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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908495/phytol-shows-anti-angiogenic-activity-and-induces-apoptosis-in-a549-cells-by-depolarizing-the-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#1
Ravi Sakthivel, Dicson Sheeja Malar, Kasi Pandima Devi
In the present study, the antiproliferative activity of phytol and its mechanism of action against human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 were studied in detail. Results showed that phytol exhibited potent antiproliferative activity against A549 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 70.81 ± 0.32 μM and 60.7 ± 0.47 μM at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Phytol showed no adverse toxic effect in normal human lung cells (L-132), but mild toxic effect was observed when treated with maximum dose (67 and 84 μM)...
June 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908421/ultrastructural-variability-of-mitochondrial-cristae-induced-in-vitro-by-bee-apis-mellifera-venom-and-its-derivatives-melittin-and-phospholipase-a2-in-isolated-rat-adrenocortical-mitochondria
#2
Adrian Florea, Andrei Patrick Varga, Horea Vladi Matei
We tested the ability of bee venom (BV), melittin (Mlt), and phospholipase A2 (PLA) - used in 5 concentrations each (5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 μg/100 μl) - to promote ultrastructural changes and reorganization of cristae in vitro in mitochondria isolated from rat adrenal cortex after a protocol optimized by us. Thus, apart from two control grups (CI and CS), in which the mitochondria were suspended into saline buffer and isolation medium respectively, 15 more groups of mitochondria were constituted, corresponding to the five different doses of the three substance tested (BV5 to M40; M5 to M40 and P5 to P40)...
June 9, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908404/the-association-between-cortisol-oxytocin-and-immune-cell-mitochondrial-oxygen-consumption-in-postpartum-women-with-childhood-maltreatment
#3
Christina Boeck, Anja Maria Gumpp, Enrico Calzia, Peter Radermacher, Christiane Waller, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with an increased risk for the development of psychiatric and somatic diseases in later life. Individual risk and resilience factors may, however, influence how deep psychological stress gets under the skin. We hypothesized that the stress-related hormone cortisol and the attachment-related hormone oxytocin constitute biological factors that might moderate the biological sequelae and long-term health outcomes associated with CM. As biological outcome, we thereby focused on immunocellular oxygen consumption, which we previously found to be increased with a higher severity of CM experiences...
June 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908347/aging-related-functional-and-structural-changes-in-the-heart-and-aorta-mitotempo-improves-aged-cardiovascular-performance
#4
Yusuf Olgar, Sinan Degirmenci, Aysegul Durak, Deniz Billur, Belgin Can, Gizem Kayki Mutlu, Ebru Arioglu Inan, Belma Turan
Aging in humans represents declining in cardio-protective systems, however its mechanisms are not known yet. We aimed to analyse how aging affects key mechanisms responsible for contractile dysfunction via comparing the improperly synchrony between electrical and mechanical activities in male aged-rats (24-month old) comparison to those of adult-rats (6-month old). We determined significantly increased systemic oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant capacity, clear insulin resistance and hypertrophy in aged-rats with normal fasting blood glucose...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908326/protein-coding-mitochondrial-targeted-rnas-rescue-mitochondrial-disease-in-vivo
#5
Desiree M Markantone, Atif Towheed, Aaron T Crain, Jessica M Collins, Alicia M Celotto, Michael J Palladino
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (MEs) result from mutations in mitochondrial genes critical to oxidative phosphorylation. Severe and untreatable ME results from mutations affecting each endogenous mitochondrial encoded gene, including all 13 established protein coding genes. Effective techniques to manipulate mitochondrial genome are limited and targeted mitochondrial protein expression is currently unavailable. Here we report the development of a mitochondrial-targeted RNA expression (mtTRES) vector capable of protein expression within mitochondria (mtTRESPro )...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908293/reversible-rna-modification-n-1-methyladenosine-m-1-a-in-mrna-and-trna
#6
REVIEW
Chi Zhang, Guifang Jia
More than 100 modifications have been found in RNA. Analogous to epigenetic DNA methylation, epitranscriptomic modifications can be written, read, and erased by a complex network of proteins. Apart from N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), N1 -methyladenosine (m1 A) has been found as a reversible modification in tRNA and mRNA. m1 A occurs at positions 9, 14, and 58 of tRNA, with m1 A58 being critical for tRNA stability. Other than the hundreds of m1 A sites in mRNA and long non-coding RNA transcripts, transcriptome-wide mapping of m1 A also identifies > 20 m1 A sites in mitochondrial genes...
June 13, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908270/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-parasesarma-affine-brachyura-sesarmidae-gene-rearrangements-in-sesarmidae-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-brachyura
#7
Zhengfei Wang, Ziqian Wang, Xuejia Shi, Qiong Wu, Yitao Tao, Huayun Guo, Chenyao Ji, Yuze Bai
In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the crab Parasesarma affine is determined, characterized and compared with other decapod crustaceans. The P. affine mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 15,638 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and a control region (CR). Then, 23 of the 37 genes are encoded by the heavy (+) strand while 14 are encoded by the light (-) strand. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons and 4 of the 13 PCGs harbored the incomplete termination codon by T or TA...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908245/in-vitro-interaction-and-biocompatibility-of-titanate-nanotubes-with-microglial-cells
#8
S Sruthi, A Loiseau, J Boudon, F Sallem, L Maurizi, P V Mohanan, G Lizard, N Millot
Titanate nanotubes (TiONts) are promising agents for biomedical applications. Microglial activation and associated oxidative burst are major challenges in drug delivery applications across the brain. Here, TiONts were designed for drug delivery systems by functionalizing them with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), their interactions and biocompatibility were studied in vitro using murine microglial BV-2 cells. TiONts-APTES exposure resulted in increased ROS production and transient mitochondrial hyperpolarization...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908243/protective-roles-of-fenofibrate-against-cisplatin-induced-ototoxicity-by-the-rescue-of-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#9
Se-Jin Kim, Channy Park, Joon No Lee, Raekil Park
Cisplatin is an alkylating agent that interferes with DNA replication and kills proliferating carcinogenic cells. Several studies have been conducted to attenuate the side effects of cisplatin; one such side effect in cancer patients undergoing cisplatin chemotherapy is ototoxicity. However, owing to a lack of understanding of the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-induced side effects, management of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains unsolved. We investigated the protective effects of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α activator, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908242/medium-chain-triglyceride-diet-reduces-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-enhances-social-competitiveness-in-rats
#10
Fiona Hollis, Ellen Siobhan Mitchell, Carles Canto, Dongmei Wang, Carmen Sandi
Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are emerging as unique dietary supplements potentially relevant to improve brain dysfunctions. MCT are converted into ketones and free medium chain fatty acids that, in the brain, are highly effective energy sources to mitochondria and potentially less harmful than glucose metabolism to neurons. Given the recently established link between mitochondrial dysfunction and high anxiety and depression, we set this study to investigate the effectiveness of an MCT-enriched diet to ameliorate anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in rats...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908215/mitoferrin-1-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-targeting-mitochondrial-iron-metabolism-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-of-alzheimers-disease
#11
Jiatao Huang, Sixi Chen, Li Hu, Huan Niu, Qianqian Sun, Wenna Li, Guoqian Tan, Jianghui Li, LongJin Jin, Jianxin Lyu, Huaibin Zhou
In mammals, mitoferrin-1and mitoferrin-2, two homologous proteins of the mitochondrial solute carrier family are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. However, there is only one kind, called W02B12 (mitoferrin-1 or mfn-1), in Caenorhabditis elegans and its regulatory mechanism is unknown. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans strains CL2006 and GMC101 as models to investigate what role mitoferrin-1 played in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that knockdown of mitoferrin-1 by feeding-RNAi treatment extended lifespans of both strains of C...
June 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908199/establishment-of-a-cell-model-of-x-linked-sideroblastic-anemia-using-genome-editing
#12
Kiriko Kaneko, Yoshiko Kubota, Kazumi Nomura, Haruka Hayashimoto, Taisei Chida, Naoto Yoshino, Marina Wayama, Katsutoshi Ogasawara, Yukio Nakamura, Ikuo Tooyama, Kazumichi Furuyama
ALAS2 gene mutations cause X-linked sideroblastic anemia. The presence of ring sideroblasts in a patient's bone marrow is the hallmark of sideroblastic anemia, but the precise mechanisms underlying sideroblast formation are largely unknown. Using a genome editing system, a mutation was introduced in the erythroid-specific enhancer of the ALAS2 gene in HUDEP2 cells, which were derived from human umbilical stem cells and can produce erythrocytes. The established cell line, termed HA2low, expressed less ALAS2 mRNA than did wild-type cells, even after erythroid differentiation...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908180/knocking-down-stard3-decreases-adipogenesis-with-decreased-mitochondrial-ros-in-3t3-l1-cells
#13
Xiaoqian Zhou, Huanqing Gao, Yinfeng Guo, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z Ruan
Start domain-containing protein 3 (Stard3) plays roles in intracellular cholesterol distribution, however, the role of Stard3 in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes remains unclear. We demonstrated that Stard3 expression was significantly increased during the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, accompanied by an increase of mitochondrial Reactive oxygen species (ROS). Stard3 knocking-down inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte adipogenesis with decreased mitochondrial ROS levels, while ROS inducer rescued the stard3 silencing 3T3 cells with increased ROS...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908149/a-hexokinase-2-modulator-for-field-directed-treatment-of-experimental-actinic-keratoses
#14
Vered Behar, Hadas Pahima, Adi Kozminsky-Atias, Nir Arbel, Emmanuel Loeb, Max Herzberg, Oren M Becker
Overexpression of hexokinase 2 (HK2), and its binding to VDAC1 on the outer mitochondrial membrane of cancer cells, is key to their metabolic reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis, which enables them to proliferate. We describe Comp-1, an allosteric small molecule that selectively detaches HK2 from the mitochondria. Detachment of HK2 reduces glycolysis and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells, without affecting HK1 expressing normal cells. The anti-cancer activity of Comp-1 was demonstrated in the UVB-damaged skin model in SKH-1 mice...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907755/molecular-chaperoning-helps-safeguarding-mitochondrial-integrity-and-motor-functions-in-the-sahara-silver-ant-cataglyphis-bombycina
#15
Quentin Willot, Patrick Mardulyn, Matthieu Defrance, Cyril Gueydan, Serge Aron
The Sahara silver ant Cataglyphis bombycina is one of the world's most thermotolerant animals. Workers forage for heat-stricken arthropods during the hottest part of the day, when temperatures exceed 50 °C. However, the physiological adaptations needed to cope with such harsh conditions remain poorly studied in this desert species. Using transcriptomics, we screened for the most heat-responsive transcripts of C. bombycina with aim to better characterize the molecular mechanisms involved with macromolecular stability and cell survival to heat-stress...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907735/identification-of-proteins-potentially-associated-with-renal-aging-in-rats
#16
Diangeng Li, Delong Zhao, Weiguang Zhang, Qian Ma, Dong Liu, Qi Huang, Ying Zheng, Xueyuan Bai, Xuefeng Sun, Xiangmei Chen
We established a young (Y)-old (O) rat kidney transplantation model. With this model, we detected no age-related differences in renal structure between Y→Y and Y→O kidneys or O→O and O→Y kidneys. However, we did detect differences in levels of the senescence markers β-gal and p16 as well as the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Using proteomics analysis we detected 66 proteins associated with suppression of aging and 73 proteins associated with enhancement of aging. After construction of a protein-protein interaction network, a total of 73 nodes and 99 edges were analyzed using MCODE, and three significant modules were selected...
June 14, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907213/carbon-monoxide-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-lung-injury-by-mitofusin-proteins-via-p38-mapk-pathway
#17
Shu-An Dong, Yuan Zhang, Jian-Bo Yu, Xiang-Yun Li, Li-Rong Gong, Jia Shi, Yuan-Yuan Kang
BACKGROUND: The protective effects of carbon monoxide against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury were attributed to maintenance of mitochondrial dynamics, but the mechanisms remain unexplored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a rat model of acute lung injury induced by LPS and the LPS attacking cell model, we investigated the effects of pretreatment of carbon monoxide molecule-2 (CORM-2) on the acute lung injury and expressions of mitofusin proteins that play a critical role in mitochondrial dynamics...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907122/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-in-clade-e-head-lice-collected-from-niger-s-refugees-in-algeria
#18
Meriem Louni, Nadia Amanzougaghene, Nassima Mana, Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult, Idir Bitam, Oleg Mediannikov
BACKGROUND: Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, are obligate blood-sucking parasites. Phylogenetically, they occur in five divergent mitochondrial clades (A, D, B, C and E), each having a particular geographical distribution. Recent studies have revealed that head lice, as is the case of body lice, can act as a vector for louse-borne diseases. Here, we aimed to study the genetic diversity of head lice collected from Niger's refugees (migrant population) arriving in Algeria, northern Africa, and to look for louse-borne pathogens...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907098/ip-3-r-grp75-vdac1-mcu-calcium-regulation-axis-antagonists-protect-podocytes-from-apoptosis-and-decrease-proteinuria-in-an-adriamycin-nephropathy-rat-model
#19
Han Xu, Na Guan, Ya-Li Ren, Qi-Jiao Wei, Ying-Hong Tao, Guo-Sheng Yang, Xiao-Ya Liu, Ding-Fang Bu, Ying Zhang, Sai-Nan Zhu
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of podocyte apoptosis is not fully understood. In addition, the role of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3 R)/glucose-regulated protein 75 (Grp75)/voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1)/mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) calcium regulation axis, which is located at sites of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria coupling, in the mechanism of podocyte apoptosis is unclear. This study aimed to understand the roles of this axis in podocyte apoptosis and explore potential targets for podocyte protection...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906638/the-benefits-of-analysing-complete-mitochondrial-genomes-deep-insights-into-the-phylogeny-and-population-structure-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-lato-genotypes-g6-and-g7
#20
Teivi Laurimäe, Liina Kinkar, Thomas Romig, Rihab A Omer, Adriano Casulli, Gérald Umhang, Robin B Gasser, Abdul Jabbar, Mitra Sharbatkhori, Hossein Mirhendi, Francisco Ponce-Gordo, Lorena E Lazzarini, Silvia V Soriano, Antonio Varcasia, Mohammad Rostami Nejad, Vanessa Andresiuk, Pablo Maravilla, Luis Miguel González, Monika Dybicz, Jakub Gawor, Mindaugas Šarkūnas, Viliam Šnábel, Tetiana Kuzmina, Urmas Saarma
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato. Within this complex, genotypes G6 and G7 have been frequently associated with human CE worldwide. Previous studies exploring the genetic variability and phylogeography of genotypes G6 and G7 have been based on relatively short mtDNA sequences, and the resolution of these studies has often been low. Moreover, using short sequences, the distinction between G6 and G7 has in some cases remained challenging...
June 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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