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Energy cost of running

Seema R Khurana, Alexandria G Beranger, Elizabeth R Felix
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the direct comparison of energy cost, efficiency, and effort between an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device for foot drop in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Twenty adults (32-74 years old; 55% female) with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis resulting in foot drop participated in a crossover, counterbalanced preliminary study. Each participant was tested on different days, with each session consisting of a separate walk trial per prosthetic device...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Camila L de Camargo, Letícia S Shiroma, Gabriela F Giordano, Angelo L Gobbi, Luis C S Vieira, Renato S Lima
This paper addresses an important breakthrough in the deployment of ultra-high adhesion strength microfluidic technologies to provide turbulence at harsh flow rate conditions. This paper is only, to our knowledge, the second reporting on the generation of high flow rate-assisted turbulence in microchannels. This flow solves a crucial bottleneck in microfluidics: the generation of high throughput homogeneous mixings. We focused on the fabrication of bulky polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips (without any interfaces) rather than the laborious surface modifications that were employed in the first reporting about turbulence-assisted microfluidics...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Nicodemo Di Pasquale, Michael Bane, Stuart J Davie, Paul L A Popelier
FFLUX is a novel force field based on quantum topological atoms, combining multipolar electrostatics with IQA intraatomic and interatomic energy terms. The program FEREBUS calculates the hyperparameters of models produced by the machine learning method kriging. Calculation of kriging hyperparameters (θ and p) requires the optimization of the concentrated log-likelihood L̂(θ,p). FEREBUS uses Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE) algorithms to find the maximum of L̂(θ,p). PSO and DE are two heuristic algorithms that each use a set of particles or vectors to explore the space in which L̂(θ,p) is defined, searching for the maximum...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Paul Macadam, John B Cronin, Kim D Simperingham
BACKGROUND: Wearable resistance training (WRT) provides a means of activity- or movement-specific overloading, supposedly resulting in better transference to dynamic sporting performance. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to quantify the acute and longitudinal metabolic, kinematic and/or kinetic changes that occur with WRT during walking, running, sprint running or jumping movements. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and MEDLINE (EBSCO) were searched using the Boolean phrases (limb OR vest OR trunk) AND (walk* OR run* OR sprint* OR jump* OR bound*) AND (metabolic OR kinetic OR kinematic) AND (load*)...
September 16, 2016: Sports Medicine
Alexander Q Vining, Charles L Nunn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage...
2016: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
James A H Smith, Alexander D McKerrow, Tertius A Kohn
Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO2max)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Daniel Martí, Mattia Rigotti, Mingoo Seok, Stefano Fusi
Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks...
October 2016: Neural Computation
Agathe Auer, Nathan H Vande Burgt, Florence Abram, Gerald Barry, Owen Fenton, Bryan K Markey, Stephen Nolan, Karl Richards, Declan Bolton, Theo De Waal, Stephen V Gordon, Vincent O'Flaherty, Paul Whyte, Annetta Zintl
The process of anaerobic digestion (AD) is valued as a carbon-neutral energy source, while simultaneously treating organic waste, making it safer for disposal or use as a fertilizer on agricultural land. The AD process in many European nations, such as Germany, has grown from use of small, localized digesters to the operation of large-scale treatment facilities, which contribute significantly to national renewable energy quotas. However, these large AD plants are costly to run and demand intensive farming of energy crops for feedstock...
August 24, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Patrick J Butler
Flapping flight is energetically more costly than running, although it is less costly to fly a given body mass a given distance per unit time than it is for a similar mass to run the same distance per unit time. This is mainly because birds can fly faster than they can run. Oxygen transfer and transport are enhanced in migrating birds compared with those in non-migrators: at the gas-exchange regions of the lungs the effective area is greater and the diffusion distance smaller. Also, migrating birds have larger hearts and haemoglobin concentrations in the blood, and capillary density in the flight muscles tends to be higher...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
John E Stone, Michael J Hallock, James C Phillips, Joseph R Peterson, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Klaus Schulten
Many of the continuing scientific advances achieved through computational biology are predicated on the availability of ongoing increases in computational power required for detailed simulation and analysis of cellular processes on biologically-relevant timescales. A critical challenge facing the development of future exascale supercomputer systems is the development of new computing hardware and associated scientific applications that dramatically improve upon the energy efficiency of existing solutions, while providing increased simulation, analysis, and visualization performance...
May 2016: IEEE International Symposium on Parallel & Distributed Processing, Workshops and Phd Forum: [proceedings]
Gianluca Vernillo, Marlène Giandolini, W Brent Edwards, Jean-Benoît Morin, Pierre Samozino, Nicolas Horvais, Guillaume Y Millet
Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded running. Relative to LR, UR is characterized by a higher step frequency, increased internal mechanical work, shorter swing/aerial phase duration, and greater duty factor, while DR is characterized by increased aerial time, reduced step frequency and decreased duty factor...
August 9, 2016: Sports Medicine
B Adderley, J Carey, J Gibbins, M Lucquiaud, R Smith
Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) can be achieved using a variety of technologies. Importantly it is applicable to a wide range of processes and may also be retrofitted in certain cases. This paper covers the use of PCC for low carbon power generation from new natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants that are expected to be built in the UK in the 2020s and 2030s and that will run into the 2050s. Costs appear potentially comparable with other low carbon and controllable generation sources such as nuclear or renewables plus storage, especially with the lower gas prices that can be expected in a carbon-constrained world...
October 20, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Paola Zamparo, Gaspare Pavei, Francesca Nardello, Davide Bartolini, Andrea Monte, Alberto E Minetti
PURPOSE: Acceleration and deceleration phases characterise shuttle running (SR) compared to constant speed running (CR); mechanical work is thus expected to be larger in the former compared to the latter, at the same average speed (v mean). The aim of this study was to measure total mechanical work (W tot (+) , J kg(-1) m(-1)) during SR as the sum of internal (W int (+) ) and external (W ext (+) ) work and to calculate the efficiency of SR. METHODS: Twenty males were requested to perform shuttle runs over a distance of 5 + 5 m at different speeds (slow, moderate and fast) to record kinematic data...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Marlene Giandolini, Gianluca Vernillo, Pierre Samozino, Nicolas Horvais, W Brent Edwards, Jean-Benoît Morin, Guillaume Y Millet
Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and biomechanical changes due to fatigue in graded running. When comparing prolonged hilly running (i.e., a combination of uphill and downhill running) to level running, it is found that (1) the general shape of the neuromuscular fatigue-exercise duration curve as well as the etiology of fatigue in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles are similar and (2) the biomechanical consequences are also relatively comparable, suggesting that duration rather than elevation changes affects neuromuscular function and running patterns...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Anja Großek, Christiana van Loo, Gregory E Peoples, Markus Hagenbuchner, Rachel Jones, Dylan P Cliff
BACKGROUND: This study reports energy expenditure (EE) data for lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children. METHODS: Eleven children aged 3 to 6 years (mean age = 4.8 ± 0.9; 55% boys) completed 12 semistructured activities including sedentary behaviors (SB), light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) over 2 laboratory visits while wearing a portable metabolic system to measure EE. RESULTS: Mean EE values for SB (TV, reading, tablet and toy play) were between 0...
June 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Stewart G Trost, Christopher C Drovandi, Karin Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND: Published energy cost data for children and adolescents are lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe developmental trends in the energy cost of 12 physical activities commonly performed by youth. METHODS: A mixed age cohort of 209 participants completed 12 standardized activity trials on 4 occasions over a 3-year period (baseline, 12-months, 24-months, and 36-months) while wearing a portable indirect calorimeter. Bayesian hierarchical regression was used to link growth curves from each age cohort into a single curve describing developmental trends in energy cost from age 6 to 18 years...
June 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Alexa Juarez, Kelley Maynard, Erica Skerrett, Elizabeth Molyneux, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Queen Dube, Z Maria Oden
This article describes the design and evaluation of AutoSyP, a low-cost, low-power syringe pump intended to deliver intravenous (IV) infusions in low-resource hospitals. A constant-force spring within the device provides mechanical energy to depress the syringe plunger. As a result, the device can run on rechargeable battery power for 66 hours, a critical feature for low-resource settings where the power grid may be unreliable. The device is designed to be used with 5- to 60-mL syringes and can deliver fluids at flow rates ranging from 3 to 60 mL/hour...
July 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Julien Delezie, Stéphanie Dumont, Cristina Sandu, Sophie Reibel, Paul Pevet, Etienne Challet
Foraging is costly in terms of time and energy. An endogenous food-entrainable system allows anticipation of predictable changes of food resources in nature. Yet the molecular mechanism that controls food anticipation in mammals remains elusive. Here we report that deletion of the clock component Rev-erbα impairs food entrainment in mice. Rev-erbα global knockout (GKO) mice subjected to restricted feeding showed reduced elevations of locomotor activity and body temperature prior to mealtime, regardless of the lighting conditions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Guiji Wang, Xuemiao Chen, Jintao Cai, Xuping Zhang, Tao Chong, Binqiang Luo, Jianheng Zhao, Chengwei Sun, Fuli Tan, Cangli Liu, Gang Wu
A high current pulsed power generator CQ-3-MMAF (Multi-Modules Assembly Facility, MMAF) was developed for material dynamics experiments under ramp wave and shock loadings at the Institute of Fluid Physics (IFP), which can deliver 3 MA peak current to a strip-line load. The rise time of the current is 470 ns (10%-90%). Different from the previous CQ-4 at IFP, the CQ-3-MMAF energy is transmitted by hundreds of co-axial high voltage cables with a low impedance of 18.6 mΩ and low loss, and then hundreds of cables are reduced and converted to tens of cables into a vacuum chamber by a cable connector, and connected with a pair of parallel metallic plates insulated by Kapton films...
June 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Laura A Zdziarski, Kyle Fallgatter, Trevor Leavitt, Wasser G Joseph, Cong Chen, JoAnna I McClelland, Kevin R Vincent, Daniel C Herman, Marybeth Horordyski, Jason L Zaremski, Heather K Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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