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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325435/early-stages-of-hiv-treatment-cascade-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-saint-petersburg-russia
#1
M V Vetrova, O V Aleksandrova, A E Paschenko, S E Toropov, V V Rassokhin, R A Abyshev, O S Levina, L M Niccolai, R Heimer
The proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is growing rapidly in Russia. Successful treatment outcomes reduces disease progression and contributes to HIV epidemic control. We conducted a pilot study following 100 PLWH newly found eligible for ART in St. Petersburg, Russia. We determined the proportion of PLWH who initiated ART, remained in treatment, and achieved an undetectable VL during 6-month follow up. Semi-structured interviews were conducted prior the initiation of ART and progress along the cascade was assessed through medical chart review...
January 11, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306786/differences-in-risk-behaviours-and-hiv-status-between-primary-amphetamines-and-opioid-injectors-in-estonia-and-russia
#2
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Lucy Platt, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Peter Vickerman, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: People who inject drugs (PWID) account for over half of new HIV infections in Eastern Europe and central Asia, where opioids continue to be the dominant illicit drugs injected. Stimulants including amphetamines (ATS) have been associated with HIV infection risk in several settings. We sought to examine whether primary ATS injection was associated with greater HIV risk, compared to opioid injection in two European locales with significant HIV epidemics. METHODS: PWID in Kohtla-Järve and St...
January 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220789/new-estrogen-receptor-antagonists-3-20-dihydroxy-19-norpregna-1-3-5-10-trienes-synthesis-molecular-modeling-and-biological-evaluation
#3
Yury V Kuznetsov, Inna S Levina, Alexander M Scherbakov, Olga E Andreeva, Irina V Fedyushkina, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Alexander S Shashkov, Igor V Zavarzin
New estrogen receptor α (ERα) antagonists - 3,20-dihydroxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10)-trienes containing an additional carbocyclic ring D' at the 16α,17α positions - were synthesized. The effects of the new compounds on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells and ERα activation were investigated. All the steroids studied were synthesized starting from estrone methyl ether. The scaffold of compounds containing the six-membered ring D' was constructed via the Diels-Alder reaction of butadiene with 3-methoxy-19-norpregna-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-20-one 5...
November 26, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142045/a-rapid-assay-for-detection-of-the-epidemiologically-important-central-asian-russian-strain-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-genotype
#4
Igor Mokrousov, Ekaterina Chernyaeva, Anna Vyazovaya, Yuriy Skiba, Natalia Solovieva, Violeta Valcheva, Klavdia Levina, Natalya Malakhova, Wei-Wei Jiao, Lia Lima Gomes, Philip N Suffys, Marge Kütt, Nagima Aitkhozhina, A-Dong Shen, Olga Narvskaya, Viacheslav Zhuravlev
Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates of the Beijing 94-32-cluster (also named "Central Asian/Russian Beijing strain") constitute an important component of the population structure of the pathogen in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries (1-4).….
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123063/lewis-acid-enhancement-by-hydrogen-bond-donors-for-asymmetric-catalysis
#5
Steven M Banik, Anna Levina, Alan M Hyde, Eric N Jacobsen
Small-molecule dual hydrogen-bond (H-bond) donors such as ureas, thioureas, squaramides, and guanidinium ions enjoy widespread use as effective catalysts for promoting a variety of enantioselective reactions. However, these catalysts are only weakly acidic and therefore require highly reactive electrophilic substrates to be effective. We introduce here a mode of catalytic activity with chiral H-bond donors that enables enantioselective reactions of relatively unreactive electrophiles. Squaramides are shown to interact with silyl triflates by binding the triflate counterion to form a stable, yet highly Lewis acidic, complex...
November 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110480/lewis-acid-triggered-vinylcyclopropane-cyclopentene-rearrangement
#6
Olga A Ivanova, Alexey O Chagarovskiy, Alexey N Shumsky, Vasiliy D Krasnobrov, Irina I Levina, Igor V Trushkov
We report a mild Lewis acid-induced isomerization of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes, containing an alkenyl moiety and diverse electron-withdrawing group(s) at the adjacent positions, into substituted cyclopentenes. We have found that 1,1,2-trisubstituted cyclopent-3-enes were exclusively obtained in yield of 51 to 99% when cyclopropanes with 2-substituted alkenyl group as a donor underwent isomerization. For cyclopropanes bearing trisubstituted alkenyl group either the corresponding cyclopent-3-enes or isomeric cyclopent-2-enes having two acceptor groups at the C(1) atom were formed, with the reaction selectivity being determined by the applied Lewis acid...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092043/emerging-resistant-clones-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-spatiotemporal-context
#7
Anna Vyazovaya, Klavdia Levina, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Piret Viiklepp, Marge Kütt, Igor Mokrousov
Objectives: We assessed the genetic structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Estonia with a special focus on major epidemic/endemic clones and drug resistance determinants. We investigated the hypothesis of the decisive impact of massive human influx on the locally circulating genotypes. Estonia received a mass immigration from Russia during 1945-90 followed by enhanced interaction with the EU since 1991. Methods: The study sample included M. tuberculosis isolates from patients newly diagnosed with TB in 2014 in North Estonia (including the capital Tallinn)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077419/origins-of-stokes-shift-in-pbs-nanocrystals
#8
Oleksandr Voznyy, Larissa Levina, Feng-Jia Fan, Grant Walters, James Z Fan, Amirreza Kiani, Alexander H Ip, Susanna M Thon, Andrew Proppe, Mengxia Liu, Edward H Sargent
Stokes shift, an energy difference between the excitonic absorption and emission, is a property of colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) typically ascribed to splitting between dark and bright excitons. In some materials, e.g., PbS, CuInS2, CdHgTe, a Stokes shift of up to 200 meV is observed, substantially larger than the estimates of dark-bright state splitting or vibronic relaxations. The shift origin remains highly debated, as contradictory signatures of both surface and bulk character were reported for the Stokes-shifted electronic state...
October 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039911/halide-re-shelled-quantum-dot-inks-for-infrared-photovoltaics
#9
James Z Fan, Mengxia Liu, Oleksandr Voznyy, Bin Sun, Larissa Levina, Rafael Quintero-Bermudez, Min Liu, Olivier Ouellette, F Pelayo García de Arquer, Sjoerd Hoogland, Edward H Sargent
Colloidal quantum dots are promising materials for tandem solar cells that complement silicon and perovskites. These devices are fabricated from solution phase; however, existing methods for making infrared-bandgap CQD inks suffer agglomeration and fusion during solution exchange. Here we develop a ligand exchange that provides robust surface protection and thereby avoids aggregation. First, we exchanged long oleic acid ligands to a mixed system comprising medium-chain ammonium and anionic chloride ligands; we then reshelled the surface using short halides and pseudohalide ligands that enabled transfer to a polar solvent...
October 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023413/diallylthiosulfinate-allicin-a-volatile-antimicrobial-from-garlic-allium-sativum-kills-human-lung-pathogenic-bacteria-including-mdr-strains-as-a-vapor
#10
Jana Reiter, Natalja Levina, Mark van der Linden, Martin Gruhlke, Christian Martin, Alan J Slusarenko
Garlic (Allium sativum) has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus, including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020277/hiv-care-access-among-people-with-incarceration-experience-in-st-petersburg-russia
#11
Monica S Ruiz, Robert Heimer, Olga S Levina, N V Badosova, Vadim V Rassokhin, Andrey N Belyakov, Nikolai A Belyakov
Background: Little is known about the clinical care experiences of HIV-infected persons in St. Petersburg who have experience with incarceration. To address this question, we conducted a capture-recapture study to identify individuals who had been diagnosed with HIV infection while incarcerated and who subsequently presented for medical care in St. Petersburg, Russia following release from prison. Methods: We matched 292 HIV-positive prisoners tested by the prison system in 2010 to the medical records at the St...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973528/c9orf72-implicated-in-amytrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-frontotemporal-dementia-regulates-endosomal-trafficking
#12
Manal A Farg, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Jessica M Sultana, Shu Yang, Rachel A K Atkinson, Vita Levina, Mark A Halloran, Paul A Gleeson, Ian P Blair, Kai Y Soo, Anna E King, Julie D Atkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900092/-impact-of-delivery-method-on-antiviral-activity-of-phosphodiester-phosphorothioate-and-phosphoryl-guanidine-oligonucleotides-in-mdck-cells-infected-with-h5n1-bird-flu-virus
#13
A S Levina, M N Repkova, B P Chelobanov, E V Bessudnova, N A Mazurkova, D A Stetsenko, V F Zarytova
We have previously described nanocomposites containing conjugates or complexes of native oligodeoxyribonucleotides with poly-L-lysine and TiO2 nanoparticles. We have shown that these nanocomposites efficiently suppressed influenza A virus reproduction in MDCK cells. Here, we have synthesized previously undescribed nanocomposites that consist of TiO2 nanoparticles and polylysine conjugates with oligonucleotides that contain phosphoryl guanidine or phosphorothioate internucleotide groups. These nanocomposites have been shown to exhibit antiviral activity in MDCK cells infected with H5N1 influenza A virus...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864067/a-novel-chemoradiation-targeting-stem-and-nonstem-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-repurposing-disulfiram
#14
Juan Cong, Yangyang Wang, Xiao Zhang, Nan Zhang, Ling Liu, Klara Soukup, Theodoros Michelakos, Theodore Hong, Albert DeLeo, Lei Cai, Francesco Sabbatino, Soldano Ferrone, Hang Lee, Vera Levina, Bryan Fuchs, Kenneth Tanabe, Keith Lillemoe, Cristina Ferrone, Xinhui Wang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a 5-year relative survival rate of 8% and is projected to be the second leading cause of cancer death by 2030, underscoring the urgency to develop new strategies to improve current therapeutic modalities for PDAC. Targeting pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, is a promising strategy. A novel approach which can be readily clinically translated is to repurpose disulfiram (DSF), a drug for treating alcoholism, to target PCSCs...
November 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699018/polydrug-use-and-heterogeneity-in-hiv-risk-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-estonia-and-russia-a-latent-class-analysis
#15
Isabel Tavitian-Exley, Marie-Claude Boily, Robert Heimer, Anneli Uusküla, Olga Levina, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux
Non-medical drug injection is a major risk factor for HIV infection in Russia and Estonia. Multiple drug use (polydrug) has further been associated with increased harms. We compared HIV, injecting and sexual risk associated with polydrug use among people who injected drugs (PWID) in 2012-2013 in Kohtla-Järve (Estonia, n = 591) and St Petersburg (Russia, n = 811). Using latent class analysis, we identified five (poly)drug classes, the largest consisting of single-drug injectors among whom an opioid was the sole drug injected (56% of PWID)...
July 11, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545094/economic-evaluation-of-policy-options-for-dialysis-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-under-the-universal-health-coverage-in-indonesia
#16
Afiatin, Levina Chandra Khoe, Erna Kristin, Lusiana Siti Masytoh, Eva Herlinawaty, Pitsaphun Werayingyong, Mardiati Nadjib, Sudigdo Sastroasmoro, Yot Teerawattananon
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the value for money and budget impact of offering hemodialysis (HD) as a first-line treatment, or the HD-first policy, and the peritoneal dialysis (PD) first policy compared to a supportive care option in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Indonesia. METHODS: A Markov model-based economic evaluation was performed using local and international data to quantify the potential costs and health-related outcomes in terms of life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506425/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-germany-from-2004-2005-to-2014-2015
#17
Julia Schmitz, Mark van der Linden, Adnan Al-Lahham, Natalia Levina, Mathias W Pletz, Matthias Imöhl
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Prevalence of levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates in Germany and associated mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), as well as serotype distribution and multi locus sequence types (MLST) are shown. 21,764 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates from Germany, isolated in the epidemiological seasons from 2004/05 to 2014/15 were analyzed at the German National Reference Centre for Streptococci (GNRCS) for their levofloxacin resistance by micro broth dilution method...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497980/the-association-between-cigarette-smoking-virologic-suppression-and%C3%A2-cd4-%C3%A2-lymphocyte-count-in-hiv-infected-russian-women
#18
Jennifer L Brown, Theresa Winhusen, Ralph J DiClemente, Jessica M Sales, Eve S Rose, Polina Safonova, Olga Levina, Nikolay Belyakov, Vadim V Rassokhin
Cigarette smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but findings regarding the association between cigarette smoking and HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been inconsistent. This study characterized the prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV-infected Russian women and examined the association between smoking frequency and quantity and HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts. HIV-infected Russian women (N = 250; M age = 30.0) in St...
September 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483894/finding-hope-in-the-face-to-face
#19
Jennifer Y C Edgoose, Julian M Edgoose
What does it mean to look into the face of a patient who looks back? Face-to-face encounters are at the heart of the patient-clinician relationship but their singular significance is often lost amid the demands of today's high-tech, metric-driven health care systems. Using the framework provided by the philosopher and Holocaust survivor Emmanuel Levinas, the authors explore the unique responsibility and potential for hope found only in face-to-face encounters. Revisiting this most fundamental attribute of medicine is likely our greatest chance to reclaim who we are as clinicians and why we do what we do...
May 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469176/subsampling-scaling
#20
A Levina, V Priesemann
In real-world applications, observations are often constrained to a small fraction of a system. Such spatial subsampling can be caused by the inaccessibility or the sheer size of the system, and cannot be overcome by longer sampling. Spatial subsampling can strongly bias inferences about a system's aggregated properties. To overcome the bias, we derive analytically a subsampling scaling framework that is applicable to different observables, including distributions of neuronal avalanches, of number of people infected during an epidemic outbreak, and of node degrees...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
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