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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668110/phenylbutyl-isoselenocyanate-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-to-inhibit-androgen-receptor-and-to-initiate-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells
#1
Wei Wu, Deepkamal Karelia, Kartick Pramanik, Shantu G Amin, Arun K Sharma, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lu
Previous studies have established the in vivo bioavailability and efficacious dosages of phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4), a selenium-substituted isothiocyanate, against mouse xenograft models of human melanoma and colorectal cancer. To explore its potential attributes against prostate cancer, we treated human LNCaP prostate cancer cells with ISC-4 and examined their apoptosis responses, and interrogated the signaling mechanisms through pharmacological and siRNA knockdown approaches. Our results show that ISC-4 was more potent at inducing apoptosis than its sulfur analog phenylbutyl isothiocyanate (PBITC) without suppressing protein kinase AKT Ser473 phosphorylation...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667812/turning-on-off-the-anti-tumor-effect-of-au-cluster-via-atomically-controlling-its-molecular-size
#2
Jiao Zhai, Yanwei Jia, Lina Zhao, Qing Yuan, Fuping Gao, Xiangchun Zhang, Pengju Cai, Liang Gao, Juanjuan Guo, Shuhong Yi, Zhifang Chai, Yuliang Zhao, Xueyun Gao
We reported two Au clusters with precisely controlled molecular size (Au5Peptide3 and Au22Peptide10) showing different anti-tumor effects. In vitro, both Au5Peptide3 and Au22Peptide10 were well taken up by human nasopharyngeal cancer cells (CNE1 cells). However, only Au5Peptide3 significantly induced CNE1 cell apoptosis. Further studies showed that CNE1 cells took up Au5Peptide3 (1.98*10-15 mol/cell) and 9% of them entered mitochondria (0.186*10-15 mol/cell). As a comparison, the uptake of Au22Peptide10 was only half the amount of Au5Peptide3 (1...
April 18, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667633/-the-molecular-genetic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-dna-from-the-burnt-bones-the-limits-of-the-possible-problem-revisited
#3
E Yu Zemskova, M M Bordyukov, A V Kovalev, P L Ivanov
The authors report the results of the demonstrative study continuing the cycle of interactive discussions pertinent to the possibility of obtaining reliable genetic information from the analysis of burnt bone fragments. Special emphasis is placed on the worthiness of these materials for genotyping of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with the use of the standard analytical methods employed for the purpose of forensic medical expertise to investigate into the length polymorphism of the amplified mtDNA fragments (PAF) by means of sequencing with fluorescent detection...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667570/barcoding-hybrids-heterogeneous-distribution-of-schistosoma-haematobium-%C3%A3-schistosoma-bovis-hybrids-across-the-senegal-river-basin
#4
Nele A M Boon, Frederik VAN DEN Broeck, Djiby Faye, Filip A M Volckaert, Souleymane Mboup, Katja Polman, Tine Huyse
ABSTRACTHybridization events between Schistosoma species (Digenea, Platyhelminthes) are reported with increasing frequency, largely due to improved access to molecular tools. Nevertheless, little is known about the distribution and frequency of hybrid schistosomes in nature. Screening for hybrids on a large scale is complicated by the need for nuclear and mitochondrial sequence information, precluding a 'simple' barcoding approach. Here we aimed to determine and understand the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in the Senegal River Basin...
April 18, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667329/performance-of-amplicon-and-shotgun-sequencing-for-accurate-biomass-estimation-in-invertebrate-community-samples
#5
Iliana Bista, Gary R Carvalho, Min Tang, Kerry Walsh, Xin Zhou, Mehrdad Hajibabaei, Shadi Shokralla, Mathew Seymour, David Bradley, Shanlin Liu, Martin Christmas, Simon Creer
New applications of DNA and RNA sequencing are expanding the field of biodiversity discovery and ecological monitoring, yet questions remain regarding precision and efficiency. Due to primer bias, the ability of metabarcoding to accurately depict biomass of different taxa from bulk communities remains unclear, while PCR-free whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing may provide a more reliable alternative. Here we used a set of documented mock communities comprising 13 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates of estimated individual biomass, to compare the detection efficiency of COI metabarcoding (3 different amplicons) and shotgun mitogenome sequencing...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667244/the-effects-of-atrad52-overexpression-on-homologous-recombination-in-arabidopsis
#6
Aviva Samach, Vyacheslav Gurevich, Naomi Avivi-Ragolsky, Avraham A Levy
AtRad52 homologs are involved in DNA recombination and repair but their precise functions in different homologous recombination pathways or in gene-targeting have not been analyzed. In order to facilitate our analyses, we generated an AtRad52-1A variant that had a stronger nuclear localization than the native gene thanks to the removal of the transit peptide for mitochondrial localization and to the addition of a nuclear localization signal. Overexpression of this variant increased homologous recombination in the nucleus, compared to the native AtRad52-1A: it increased Intra-Chromosomal Recombination and Synthesis-Dependent Strand-Annealing homologous recombination repair rates; but conversely, it repressed the Single-Strand Annealing pathway...
April 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667000/a-novel-mitochondrial-orf147-causes-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-pigeonpea-by-modulating-aberrant-anther-dehiscence
#7
Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur, Ranadheer Gupta, Palakolanu Sudhakar Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas Reddy, C V Sameerkumar, Rachit Kumar Saxena, Kiran K Sharma
A novel open reading frame (ORF) identified and cloned from the A4 cytoplasm of Cajanus cajanifolius induced partial to complete male sterility when introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is the only legume known to have commercial hybrid seed technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We identified a novel ORF (orf147) from the A4 cytoplasm of C. cajanifolius that was created via rearrangements in the CMS line and co-transcribes with the known and unknown sequences...
April 17, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666982/erk1-2-and-the-bcl-2-family-proteins-mcl-1-tbid-and-bim-are-involved-in-inhibition-of-apoptosis-during-persistent-chlamydia-psittaci-infection
#8
Li Li, Chuan Wang, Yating Wen, Yuming Hu, Yafeng Xie, Man Xu, Mingxing Liang, Wei Liu, Liangzhuan Liu, Yimou Wu
Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular pathogen that can cause zoonosis. Persistent C. psittaci infection can inhibit apoptosis in host cells, thus extending their survival and enabling them to complete their growth cycle. In this study, the antiapoptotic effects of persistent C. psittaci infection, induced by treatment with IFN-γ, were found to be associated with both the death receptor and the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis. These effects were mediated by Bcl-2 family members, as evidenced by the decreased expression of proapoptotic proteins, such as tBid and Bim...
April 18, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666939/a-transcriptomic-analysis-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-the-stress-of-2-phenylethanol
#9
Danfeng Jin, Bintao Gu, Dawei Xiong, Guochang Huang, Xiaoping Huang, Lan Liu, Jun Xiao
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is a kind of advanced aromatic alcohol with rose fragrance, which is wildly used for the deployment of flavors and fragrances. Microbial transformation is the most feasible method for the production of natural 2-PE. But a bottleneck problem is the toxicity of 2-PE on the cells. The molecular mechanisms of the toxic effect of 2-PE to Saccharomyces cerevisiae are not well studied. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomes of S. cerevisiae in the media with and without 2-PE, respectively, using Illumina RNA-Seq technology...
April 17, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666899/altered-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-ultrastructure-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
Cynthia M F Monaco, Meghan C Hughes, Sofhia V Ramos, Nina E Varah, Christian Lamberz, Fasih A Rahman, Chris McGlory, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Matthew P Krause, Robert Laham, Thomas J Hawke, Christopher G R Perry
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A comprehensive assessment of skeletal muscle ultrastructure and mitochondrial bioenergetics has not been undertaken in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to systematically assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial phenotype in young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Physically active, young adults (men and women) with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 63.0 ± 16.0 mmol/mol [7.9% ± 1.5%]) and without type 1 diabetes (control), matched for sex, age, BMI and level of physical activity, were recruited (n = 12/group) to undergo vastus lateralis muscle microbiopsies...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666533/purple-head-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-l-var-italica-plenck-a-functional-food-crop-for-antioxidant-and-anticancer-potential
#11
Ashun Chaudhary, Sonika Choudhary, Upendra Sharma, Adarsh Pal Vig, Bikram Singh, Saroj Arora
Natural foods are used in many folks and household treatments and have immense potential to treat a serious complication and health benefits, in addition to the basic nutritional values. These food products improve health, delay the aging process, increase life expectancy, and possibly prevent chronic diseases. Purple head Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck is one of such foods and in current studies was explored for chemical compounds at different development stages by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666464/an-adolescence-onset-male-leukoencephalopathy-with-remarkable-cerebellar-atrophy-and-novel-compound-heterozygous-aars2-gene-mutations-a-case-report
#12
Qing Dong, Ling Long, Yan-Yu Chang, Yan-Jun Lin, Mei Liu, Zheng-Qi Lu
Mutations in the mitochondrial alanyl-transfer (t)RNA synthetase 2 (AARS2; OMIM 612035) have been linked to leukoencephalopathy recently. Until now, there have been only 13 cases reported in the literature. Hence, the clinical and genetic characteristics of this disease are not fully understood. Here, we reported an adolescence-onset male leukoencephalopathy patient characterized by progressive limb tremor at the age of 17 years. He had no signs of a cardiomyopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging scanning demonstrated severe cerebellar atrophy and white matter abnormalities involving descending tracts...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666342/unusual-structure-and-splicing-pattern-of-the-vertebrate-mitochondrial-solute-carrier-slc25a3-gene
#13
Rosa Calvello, Antonia Cianciulli, Maria A Panaro
The DNA sequence corresponding to the second exon of the SLC25A3 gene is duplicated in vertebrates. The second exon codes for the first transmembrane segment and parts of the immediately adjoining intermembrane and mitochondrial matrix segments. The two genomic exon 2 sequences are 84% similar in zebrafish (slc25a3b gene), 70% in chicken, 66% in mouse and 67% in human. The amino acid identity is 86% in zebrafish, 77% in chicken and 70% in mouse and human. The two copies of exon 2 are separated by an intronic interval...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666337/mitochondrial-signatures-revealed-panmixia-in-lutjanus-argentimaculatus-forssk%C3%A3-l-1775
#14
A Gopalakrishnan, N Vineesh, Shihab Ismail, Muktha Menon, K V Akhilesh, N S Jeena, M P Paulton, P Vijayagopal
Mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is a commercially important fish. The genetic stock structure of L. argentimaculatus from Indian waters was identified using mitochondrial ATPase 6 and ATPase 8, and cytochrome b (Cytb) genes. A 842 bp region of ATPase 6/8 genes and 1105 bp region of Cytb gene were amplified in 120 samples from six different locations along the Indian coast and obtained 58 and 66 haplotypes, respectively. The high haplotype and low nucleotide diversity values along with mismatch distribution, Tajima's D and Fu's Fs analysis suggested a genetic bottleneck events or founder effect, with subsequent population expansion in L...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666258/formate-rescues-neural-tube-defects-caused-by-mutations-in-slc25a32
#15
Jimi Kim, Yunping Lei, Jin Guo, Sung-Eun Kim, Bogdan J Wlodarczyk, Robert M Cabrera, Ying Linda Lin, Torbjorn K Nilsson, Ting Zhang, Aiguo Ren, Linlin Wang, Zhengwei Yuan, Yu-Fang Zheng, Hong-Yan Wang, Richard H Finnell
Periconceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation significantly reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Unfortunately, some NTDs are FA resistant, and as such, NTDs remain a global public health concern. Previous studies have identified SLC25A32 as a mitochondrial folate transporter (MFT), which is capable of transferring tetrahydrofolate (THF) from cellular cytoplasm to the mitochondria in vitro. Herein, we show that gene trap inactivation of Slc25a32 ( Mft ) in mice induces NTDs that are folate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate, 5-mTHF) resistant yet are preventable by formate supplementation...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666220/synergistic-anti-proliferative-effect-of-mtor-inhibitor-rad001-plus-gemcitabine-on-cholangiocarcinoma-by-decreasing-choline-kinase-activity
#16
Gigin Lin, Kun-Ju Lin, Frank Wang, Tse-Ching Chen, Tzu-Chen Yen, Ta-Sen Yeh
Although gemcitabine plus cisplatin is the gold standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced cholangiocarcinoma, the response rate has been disappointing. This study aims to investigate a novel therapeutic regimen (gemcitabine plus rad001, an mTOR inhibitor) for cholangiocarcinoma. Gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, cetuximab, and rad001 in various combinations were first evaluated in vitro using six cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In vivo therapeutic efficacies of gemcitabine, rad001 alone and combination were further evaluated using a xenograft mouse model and a chemically induced orthotopic cholangiocarcinoma rat model...
April 12, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666214/metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-a-mini-review
#17
REVIEW
Cara Tomas, Julia Newton
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease. There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease...
April 17, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666206/taurine-supplementation-for-prevention-of-stroke-like-episodes-in-melas-a-multicentre-open-label-52-week-phase-iii-trial
#18
Yutaka Ohsawa, Hiroki Hagiwara, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Akihiro Hirakawa, Naomi Kamimura, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yuta Fukai, Tatsufumi Murakami, Yasutoshi Koga, Yu-Ichi Goto, Shigeo Ohta, Yoshihide Sunada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-dose taurine supplementation for prevention of stroke-like episodes of MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes), a rare genetic disorder caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA that lead to a taurine modification defect at the first anticodon nucleotide of mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) , resulting in failure to decode codons accurately. METHODS: After the nationwide survey of MELAS, we conducted a multicentre, open-label, phase III trial in which 10 patients with recurrent stroke-like episodes received high-dose taurine (9 g or 12 g per day) for 52 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665989/alternative-oxidase-is-positive-for-plant-performance
#19
REVIEW
Jennifer Selinski, Renate Scheibe, David A Day, James Whelan
The alternative pathway of mitochondrial electron transport, which terminates in the alternative oxidase (AOX), uncouples oxidation of substrate from mitochondrial ATP production, yet plant performance is improved under adverse growth conditions. AOX is regulated at different levels. Identification of regulatory transcription factors shows that Arabidopsis thaliana AOX1a is under strong transcriptional suppression. At the protein level, the primary structure is not optimised for activity. Maximal activity requires the presence of various metabolites, such as tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates that act in an isoform-specific manner...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665927/-thrombopoietin-prevents-cocl-2-inducing-apoptosis-of-huvec-through-the-pi3k-akt-pathway
#20
Jun-Yan Wang, Jie-Yu Ye, En-Yu Liang, Mo Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on chemical hypoxia-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and to explore its potential mechanism. METHODS: The experiment was divided into 4 groups. The untreated HUVECs were used as normal control group. HUVECs treated with CoCl2 was CoCl2 group, and TPO was added into the culture medium 48 h before CoCl2 treatment as TPO + CoCl2 group. The cells was treated with TPO alone as TPO group...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
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