-engine-for-kriging-training
#11
Nicodemo Di Pasquale, Michael Bane, Stuart J Davie, Paul L A Popelier
FFLUX is a novel force field based on quantum topological atoms, combining multipolar electrostatics with IQA intraatomic and interatomic energy terms. The program FEREBUS calculates the hyperparameters of models produced by the machine learning method kriging. Calculation of kriging hyperparameters (θ and p) requires the optimization of the concentrated log-likelihood L̂(θ,p). FEREBUS uses Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE) algorithms to find the maximum of L̂(θ,p). PSO and DE are two heuristic algorithms that each use a set of particles or vectors to explore the space in which L̂(θ,p) is defined, searching for the maximum...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638041/the-effects-of-wearable-resistance-training-on-metabolic-kinematic-and-kinetic-variables-during-walking-running-sprint-running-and-jumping-a-systematic-review
#12
Paul Macadam, John B Cronin, Kim D Simperingham
BACKGROUND: Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*)...
September 16, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615376/evolutionary-change-in-physiological-phenotypes-along-the-human-lineage
#13
Alexander Q Vining, Charles L Nunn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575734/metabolic-cost-of-running-is-greater-on-a-treadmill-with-a-stiffer-running-platform
#14
James A H Smith, Alexander D McKerrow, Tertius A Kohn
Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO2max)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557100/energy-efficient-neuromorphic-classifiers
#15
Daniel Martí, Mattia Rigotti, Mingoo Seok, Stefano Fusi
Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks...
October 2016: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553887/agricultural-anaerobic-digestion-power-plants-in-ireland-and-germany-policy-practice
#16
Agathe Auer, Nathan H Vande Burgt, Florence Abram, Gerald Barry, Owen Fenton, Bryan K Markey, Stephen Nolan, Karl Richards, Declan Bolton, Theo De Waal, Stephen V Gordon, Vincent O'Flaherty, Paul Whyte, Annetta Zintl
The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon-neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large-scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock...
August 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528774/the-physiological-basis-of-bird-flight
#17
REVIEW
Patrick J Butler
Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516922/evaluation-of-emerging-energy-efficient-heterogeneous-computing-platforms-for-biomolecular-and-cellular-simulation-workloads
#18
John E Stone, Michael J Hallock, James C Phillips, Joseph R Peterson, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Klaus Schulten
Many of the continuing scientific advances achieved through computational biology are predicated on the availability of ongoing increases in computational power required for detailed simulation and analysis of cellular processes on biologically-relevant timescales. A critical challenge facing the development of future exascale supercomputer systems is the development of new computing hardware and associated scientific applications that dramatically improve upon the energy efficiency of existing solutions, while providing increased simulation, analysis, and visualization performance...
May 2016: IEEE International Symposium on Parallel & Distributed Processing, Workshops and Phd Forum: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501719/biomechanics-and-physiology-of-uphill-and-downhill-running
#19
Gianluca Vernillo, Marlène Giandolini, W Brent Edwards, Jean-Benoît Morin, Pierre Samozino, Nicolas Horvais, Guillaume Y Millet
Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded running. Relative to LR, UR is characterized by a higher step frequency, increased internal mechanical work, shorter swing/aerial phase duration, and greater duty factor, while DR is characterized by increased aerial time, reduced step frequency and decreased duty factor...
August 9, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476535/post-combustion-carbon-dioxide-capture-cost-reduction-to-2030-and-beyond
#20
B Adderley, J Carey, J Gibbins, M Lucquiaud, R Smith
Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) can be achieved using a variety of technologies. Importantly it is applicable to a wide range of processes and may also be retrofitted in certain cases. This paper covers the use of PCC for low carbon power generation from new natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants that are expected to be built in the UK in the 2020s and 2030s and that will run into the 2050s. Costs appear potentially comparable with other low carbon and controllable generation sources such as nuclear or renewables plus storage, especially with the lower gas prices that can be expected in a carbon-constrained world...
October 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
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