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Energy cost of running

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927538/advances-in-ligase-chain-reaction-and-ligation-based-amplifications-for-genotyping-assays-detection-and-applications
#1
REVIEW
Abdullah A Gibriel, Ola Adel
Genetic variants have been reported to cause several genetic diseases. Various genotyping assays have been developed for diagnostic and screening purposes but with certain limitations in sensitivity, specificity, cost effectiveness and/or time savings. Since the discovery of ligase chain reaction (LCR) in the late nineties, it became one of the most favored platforms for detecting these variants and also for genotyping low abundant contaminants. Recent and powerful modifications with the integration of various detection strategies such as electrochemical and magnetic biosensors, nanoparticles (NPs), quantum dots, quartz crystal and leaky surface acoustic surface biosensors, DNAzyme, rolling circle amplification (RCA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS), chemiluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer have been introduced to both LCR and ligation based amplifications to enable high-throughput and inexpensive multiplex genotyping with improved robustness, simplicity, sensitivity and specificity...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922682/the-energy-cost-of-running-with-the-ball-in-soccer
#2
Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi, Charalampos Atmatzidis, Franco Merni, Rocco Di Michele
Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895063/considerations-in-the-use-of-body-mass-change-to-estimate-change-in-hydration-status-during-a-161-kilometer-ultramarathon-running-competition
#3
Martin D Hoffman, Eric D B Goulet, Ronald J Maughan
Hydration guidelines found in the scientific and popular literature typically advise that body mass losses beyond 2% should be avoided during exercise. In this work, we demonstrate that these guidelines are not applicable to prolonged exercise of several hours where body mass loss does not reflect an equivalent loss of body water due to the effects of body mass change from substrate use, release of water bound with muscle and liver glycogen, and production of water during substrate metabolism. These effects on the body mass loss required to maintain body water balance are shown for a 161-km mountain ultramarathon running competition participant utilizing published data for the total energy cost, exogenous energy consumption and percentage from each fuel source, average participant body mass, and the extent of soft tissue fluid accumulation during an ultramarathon...
September 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886502/nature-based-solutions-in-the-eu-innovating-with-nature-to-address-social-economic-and-environmental-challenges
#4
Nicolas Faivre, Marco Fritz, Tiago Freitas, Birgit de Boissezon, Sofie Vandewoestijne
Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873069/fred-a-gpu-accelerated-fast-monte-carlo-code-for-rapid-treatment-plan-recalculation-in-ion-beam-therapy
#5
A Schiavi, M Senzacqua, S Pioli, A Mairani, G Magro, S Molinelli, M Ciocca, G Battistoni, V Patera
Ion beam therapy is a rapidly growing technique for tumor radiation therapy. Ions allow for a high dose deposition in the tumor region, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. For this reason, the highest possible accuracy in the calculation of dose and its spatial distribution is required in treatment planning. On one hand, commonly used treatment planning software solutions adopt a simplified beam-body interaction model by remapping pre-calculated dose distributions into a 3D water-equivalent representation of the patient morphology...
September 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829688/test-retest-reliability-of-physiological-parameters-in-elite-junior-distance-runners-following-allometric-scaling
#6
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
This study aimed to quantify the intra-individual reliability of a number of physiological variables in a group of national and international young distance runners. Sixteen (8 male, 8 female) participants (16.7 ± 1.4 years) performed a submaximal incremental running assessment followed by a maximal running test, on two occasions separated by no more than seven days. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), speed at V̇O2max (km h(-1)), running economy and speed and heart rate (HR) at fixed blood lactate concentrations were determined...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828280/energetics-and-evasion-dynamics-of-large-predators-and-prey-pumas-vs-hounds
#7
Caleb M Bryce, Christopher C Wilmers, Terrie M Williams
Quantification of fine-scale movement, performance, and energetics of hunting by large carnivores is critical for understanding the physiological underpinnings of trophic interactions. This is particularly challenging for wide-ranging terrestrial canid and felid predators, which can each affect ecosystem structure through distinct hunting modes. To compare free-ranging pursuit and escape performance from group-hunting and solitary predators in unprecedented detail, we calibrated and deployed accelerometer-GPS collars during predator-prey chase sequences using packs of hound dogs (Canis lupus familiaris, 26 kg, n = 4-5 per chase) pursuing simultaneously instrumented solitary pumas (Puma concolor, 60 kg, n = 2)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828094/variability-of-metabolic-power-data-in-elite-soccer-players-during-pre-season-matches
#8
Matthias Wilhelm Hoppe, Christian Baumgart, Mirko Slomka, Ted Polglaze, Jürgen Freiwald
This study aimed to determine the within-subject variability of GPS-derived metabolic power data in elite soccer players across several pre-season matches and compare the variability of high metabolic power, velocity, acceleration and deceleration running. Additionally, differences in metabolic power data among playing positions and relationships with various physical abilities were also investigated. Metabolic power data from 12 outfield starting players competing in the German Bundesliga were collected during five pre-season matches using GPS-technology (10 Hz)...
September 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799161/performance-factors-in-a-mountain-ultramarathon
#9
Pascal Balducci, Michel Clémençon, Robin Trama, Yoann Blache, Christophe Hautier
This study aimed to determine mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) performance factors in a large group of endurance mountain runners. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was assessed one week prior to the MUM. The level and graded (10%) energy cost of running, stiffness, knee extensors force (KEf), and jump height on a counter movement jump (CMJ) were measured in 24 male ultra runners before (pre) and immediately after (post) the Interlacs Trail (75 km and 3 930/3 700 m d+/d-). Performance time was correlated with MAS (r=- 0...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798502/reducing-the-environmental-impact-of-clinical-laboratories
#10
Joseph B Lopez, David Jackson, Alistair Gammie, Tony Badrick
Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support...
February 2017: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796524/porous-al-current-collector-for-dendrite-free-na-metal-anodes
#11
Shan Liu, Shan Tang, Xinyue Zhang, Aoxuan Wang, Quan-Hong Yang, Jiayan Luo
Na-based batteries are proposed as promising energy storage candidates for beyond Li-ion technology due to the higher natural earth of Na metal. For its high capacity and low potential, Na metal may carve itself a niche when directly used as anodes. Similar to or even more problematic than Li, however, uneven plating/stripping of Na leads to dendrite formation. As the plating substrates, current collectors have a paramount influence on the Na plating/stripping behaviors. Here we propose porous Al current collectors as the plating substrate to suppress Na dendrites...
September 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776996/molecular-dynamics-simulations-on-gas-phase-proteins-with-mobile-protons-inclusion-of-all-atom-charge-solvation
#12
Lars Konermann
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have become a key tool for examining the properties of electrosprayed protein ions. Traditional force fields employ static charges on titratable sites, whereas in reality, protons are highly mobile in gas-phase proteins. Earlier studies tackled this problem by adjusting charge patterns during MD runs. Within those algorithms, proton redistribution was subject to energy minimization, taking into account electrostatic and proton affinity contributions. However, those earlier approaches described (de)protonated moieties as point charges, neglecting charge solvation, which is highly prevalent in the gas phase...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751372/energy-cost-of-running-instability-evaluated-with-wearable-trunk-accelerometry
#13
Kurt Heinrich Schütte, Saint Sackey, Rachel Venter, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Maintaining stability under dynamic conditions is an inherent challenge to bipedal running. This challenge may impose an energetic cost (Ec) thus hampering endurance running performance, yet the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Wireless tri-axial trunk accelerometry is a simple tool that could be used to unobtrusively evaluate these mechanisms. Here, we test a cost of instability hypothesis by examining the contribution of trunk accelerometry-based measures (tri-axial root mean square, step and stride regularity, and sample entropy) to inter-individual variance in Ec (kcal...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695271/the-metabolic-costs-of-walking-and-running-up-a-30-degree-incline-implications-for-vertical-kilometer-foot-races
#14
REVIEW
Amanda Louise Ryan Ortiz, Nicola Giovanelli, Rodger Kram
PURPOSE: Vertical kilometer (VK) races, in which runners gain 1000 m of elevation in <5000 m of distance, are becoming popular. However, few studies on steep uphill running (>25°) exist. Previously, we determined that ~30° is the optimal angle for uphill running, costing the least amount of metabolic energy for a specific vertical velocity. To inform the training and strategy of VK racers, we quantified the metabolic cost of walking and running at various velocities up a 30° incline...
July 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690549/running-economy-from-a-muscle-energetics-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Jared R Fletcher, Brian R MacIntosh
The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666387/toolkit-for-the-construction-of-reproducing-kernel-based-representations-of-data-application-to-multidimensional-potential-energy-surfaces
#16
Oliver T Unke, Markus Meuwly
In the early days of computation, slow processor speeds limited the amount of data that could be generated and used for scientific purposes. In the age of big data, the limiting factor usually is the method with which large amounts of data are analyzed and useful information is extracted. A typical example from chemistry are high-level ab initio calculations for small systems, which have nowadays become feasible even if energies at many different geometries are required. Molecular dynamics simulations often require several thousand distinct trajectories to be run...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661317/minimizing-energy-use-and-ghg-emissions-of-lift-stations-utilizing-real-time-pump-control-strategies
#17
Mohammad Badruzzaman, Travis Crane, Darren Hollifield, David Wilcoxson, Joseph G Jacangelo
  Wastewater collection system lift station operations require a substantial amount of energy, and can be as a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for wastewater utilities. Many lift stations operate with local or basic controls that have no hydraulic relationship with other collection system lift stations. This study demonstrated a unique energy-efficient control method of lift station operation that utilizes hydraulic modeling results generated from site-specific conditions to optimize the pumping units and reduce simultaneous running cycles on a real time basis...
November 1, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658509/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-length-and-running-performance-in-well-trained-male-endurance-runners
#18
Hiromasa Ueno, Tadashi Suga, Kenji Takao, Takahiro Tanaka, Jun Misaki, Yuto Miyake, Akinori Nagano, Tadao Isaka
This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively...
June 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642437/human-in-the-loop-optimization-of-exoskeleton-assistance-during-walking
#19
Juanjuan Zhang, Pieter Fiers, Kirby A Witte, Rachel W Jackson, Katherine L Poggensee, Christopher G Atkeson, Steven H Collins
Exoskeletons and active prostheses promise to enhance human mobility, but few have succeeded. Optimizing device characteristics on the basis of measured human performance could lead to improved designs. We have developed a method for identifying the exoskeleton assistance that minimizes human energy cost during walking. Optimized torque patterns from an exoskeleton worn on one ankle reduced metabolic energy consumption by 24.2 ± 7.4% compared to no torque. The approach was effective with exoskeletons worn on one or both ankles, during a variety of walking conditions, during running, and when optimizing muscle activity...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592172/hydrogen-storage-technologies-for-future-energy-systems
#20
REVIEW
Patrick Preuster, Alexander Alekseev, Peter Wasserscheid
Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
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