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Energy cost of running

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592172/hydrogen-storage-technologies-for-future-energy-systems
#1
Patrick Preuster, Alexander Alekseev, Peter Wasserscheid
Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564744/locomotion-mode-affects-the-physiological-strain-during-exercise-at-walk-run-transition-speed-inelderly-men
#2
Raul Freire, Paulo Farinatti, Felipe Cunha, Brenno Silva, Walace Monteiro
This study investigated cardiorespiratory responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged walking and running exercise performed at the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) in untrained healthy elderly men. 20 volunteers (mean±SE, age: 68.4±1.2 yrs; height: 170.0±0.02 cm; body mass: 74.7±2.3 kg) performed the following bouts of exercise: a) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET); b) specific protocol to detect WRTS; and c) two 30-min walking and running bouts at WRTS. Expired gases were collected during exercise bouts via the Ultima CardiO2 metabolic analyzer...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546906/recent-progress-in-energy-driven-water-splitting
#3
REVIEW
Si Yin Tee, Khin Yin Win, Wee Siang Teo, Leng-Duei Koh, Shuhua Liu, Choon Peng Teng, Ming-Yong Han
Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527378/life-cycle-assessment-of-superheated-steam-drying-technology-as-a-novel-cow-manure-management-method
#4
Mohammadmatin Hanifzadeh, Zahra Nabati, Pairote Longka, Pomthong Malakul, Defne Apul, Dong-Shik Kim
Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501263/economic-and-environmental-review-of-waste-to-energy-systems-for-municipal-solid-waste-management-in-medium-and-small-municipalities
#5
J M Fernández-González, A L Grindlay, F Serrano-Bernardo, M I Rodríguez-Rojas, M Zamorano
The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery...
May 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500783/on-mixed-electron-photon-radiation-therapy-optimisation-using-the-column-generation-approach
#6
Marc-André Renaud, Monica Serban, Jan Seuntjens
PURPOSE: Despite considerable increase in the number of degrees of freedom handled by recent radiotherapy optimisation algorithms, treatments are still typically delivered using a single modality. Column generation is an iterative method for solving large optimisation problems. It is well suited for mixed-modality (e.g., photon-electron) optimisation as the aperture shaping and modality selection problem can be solved rapidly, and the performance of the algorithm scales favourably with increasing degrees of freedom...
May 13, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485300/gait-studies-for-a-quadrupedal-microrobot-reveal-contrasting-running-templates-in-two-frequency-regimes
#7
Benjamin Goldberg, Neel Doshi, Kaushik Jayaram, Robert J Wood
Performance metrics such as speed, cost of transport, and stability are the driving factors behind gait selection in legged locomotion. To help understand the effect of gait on the performance and dynamics of small-scale ambulation, we explore four quadrupedal gaits over a wide range of stride frequencies on a 1.43 g, biologically-inspired microrobot, the Harvard Ambulatory MicroRobot (HAMR). Despite its small size, HAMR can precisely control leg frequency, phasing, and trajectory, making it an exceptional platform for gait studies at scales relevant to insect locomotion...
June 15, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468871/a-disparity-between-locomotor-economy-and-territory-holding-ability-in-male-house-mice
#8
Jeremy S Morris, James S Ruff, Wayne K Potts, David R Carrier
Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance, and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468814/metabolic-cost-of-human-hopping
#9
Anne K Gutmann, John E A Bertram
To interpret the movement strategies employed in locomotion, it is necessary to understand the source of metabolic cost. Muscles must consume metabolic energy to do work, but also must consume energy to generate force. The energy lost during steady locomotion and, hence, the amount of mechanical work muscles need to perform to replace it can be reduced and, in theory, even eliminated by elastically storing and returning some portion of this energy via the tendons. However, even if muscles do not need to perform any mechanical work, they still must generate sufficient force to tension tendons and support body weight...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459360/strength-training-for-middle-and-long-distance-performance-a-meta-analysis
#10
Nicolas Berryman, Inigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the net effects of strength training on middle- and long-distance performance through a meta-analysis of the available literature. METHODS: Three databases were searched from which 28 out of 554 potential studies met all inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength-training intensity, duration and frequency, and population performance level, age, sex and sport were outcomes that may influence the magnitude of the effect...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459289/is-there-an-optimum-speed-for-economical-running
#11
Matthew I Black, Joseph C Handsaker, Sam J Allen, Stephanie E Forrester, Jonathan P Folland
The influence of running speed and sex on running economy is unclear and may have been confounded by measurements of oxygen cost that do not account for known differences in substrate metabolism, across a limited range of speeds, and differences in performance standard. Therefore, this study assessed the energy cost of running over a wide-range of speeds in high-level and recreational runners to investigate the effect of speed (considered in absolute and relative terms) and sex (males vs. females of equivalent performance standard) on running economy...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456110/quantitative-assessment-of-energy-and-resource-recovery-in-wastewater-treatment-plants-based-on-plant-wide-simulations
#12
T Fernández-Arévalo, I Lizarralde, F Fdz-Polanco, S I Pérez-Elvira, J M Garrido, S Puig, M Poch, P Grau, E Ayesa
The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective...
July 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448434/static-memory-deduplication-for-performance-optimization-in-cloud-computing
#13
Gangyong Jia, Guangjie Han, Hao Wang, Xuan Yang
In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted...
April 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416181/a-comparison-of-a-novel-robust-decentralised-control-strategy-and-mpc-for-industrial-high-purity-high-recovery-multicomponent-distillation
#14
Isuru A Udugama, Florian Wolfenstetter, Robert Kirkpatrick, Wei Yu, Brent R Young
In this work we have developed a novel, robust practical control structure to regulate an industrial methanol distillation column. This proposed control scheme is based on a override control framework and can manage a non-key trace ethanol product impurity specification while maintaining high product recovery. For comparison purposes, a MPC with a discrete process model (based on step tests) was also developed and tested. The results from process disturbance testing shows that, both the MPC and the proposed controller were capable of maintaining both the trace level ethanol specification in the distillate (XD) and high product recovery (β)...
April 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394719/effects-of-strength-explosive-and-plyometric-training-on-energy-cost-of-running-in-ultra-endurance-athletes
#15
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Enrico Rejc, Stefano Lazzer
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week home-based strength, explosive and plyometric (SEP) training on the cost of running (Cr) in well-trained ultra-marathoners and to assess the main mechanical parameters affecting changes in Cr. Twenty-five male runners (38.2 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 23.0 ± 1.1 kg·m(-2); V˙O2max: 55.4 ± 4.0 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into an exercise (EG = 13) and control group (CG = 12). Before and after a 12-week SEP training, Cr, spring-mass model parameters at four speeds (8, 10, 12, 14 km·h(-1)) were calculated and maximal muscle power (MMP) of the lower limbs was measured...
August 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392339/energy-expenditure-metabolic-power-and-high-speed-activity-during-linear-and-multi-directional-running
#16
Chelsea L Oxendale, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to compare measures of energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry and micro-technology, as well as high power and high speed activity during linear and multi-directional running. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Twelve university standard team sport players completed a linear and multi-directional running condition. Estimated energy expenditure, as well as time at high speed (>14.4kmh(-1)) and high power (>20Wkg(-1)) were quantified using a 10Hz micro-technology device and compared with energy expenditure derived from indirect calorimetry...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378911/fast-de-novo-discovery-of-low-energy-protein-loop-conformations
#17
Samuel W K Wong, Jun S Liu, S C Kou
In the prediction of protein structure from amino acid sequence, loops are challenging regions for computational methods. Since loops are often located on the protein surface, they can have significant roles in determining protein functions and binding properties. Loop prediction without the aid of a structural template requires extensive conformational sampling and energy minimization, which are computationally difficult. In this article we present a new de novo loop sampling method, the Parallely-filtered Energy Targeted All-atom Loop Sampler (PETALS) to rapidly locate low energy conformations...
April 5, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338382/does-foot-anthropometry-predict-metabolic-cost-during-running
#18
Herman van Werkhoven, Stephen J Piazza
Several recent investigations have linked running economy to heel length, with shorter heels being associated with less metabolic energy consumption. It has been hypothesized that shorter heels require larger plantarflexor muscle forces, thus increasing tendon energy storage and reducing metabolic cost. The goal of this study was to investigate this possible mechanism for metabolic cost reduction. Fifteen male subjects ran at 16 km·h(-1) on a treadmill and subsequently on a force-plate instrumented runway...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331551/environmental-costs-and-benefits-of-growing-miscanthus-for-bioenergy-in-the-uk
#19
REVIEW
Jon P McCalmont, Astley Hastings, Niall P McNamara, Goetz M Richter, Paul Robson, Iain S Donnison, John Clifton-Brown
Planting the perennial biomass crop Miscanthus in the UK could offset 2-13 Mt oil eq. yr(-1), contributing up to 10% of current energy use. Policymakers need assurance that upscaling Miscanthus production can be performed sustainably without negatively impacting essential food production or the wider environment. This study reviews a large body of Miscanthus relevant literature into concise summary statements. Perennial Miscanthus has energy output/input ratios 10 times higher (47.3 ± 2.2) than annual crops used for energy (4...
March 2017: Global Change Biology. Bioenergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301525/muscle-activities-during-walking-and-running-at-energetically-optimal-transition-speed-under-normobaric-hypoxia-on-gradient-slopes
#20
Daijiro Abe, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Masahiro Horiuchi
Energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT; J·kg-1·km-1) displays a U-shaped fashion in walking and a linear fashion in running as a function of gait speed (v; km·h-1). There exists an intersection between U-shaped and linear CoT-v relationships, being termed energetically optimal transition speed (EOTS; km·h-1). Combined effects of gradient and moderate normobaric hypoxia (15.0% O2) were investigated when walking and running at the EOTS in fifteen young males. The CoT values were determined at eight walking speeds (2...
2017: PloS One
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