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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#1
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938191/blood-lead-and-preeclampsia-a-meta-analysis-and-review-of-implications
#2
Arthur E Poropat, Mark A S Laidlaw, Bruce Lanphear, Andrew Ball, Howard W Mielke
BACKGROUND: Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest that there is an association between blood lead and preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize information on the association between preeclampsia and lead poisoning. METHODS: Searches of Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct and ProQuest (dissertations and theses) identified 2089 reports, 46 of which were downloaded after reviewing the abstracts, and 11 studies were evaluated as meeting the selection criteria...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938132/development-and-validation-of-carbofuran-and-3-hydroxycarbofuran-analysis-by-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detector-hplc-dad-for-forensic-veterinary-medicine
#3
Vagner Gonçalves, Nicolle Queiroz Hazarbassanov, Adriana de Siqueira, Jorge Camilo Florio, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Paulo Cesar Maiorka, Andre Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937941/the-scheduling-of-kratom-and-selective-use-of-data
#4
O Hayden Griffin, Megan E Webb
Kratom is a traditional drug from Southeast Asia that has been an emerging new substance in the United States. On August 30, 2016, the DEA announced the intention to emergency schedule kratom into Schedule I. To support this decision, the DEA cited an increase in drug seizures of kratom and an increase in calls to poison control concerning kratom. However, a short time later, on October 12, 2016, the DEA withdrew the intent to schedule kratom after public and congressional backlash. The withdrawal by the DEA was somewhat unprecedented...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937812/predator-perspective-drives-geographic-variation-in-frequency-dependent-polymorphism
#5
Iris A Holmes, Maggie R Grundler, Alison R Davis Rabosky
Color polymorphism in natural populations can manifest as a striking patchwork of phenotypes in space, with neighboring populations characterized by dramatic differences in morph composition. These geographic mosaics can be challenging to explain in the absence of localized selection because they are unlikely to result from simple isolation-by-distance or clinal variation in selective regimes. To identify processes that can lead to the formation of geographic mosaics, we developed a simulation-based model to explore the influence of predator perspective, selection, migration, and genetic linkage of color loci on allele frequencies in polymorphic populations over space and time...
October 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937739/applications-of-iridium-catalyzed-asymmetric-allylic-substitution-reactions-in-target-oriented-synthesis
#6
Jianping Qu, Günter Helmchen
Metal catalyzed allylic substitution is a cornerstone of organometallic and synthetic chemistry. Enantioselective versions have been developed with catalysts derived from transition metals, most notably molybdenum, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, and copper. The palladium- and the iridium-catalyzed versions have turned out to be particularly versatile in organic synthesis because of the very broad scope of the nucleophile and great functional group compatibility. Assets of the iridium-catalyzed reaction are the formation of branched, chiral products from simple monosubstituted allylic substrates, high degrees of regio- and enantioselectivity, and use of modular, readily available chiral ligands...
September 22, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937694/precision-gas-therapy-using-intelligent-nanomedicine
#7
Qianjun He
Gas therapy is an emerging and promising field, utilizing the unique therapeutic effects of several kinds of gases (NO, CO, H2S and H2) towards many major diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and it is also facing challenges relating to enhancing gas therapy efficacy and avoiding gas poisoning risks. Here, we have proposed a new concept for precision gas therapy using a nanomedicine strategy to overcome the challenges. In this perspective, we have addressed a series of existing and potential solutions from the point of view of nanomedicine, and conveyed a collection of opinions about future expandable research into precision gas therapy...
September 22, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936961/-effects-of-small-rna-interference-targeting-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-on-paraquat-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-rats
#8
Wenbin Yang, Xiaoqing Zhao, Ran Liang, Da Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of small RNA interference targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression on paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. METHODS: Human embryonic kidney cells HEK-293 were cultured in vitro. The mTOR small interfering RNA (mTOR-siRNA) expression plasmid transfection lentivirus was constructed, and non-specific sequence plasmid with no homology to mTOR gene was set as the control. Seventy-two healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, paraquat model group, mTOR unrelated sequence group, and mTOR-siRNA group, with 18 rats in each group...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936956/-epidemiology-characteristics-of-crawfish-related-rhabdomyolysis-in-nanjing-2016-a-multicenter-retrospective-investigation
#9
Shaolei Ma, Changsheng Xu, Songqiao Liu, Zongfeng Hu, Wen'ge Liu, Jinsong Zhang, Xufeng Chen, Shinan Nie, Jun Zhang, Dujuan Sha, Jinjin Li, Haibin Ni, Haidong Qin, Ying Gao, Wei Wang, Chengfang Wu, Zhan Yu, Congjian Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiology characteristics of crawfish related rhabdomyolysis (RM) in Nanjing, 2016. METHODS: Outpatient and inpatient electronic medical system of 21 hospitals in Nanjing during 2016 were retrospectively searched, and all the patients diagnosed with RM were selected. The patients with none crayfish-related RM was excluded. The epidemiology characteristics were depicted. The geographic information system (GIS) was used to collect, manage and analyze the spatial data, to visualize it, to analyze the spatial distribution features of the disease, and to explore the cause of disease prediction...
September 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936850/-protective-effects-of-schizonepeta-volatile-oil-on-endotoxin-poisoning-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#10
Tao-Qun Wen, Wen-Tao Sang, Feng Xu, Feng Wang, Nan Zeng
In order to study the protective effects of Schizonepeta volatile oil (Sto)on endotoxin poisoning mice, and the relatively content of each chemical osubstance in Schizonepeta volatile oil was measured using GC-MS. The mare C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups including the normal group, model group, dexamethasone group (5 mg•kg⁻¹), and Sto (0.226 and 0.452 g•kg⁻¹, respectively) groups. The dexamethasone group was given the drugs once time by intraperitoneal injection on the 5th day, while the other mice were given drugs by oral administration once a day for 5 days...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936834/-advances-of-toxicity-evaluation-of-cinnabar-and-compatibility-necessity-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Tong Ding, Jiao-Yang Luo, Xu Han, Shi-Hai Yang, Rui-Chao Lin, Mei-Hua Yang
Cinnabars are widely used in the clinic and shows unique efficacy, and it has been used in treating diseases for thousands of years either single-use or combination with other traditional Chinese medicines. Cinnabar mainly contains mercury, which displays obvious hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The safety of cinnabar and its rational use caused extensive attention. However, there are some misunderstanding that cinnabar shows equivalent toxicity to the toxicity of mercury compounds such as mercuric chloride and methylmercury in safety evaluation of cinnabar, which in our view exaggerates the toxicity...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936749/misfolding-and-aggregation-of-nascent-proteins-a-novel-mode-of-toxic-cadmium-action-in-vivo
#12
REVIEW
Markus J Tamás, Bruno Fauvet, Philipp Christen, Pierre Goloubinoff
Cadmium is a highly poisonous metal and a human carcinogen, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its cellular toxicity are not fully understood. Recent findings in yeast cells indicate that cadmium exerts its deleterious effects by inducing widespread misfolding and aggregation of nascent proteins. Here, we discuss this novel mode of toxic heavy metal action and propose a mechanism by which molecular chaperones may reduce the damaging effects of heavy metal ions on protein structures.
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935799/interacting-amino-acid-replacements-allow-poison-frogs-to-evolve-epibatidine-resistance
#13
Rebecca D Tarvin, Cecilia M Borghese, Wiebke Sachs, Juan C Santos, Ying Lu, Lauren A O'Connell, David C Cannatella, R Adron Harris, Harold H Zakon
Animals that wield toxins face self-intoxication. Poison frogs have a diverse arsenal of defensive alkaloids that target the nervous system. Among them is epibatidine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that is lethal at microgram doses. Epibatidine shares a highly conserved binding site with acetylcholine, making it difficult to evolve resistance yet maintain nAChR function. Electrophysiological assays of human and frog nAChR revealed that one amino acid replacement, which evolved three times in poison frogs, decreased epibatidine sensitivity but at a cost of acetylcholine sensitivity...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934299/a-novel-copro-diagnostic-molecular-method-for-qualitative-detection-and-identification-of-parasitic-nematodes-in-amphibians-and-reptiles
#14
Lucas G Huggins, Christopher J Michaels, Sheena M Cruickshank, Richard F Preziosi, Kathryn J Else
Anthropogenic disturbance via resource acquisition, habitat fragmentation and climate change, amongst other factors, has led to catastrophic global biodiversity losses and species extinctions at an accelerating rate. Amphibians are currently one of the worst affected classes with at least a third of species categorised as being threatened with extinction. At the same time, they are also critically important for many habitats and provide man with a powerful proxy for ecosystem health by acting as a bioindicator group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933559/-parallel-investigations-of-blood-and-alveolar-air-in-the-diagnosis-of-lethal-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#15
Miroslav Bauer, Jiřina Bauerová, Peter Očko, Jozef Šidlo
Carbon monoxide poisonings are the most frequent among fatal gas and volatile substances intoxications. The authors present diagnostic options of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning by parallel blood investigations for the content of karbonylhaemoglobin and determining of the concentration of carbon monoxide in the alveolar air. The analysis of 160 cases of lethal poisonings with carbon monoxide over a period of 20 years was carried out. The cases were divided into subgroups according to the place of death to poisonings in flats, garages, bathrooms, in fires, road traffic accidents and mining accidents...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933172/-development-of-views-on-pathophysiology-of-sepsis
#16
Jiří Beneš
Sepsis was understood as a disease caused by an invasive bacterial infection associated with deluging of organism with bacterial toxins (blood poisoning). Schottmüllers definition emphasized the existence of a focus as the source of invading bacteria. Further research led to the discovery of the cytokine cascade and to the recognition that sepsis is induced by our own endogenous mediators. The dysfunction or failure of various organs in sepsis can be explained both by hemodynamic disorders which originate in the altered microcapillars but also by a complex transformation of metabolism...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932601/the-role-of-sodium-bicarbonate-in-the-management-of-some-toxic-ingestions
#17
REVIEW
Aibek E Mirrakhimov, Taha Ayach, Aram Barbaryan, Goutham Talari, Romil Chadha, Adam Gray
Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932481/the-7-aza-norbornane-nucleus-of-epibatidine-7-aza-bicyclo-2-2-1-heptan-7-ium-chloride
#18
Sergey N Britvin, Andrey M Rumyantsev
7-Aza-bicyclo-[2.2.1]heptane (7-aza-norbornane) is a bridged heterocyclic nucleus found in epibatidine, the alkaloid isolated from the skin of the tropical poison frog Epipedobates tricolor. Since epibatidine is known as one of the most potent acetyl-choline nicotinic receptor agonists, a plethora of literature has been devoted to this alkaloid. However, there are no structural data on the unsubstituted 7-aza-norbornane, the parent bicyclic ring of epibatidine and its derivatives. We herein present the structural characterization of the 7-aza-bicyclo-[2...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932374/stroke-mimics-in-patients-with-clinical-signs-of-stroke
#19
Mozafar Hosseininezhad, Reza Sohrabnejad
BACKGROUND: Stroke mimic is a major diagnostic challenge and may be difficult to distinguish from real strokes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequency of stroke mimics in patients with clinical signs of stroke. METHODS: In this cross sectional-study, the medical records of 1985 patients with stroke admitted to Poursina Hospital were enrolled using the census technique. Data collection tool was a checklist which include age, sex, imaging results (MRI and CT scan and primary and final diagnoses...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932363/cadmium-toxicity-and-treatment-an-update
#20
REVIEW
Mehrdad Rafati Rahimzadeh, Mehravar Rafati Rahimzadeh, Sohrab Kazemi, Ali-Akbar Moghadamnia
Cadmium poisoning has been reported from many parts of the world. It is one of the global health problems that affect many organs and in some cases it can cause deaths annually. Long-term exposure to cadmium through air, water, soil, and food leads to cancer and organ system toxicity such as skeletal, urinary, reproductive, cardiovascular, central and peripheral nervous, and respiratory systems. Cadmium levels can be measured in the blood, urine, hair, nail and saliva samples. Patients with cadmium toxicity need gastrointestinal tract irrigation, supportive care, and chemical decontamination traditional-based chelation therapy with appropriate new chelating agents and nanoparticle-based antidotes...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
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