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Energy cost of running

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777386/substrate-metabolism-during-ironman-triathlon-different-horses-on-the-same-courses
#1
Ed Maunder, Andrew E Kilding, Daniel J Plews
Ironman triathlons are ultra-endurance events of extreme duration. The performance level of those competing varies dramatically, with elite competitors finishing in ~ 8:00:00, and lower performing amateurs finishing in ~ 14-15:00:00. When applying appropriate values for swimming, cycling and running economies to these performance times, it is demonstrated that the absolute energy cost of these events is high, and the rate of energy expenditure increases in proportion with the athlete's competitive level...
May 18, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761356/iron-nanoparticles-in-situ-encapsulated-in-lignin-derived-hydrochar-as-an-effective-catalyst-for-phenol-removal
#2
Qingqing Ma, Lin Cui, Shuang Zhou, Yan Li, Weijie Shi, Shiyun Ai
In this work, we have developed a low-cost and green strategy for nanoscale zero-valent iron (ZVI) in situ encapsulated in lignin-derived hydrochar (Fe@HC) by a facile one-pot synthesis route. The as-synthesized Fe@HC was characterized for physicochemical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745784/short-term-effects-of-rolling-massage-on-energy-cost-of-running-and-power-of-the-lower-limbs
#3
Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: Self-myofascial release (SMFR) is a type of self-massage that is becoming popular among athletes. However, SMFR effects on running performance have not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of SMFR on cost of running (Cr). In addition, we evaluated the effects of SMFR on lower limbs muscle power. METHODS: The measurement of Cr and lower limb muscle power during squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) were performed before (PRE), immediately after (POST) and 3hours after (POST 3h) a SMFR protocol (experimental condition)...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745552/-intelligent-watch-system-for-health-monitoring-based-on-bluetooth-low-energy-technology
#4
Ji Wang, Hailiang Guo, Xiaoli Ren
According to the development status of wearable technology and the demand of intelligent health monitoring, we studied the multi-function integrated smart watches solution and its key technology. First of all, the sensor technology with high integration density, Bluetooth low energy (BLE) and mobile communication technology were integrated and used in develop practice. Secondly, for the hardware design of the system in this paper, we chose the scheme with high integration density and cost-effective computer modules and chips...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722253/running-economy-and-energy-cost-of-running-with-backpacks
#5
Volker Scheer, Leoni Cramer, Hans-Christian Heitkamp
BACKGROUND: Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. METHODS: 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717533/a-long-cycle-life-self-healing-zinc-iodine-flow-battery-with-high-power-density
#6
Congxin Xie, Huamin Zhang, Wenbin Xu, Wei Wang, Xianfeng Li
A Zinc-iodine flow battery (ZIFB) with super long cycle life, high energy, power density and self-healing behaviour was presented. The long cycle life was achieved by employing a low-cost porous polyolefin membrane and stable electrolytes. The pores in membrane can be filled with a solution containing I3- that can react with zinc dendrite. Therefore, by consuming zinc dendrite, the battery can self-recover from micro-short circuiting resulting from overcharging. By using KI, ZnBr2 and KCl as electrolytes and a high ion conductivity porous membrane and a very high power density can be achieved...
May 1, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695443/movement-patterns-and-athletic-performance-of-leopards-in-the-okavango-delta
#7
Tatjana Y Hubel, Krystyna A Golabek, Kasim Rafiq, J Weldon McNutt, Alan M Wilson
Although leopards are the most widespread of all the big cats and are known for their adaptability, they are elusive and little is known in detail about their movement and hunting energetics. We used high-resolution GPS/IMU (inertial measurement unit) collars to record position, activity and the first high-speed movement data on four male leopards in the Okavango Delta, an area with high habitat diversity and habitat fragmentation. Leopards in this study were generally active and conducted more runs during the night, with peaks in activity and number of runs in the morning and evening twilight...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686476/a-compact-vlsi-system-for-bio-inspired-visual-motion-estimation
#8
Cong Shi, Gang Luo
This paper proposes a bio-inspired visual motion estimation algorithm based on motion energy, along with its compact very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture using low-cost embedded systems. The algorithm mimics motion perception functions of retina, V1, and MT neurons in a primate visual system. It involves operations of ternary edge extraction, spatiotemporal filtering, motion energy extraction, and velocity integration. Moreover, we propose the concept of confidence map to indicate the reliability of estimation results on each probing location...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674158/economic-analysis-of-threatened-species-conservation-the-case-of-woodland-caribou-and-oilsands-development-in-alberta-canada
#9
Grant Hauer, W L Vic Adamowicz, Stan Boutin
Tradeoffs between cost and recovery targets for boreal caribou herds, threatened species in Alberta, Canada, are examined using a dynamic cost minimization model. Unlike most approaches used for minimizing costs of achieving threatened species targets, we incorporate opportunity costs of surface (forests) and subsurface resources (energy) as well as direct costs of conservation (habitat restoration and direct predator control), into a forward looking model of species protection. Opportunity costs of conservation over time are minimized with an explicit target date for meeting species recovery targets; defined as the number of self-sustaining caribou herds, which requires that both habitat and population targets are met by a set date...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665463/long-term-exposure-to-wind-turbine-noise-at-night-and-risk-for-diabetes-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#10
Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Alfredo Peña, Andrea N Hahmann, Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Jørgen Brandt, Mette Sørensen
Focus on renewable energy sources and reduced unit costs has led to increased number of wind turbines (WTs). WT noise (WTN) is reported to be highly annoying at levels from 30 to 35 dB and up, whereas for traffic noise people report to be highly annoyed from 40 to 45 dB and up. This has raised concerns as to whether WTN may increase risk for major diseases, as exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius of 20 WT heights and 25% of all dwellings within 20-40 WT heights from a WT...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660419/effective-leg-stiffness-of-animal-running-and-the-co-optimization-of-energetic-cost-and-stability
#11
ZhuoHua Shen, Justin Seipel
The relative leg stiffness of most running animals falls in a small range between 7 and 27. Here we present a theoretical study of an established running model, an actuated Spring Loaded Inverted Pendulum model, to determine if the energetic cost and stability of running might be co-optimized over this range of leg stiffness values. The energetic cost of the model is quantified as the energy spent to move a unit mass a unit distance. The stability of the model is based on the system response to perturbations with respect to periodic locomotion solutions, and uses the linearized dynamics of Poincaré return maps and the resulting maximum eigenvalue and singular value decomposition in order to analyze asymptotic stability and the overall system response to perturbations, respectively...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650412/theoretical-considerations-for-muscle-energy-savings-during-distance-running
#12
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
We have recently demonstrated that the triceps surae muscles energy cost (ECTS ) represents a substantial portion of the total metabolic cost of running (Erun ). Therefore, it seems relevant to evaluate the factors which dictate ECTS , namely the amount and velocity of shortening, since it is likely these factors will dictate Erun . Erun and triceps surae morphological and AT mechanical properties were obtained in 46 trained and elite male and female distance runners using ultrasonography and dynamometry. ECTS (J·stride-1 ) at the speed of lactate threshold (sLT) was estimated from AT force and crossbridge mechanics and energetics...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649789/improving-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-by-smartphone-supported-energy-management-the-ms-telecoach-feasibility-study
#13
Marie D'hooghe, Geert Van Gassen, Daphne Kos, Olivier Bouquiaux, Melissa Cambron, Danny Decoo, Andreas Lysandropoulos, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Barbara Willekens, Iris-Katharina Penner, Guy Nagels
BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a frequently occurring, often disabling symptom in MS with no single effective treatment. In current fatigue management interventions, personalized, real-time follow-up is often lacking. The objective of the study is to assess the feasibility of the MS TeleCoach, a novel intervention offering telemonitoring of fatigue and telecoaching of physical activity and energy management in persons with MS (pwMS) over a 12-week period. The goal of the MS TeleCoach, conceived as a combination of monitoring, self-management and motivational messages, is to enhance levels of physical activity thereby improving fatigue in pwMS in an accessible and interactive way, reinforcing self-management of patients...
March 27, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604876/equilibration-and-analysis-of-first-principles-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-water
#14
William Dawson, François Gygi
First-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations based on density functional theory are becoming increasingly popular for the description of liquids. In view of the high computational cost of these simulations, the choice of an appropriate equilibration protocol is critical. We assess two methods of estimation of equilibration times using a large dataset of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of water. The Gelman-Rubin potential scale reduction factor [A. Gelman and D. B. Rubin, Stat. Sci...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568135/distributed-dynamic-simulations-of-networked-control-and-building-performance-applications
#15
Azzedine Yahiaoui
The use of computer-based automation and control systems for smart sustainable buildings, often so-called Automated Buildings (ABs), has become an effective way to automatically control, optimize, and supervise a wide range of building performance applications over a network while achieving the minimum energy consumption possible, and in doing so generally refers to Building Automation and Control Systems (BACS) architecture. Instead of costly and time-consuming experiments, this paper focuses on using distributed dynamic simulations to analyze the real-time performance of network-based building control systems in ABs and improve the functions of the BACS technology...
February 2018: Simulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564844/effects-of-high-intensity-warm-ups-on-running-performance
#16
Fernando González-Mohíno, Raúl Martín, Daniel Juárez Santos-García, Pedro Angel Fidel, Francisco de Asis Fernandez, Inmaculada Yustres, José María González Ravé
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity warm-ups (WUs) on performance, physiological, neuromuscular and biomechanical parameters. Three randomized cross-over 105%vVO2 max time limit trials (TLimT) were performed by 11 well-trained runners following three different WU protocols. These included two experimental high-intensity variants and one control WU variant: (i) 9x20-sec level strides (105%vVO2 max; 1% gradient) with 60 s of recovery (level); (ii) 6x6-sec uphill strides (105%vVO2 max; 5% gradient), with the same recovery (uphill) and (iii) 7 min at 60%vVO2 max as control condition (control)...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561245/the-efficacy-of-downhill-running-as-a-method-to-enhance-running-economy-in-trained-distance-runners
#17
Andrew J Shaw, Stephen A Ingham, Jonathan P Folland
Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558432/a-low-cost-tracking-system-for-running-race-applications-based-on-bluetooth-low-energy-technology
#18
David Perez-Diaz-de-Cerio, Ángela Hernández-Solana, Antonio Valdovinos, Jose Luis Valenzuela
Timing points used in running races and other competition events are generally based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. Athletes' times are calculated via passive RFID tags and reader kits. Specifically, the reader infrastructure needed is complex and requires the deployment of a mat or ramps which hide the receiver antennae under them. Moreover, with the employed tags, it is not possible to transmit additional and dynamic information such as pulse or oximetry monitoring, alarms, etc. In this paper we present a system based on two low complex schemes allowed in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE): the non-connectable undirected advertisement process and a modified version of scannable undirected advertisement process using the new capabilities present in Bluetooth 5...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556158/calorie-restriction-regime-enhances-physical-performance-of-trained-athletes
#19
Victoria Pons, Joan Riera, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Franchek Drobnic, Antoni Pons
Background: Caloric restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and improves physical fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Methods: The study was performed with 12 healthy male athletes by carrying out a 33% caloric restriction with respect to their usual diet...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528334/a-novel-image-processing-based-system-for-turbidity-measurement-in-domestic-and-industrial-wastewater
#20
Darragh Mullins, Derek Coburn, Louise Hannon, Edward Jones, Eoghan Clifford, Martin Glavin
Wastewater treatment facilities are continually challenged to meet both environmental regulations and reduce running costs (particularly energy and staffing costs). Improving the efficiency of operational monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires the development and implementation of appropriate performance metrics; particularly those that are easily measured, strongly correlate to WWTP performance, and can be easily automated, with a minimal amount of maintenance or intervention by human operators...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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