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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241219/yap-inhibits-the-apoptosis-and-migration-of-human-rectal-cancer-cells-via-suppression-of-jnk-drp1-mitochondrial-fission-htra2-omi-pathways
#1
Haijun Li, Fucheng He, Xin Zhao, Yuan Zhang, Xi Chu, Chunlan Hua, Yunhui Qu, Yu Duan, Liang Ming
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Hippo-Yap pathway is associated with tumor development and progression. However, little evidence is available concerning its role in cancer cell apoptosis and migration via mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we identify mitochondrial fission as a regulator of the Hippo-Yap pathway in human rectal cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis. METHODS: In this study, we performed loss-of function assays concerning Yap in RCC via shRNA. Cellular viability and apoptosis were measured via MTT, the TUNEL assay and trypan blue staining...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241213/antibiotics-induced-obesity-a-mitochondrial-perspective
#2
Melisa J Andrade, Chinchu Jayaprakash, Smitha Bhat, Nikolaos Evangelatos, Angela Brand, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against infections and have contributed immensely to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, extensive use of antibiotics has led to alterations of the gut microbiome, predisposition to various diseases and most importantly, increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a major threat to global public health. Another major issue faced worldwide due to unregulated use of antibiotics in children as well as in adults is the influence of metabolism and body weight homeostasis, leading to obesity...
December 15, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241198/fam3a-protects-against-glutamate-induced-toxicity-by-preserving-calcium-homeostasis-in-differentiated-pc12-cells
#3
Qing Song, Wen-Li Gou, Yu-Liang Zou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability, and glutamate-induced dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is a key mechanism. FAM3A is the first member of the family with sequence similarity 3 (FAM3) gene family, and its biological function remains largely unknown. We have recently reported that FAM3A exerts protective effects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HT22 cells. METHODS: Here, we investigated the protective effects of FAM3A using a glutamate-induced neuronal injury model in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241162/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-fomitopsis-pinicola-sw-ex-fr-karst-chloroform-fpkc-extract-against-s180-tumor-cells
#4
Ye Gao, Pan Wang, Yaqin Wang, Lijie Wu, Xiaobing Wang, Kun Zhang, Quanhong Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-toxic fomitopsis is has been traditionally used in folk medicine in many countries for its anti-inflammatory and anti-vascular disease activities. The present study investigates the antitumor effect of Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.) Karst chloroform extract (FPKc) on S180 tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and we determined the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: HPLC was employed to analyze the constituents of FPKc. In-vitro 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to quantify the growth inhibition of FPKc; Propidium iodide (PI) exclusion assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe the damage on the cell membrane and the changes of the cell morphology; Staining with Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (HO/PI) and the application of the Annexin V-FITC/PI analysis permitted to observe the cell death triggered by FPKc; DNA damage and cell cycle arrest were detected by flow cytometry; Rhodamine 123 (RH123) and Cytochrome C were used as dyes to investigate the alterations of the mitochondria...
December 12, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240987/nmr-study-of-rcf2-reveals-an-unusual-dimeric-topology-in-detergent-micelles
#5
Shu Zhou, Pontus Pettersson, Peter Brzezinski, Pia Ädelroth, Lena Mäler
The Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae mitochondrial respiratory supercomplex factor 2 (Rcf2) plays a role in assembly of supercomplexes composed of cytochrome bc1 (complex III) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV). The Rcf2 protein was here expressed in E. coli, refolded and reconstituted into dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The structural properties of Rcf2 were studied by solution NMR and near complete backbone assignment of Rcf2 was achieved. The secondary structure of Rcf2 contains seven helices, of which five are putative transmembrane (TM) helices, including, unexpectedly, a region formed by a charged 20-residue helix at the C-terminus...
December 14, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240949/nitric-oxide-production-in-plants-an-update
#6
Jeremy Astier, Inonge Gross, Jörg Durner
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plant physiology. However, its production in photosynthetic organisms remains partially unresolved. The best characterized NO production route involves the reduction of nitrite to NO via different non-enzymatic or enzymatic mechanisms. Nitrate reductases (NRs), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the new complex between NR and NOFNiR (nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductase) described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the main enzymatic systems that perform this reductive NO production in plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240891/primary-ovarian-insufficiency-and-azospermia-in-carriers-of-a-homozygous-psmc3ip-stop-gain-mutation
#7
Abdulmoein Eid Al-Agha, Ihab Abdulhamed Ahmed, Esther Nuebel, Mika Moriwaki, Barry Moore, Katherine A Peacock, Tim Mosbruger, Deborah W Neklason, Lynn B Jorde, Mark Yandell, Corrine K Welt
Context: The etiology of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) remains unknown in a majority of cases. Objective: We sought to identify genes causing POI. Design: The study was a familial genetic study. Setting: The study was performed in two academic institutions. Patients: We identified a consanguineous Yemeni family in which 4 daughters had POI. A brother had azoospermia. Intervention: DNA was subjected to whole genome sequencing...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240846/characterization-of-conditions-and-determination-of-practical-tips-for-mtdna-level-estimation-in-various-human-cells
#8
Paulina Jędrak, Natalia Sowa, Sylwia Barańska, Grzegorz Węgrzyn
Determination of mtDNA copy number in the cell is crucial to understand many cellular processes. Recently, the number of studies with the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as the determinant of mitochondrial abnormalities increased greatly and is still growing, therefore, optimization of technical conditions for this analysis is crucial. Despite using similar laboratory protocols, some results cannot be compared between research centers, thus causing discrepancies in the assessment of mtDNA content. The aim of this work was to test which conditions of biological sample collection and storage affect estimation of mtDNA level relative to the nuclear DNA (nDNA) in the blood samples and dermal fibroblasts...
December 15, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240830/a-low-fat-diet-ameliorates-pathology-but-retains-beneficial-effects-associated-with-cpt1b-knockout-in-skeletal-muscle
#9
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Shawna E Wicks, Jingying Zhang, Robert C Noland, Randall L Mynatt
Inhibiting fatty acid oxidation is one approach to lowering glucose levels in diabetes. Skeletal muscle specific Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b knockout mice (Cpt1bm-/-) comprise a model of impaired fat oxidation; and have decreased fat mass and enhanced glucose disposal and muscle oxidative capacity compared to controls. However, unfavorable effects occur relative to controls when Cpt1bm-/- mice are fed a 25% fat diet, including decreased activity and fat free mass and increased intramuscular lipid and serum myoglobin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240674/evaluation-of-the-cytotoxicity-and-genotoxicity-of-flavonolignans-in-different-cellular-models
#10
Michal Bijak, Ewelina Synowiec, Przemyslaw Sitarek, Tomasz Sliwiński, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Flavonolignans are the main components of silymarin, which represents 1.5-3% of the dry fruit weight of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). In ancient Greece and Romania, physicians and herbalists used the Silybum marianum to treat a range of liver diseases. Besides their hepatoprotective action, silymarin flavonolignans have many other healthy properties, such as anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of flavonolignans on blood platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and human lung cancer cell line-A549-using different molecular techniques...
December 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240609/effects-of-propofol-on-cellular-bioenergetics-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#11
Adéla Krajčová, Nils Gunnar Løvsletten, Petr Waldauf, Vladimír Frič, Moustafa Elkalaf, Tomáš Urban, Michal Anděl, Jan Trnka, G Hege Thoresen, František Duška
OBJECTIVES: Propofol may adversely affect the function of mitochondria and the clinical features of propofol infusion syndrome suggest that this may be linked to propofol-related bioenergetic failure. We aimed to assess the effect of therapeutic propofol concentrations on energy metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells. DESIGN: In vitro study on human skeletal muscle cells. SETTINGS: University research laboratories. SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing hip surgery and healthy volunteers...
December 13, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240261/mitochondrial-dysfunction-rad51-and-ku80-proteolysis-promote-apoptotic-effects-of-dinaciclib-in-bcl-xl-silenced-cells
#12
Daniel R Premkumar, Esther P Jane, Swetha Thambireddy, Philip A Sutera, Jonathon M Cavaleri, Ian F Pollack
In the present study, we investigated the effect of CDK inhibitors (ribociclib, palbociclib, seliciclib, AZD5438 and dinaciclib) on malignant human glioma cells for cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function using various assays. None of the CDK inhibitors induced cell death at a clinically relevant concentration. However, low nanomolar concentrations of dinaciclib showed higher cytotoxic activity against Bcl-xL silenced cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This effect was not seen with other CDK inhibitors...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240252/ganoderma-microsporum-immunomodulatory-protein-induces-apoptosis-and-potentiates-mitomycin-c-induced-apoptosis-in-urinary-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma-cells
#13
Sheng-Yuan Huang, Chih-Cheng Chien, Ruey-Shyang Hseu, Victoria Ying Jen Huang, Shang Ying Chiang, Chi-Jung Huang, Shao-Kuan Chen, Ru-Yin Tsai, Hsi-Ting Lin, Yu-Che Cheng
Current chemotherapy and immunotherapy treatments followed by transurethral resection for urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) usually suffers from poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Design and modification of current formulation with the novel adjuvants is needed. A recombinant protein derived from Ganoderma microsporum named as Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMIP) were used to treat UC cells. We found GMIP elicits a dose-dependent and time-dependent anti-UC cell proliferation effect, with a half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50 ) comparable to mitomycin C (MMC), a commonly used chemotherapy agent...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240246/hyperthermia-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-through-ros-inducing-autophagic-cell-death
#14
Ming-Chen Ba, Hui Long, Shuai Wang, Yin-Bing Wu, Bo-Huo Zhang, Zhao-Fei Yan, Fei-Hong Yu, Shu-Zhong Cui
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia (HT) enhances the anti-cancer effects of radiotherapy (RT), but the precise biochemical mechanisms involved are unclear. This study was aim to investigate if mild HT sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to RT through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing autophagic cell death in a mice model of HCT116 human colorectal cancer. METHODS: HCT116 mice model were randomly divided into five groups: mock group, hyperthermia group (HT), radiotherapy group (RT), HT + RT group, and HT + RT +N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC) group (HT + CT + NAC)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239820/all-trans-retinoic-acid-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-affects-the-balance-of-the-adipogenic-differentiation
#15
Laynna de Carvalho Schweich, Edwin José Torres de Oliveira, João Renato Pesarini, Larissa Corrêa Hermeto, Melissa Camassola, Nance Beyer Nardi, Themis Maria Milan Brochado, Andréia Conceição Milan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
The all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is the most active form of vitamin A that helps to regulate the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of several types of cells, mainly the adipocytes, and causes weight loss through the reduction of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In this present study we demonstrated that ATRA concentrations of 20.75, 50 and 100 μM decreased the cell viability in vitro of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), and in ADSCs during adipogenic differentiation. The cells cycle assessment showed that ATRA increased the cell frequency in Sub-G1 at 4...
November 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239817/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumor-effects-of-the-diterpene-enriched-extract-from-taxodium-ascendens-through-the-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-pathway
#16
Jie Yang, Chan Xu, Hao Chen, Mi Huang, Xinhua Ma, Shihao Deng, Yun Huang, Yanzhang Wen, Xinzhou Yang, Ping Song
Extracts and components of Taxodium ascendens Brongn, an excellent afforestation tree, have exhibited several activities, including antibacterial activity and inhibitory activity on carbonic anhydrase II. However, the anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (anti-HCC) activity of extracts from the leaves of T. ascendens (TALE) remains unclear. In the present study, six diterpenoid compounds were isolated from a TALE extract. Here, the pro-apoptotic activities and the molecular mechanisms of TALE and the compounds 1-6 on HepG2 and Hep3B HCC cells were evaluated...
November 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239720/akt-regulation-of-glycolysis-mediates-bioenergetic-stability-in-epithelial-cells
#17
Yin P Hung, Carolyn Teragawa, Nont Kosaisawe, Taryn E Gillies, Michael Pargett, Marta Minguet, Kevin Distor, Briana L Rocha-Gregg, Jonathan L Coloff, Mark A Keibler, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Gary Yellen, Joan S Brugge, John G Albeck
Cells use multiple feedback controls to regulate metabolism in response to nutrient and signaling inputs. However, feedback creates the potential for unstable network responses. We examined how concentrations of key metabolites and signaling pathways interact to maintain homeostasis in proliferating human cells, using fluorescent reporters for AMPK activity, Akt activity, and cytosolic NADH/NAD+ redox. Across various conditions, including glycolytic or mitochondrial inhibition or cell proliferation, we observed distinct patterns of AMPK activity, including both stable adaptation and highly dynamic behaviors such as periodic oscillations and irregular fluctuations that indicate a failure to reach a steady state...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239719/live-cell-mapping-of-organelle-associated-rnas-via-proximity-biotinylation-combined-with-protein-rna-crosslinking
#18
Pornchai Kaewsapsak, David Michael Shechner, William Mallard, John L Rinn, Alice Y Ting
The spatial organization of RNA within cells is a crucial factor influencing a wide range of biological functions throughout all kingdoms of life. However, a general understanding of RNA localization has been hindered by a lack of simple, high-throughput methods for mapping the transcriptomes of subcellular compartments. Here, we develop such a method, termed APEX-RIP, which combines peroxidase-catalyzed, spatially restricted in situ protein biotinylation with RNA-protein chemical crosslinking. We demonstrate that, using a single protocol, APEX-RIP can isolate RNAs from a variety of subcellular compartments, including the mitochondrial matrix, nucleus, cytosol, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), with specificity and sensitivity that rival or exceed those of conventional approaches...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239317/%C3%AE-n-bcl-xl-a-therapeutic-target-for-neuroprotection
#19
REVIEW
Han-A Park, Elizabeth A Jonas
The B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) is a mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein that plays a role in neuroprotection. However, during excitotoxic stimulation, Bcl-xL undergoes caspase-dependent cleavage and produces a fragmented form, ΔN-Bcl-xL. Accumulation of ΔN-Bcl-xL is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death. Therefore, strategies to inhibit the activity or formation of ΔN-Bcl-xL protect the brain against excitotoxic injuries. Our team found that the pharmacological inhibitor ABT-737 exerts dose dependent effects in primary neurons...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239112/male-reproductive-tract-and-spermatozoa-ultrastructure-in-the-grasshopper-orphulella-punctata-de-geer-1773-insecta-orthoptera-caelifera
#20
Daniela Santos Martins Silva, Jamile Fernanda Silva Cossolin, Marcelo Ribeiro Pereira, José Lino-Neto, Carlos Frankl Sperber, José Eduardo Serrão
Identification Orphulellini grasshoppers (Acrididae: Gomphocerinae) species has been difficult due to high polymorphism rate. Orphulella Giglio-Tos, 1894 is a genus with widespread geographical distribution and poor descriptions. Orphulella punctata (De Geer, 1773) has an extensive record of occurrence and available information about the phallic complex, however, there is poor data describing other parts of the male reproductive tract. The objective of this study was characterizes the internal organs of the male reproductive system and spermatozoa of O...
December 14, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
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