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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147934/an-outbreak-of-poisoning-by-kalanchoe-blossfeldiana-in-cattle-in-northeastern-brazil
#1
Fábio S Mendonça, Naiara C F Nascimento, Valdir M Almeida, Thaiza C Braga, Daniele P Ribeiro, Hisadora A S Chaves, Givaldo B Silva Filho, Franklin Riet-Correa
In the world, Kalanchoe species are primarily ornamentals and houseplants, but some have escaped cultivation and can be found in the field. In Latin America, there are no reports of spontaneous poisoning by Kalanchoe species in animals. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of an outbreak of poisoning by Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in cattle in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from the owner and veterinarian during technical visits...
November 16, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146291/development-of-ms-binding-assays-targeting-the-binding-site-of-mb327-at-the-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#2
S Sichler, G Höfner, S Rappenglück, T Wein, K V Niessen, T Seeger, F Worek, H Thiermann, F F Paintner, K T Wanner
The bispyridinium compound MB327 has been shown previously to have a positive pharmacological effect against poisoning with organophosphorous compounds (OPCs). The mechanism by which it exerts its therapeutic effect seems to be directly mediated by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In the present study, the development of mass spectrometry based binding assays (MS Binding Assays) for characterization of the binding site of MB327 at the nAChR from Torpedo californica is described. MS Binding Assays follow the principle of radioligand binding assays, but do not, in contrast to the latter, require a radiolabeled reporter ligand, as the readout is in this case based on mass spectrometric detection...
November 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146176/neosaxitoxin-a-paralytic-shellfish-poison-toxin-effectively-manages-bucked-shins-pain-as-a-local-long-acting-pain-blocker-in-an-equine-model
#3
Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel Del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos
Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Neosaxitoxin as a local long-acting pain blocker in horse bucked shins, and it was found to effectively control pain. While Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin, another Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) toxin, have been successfully used in humans as long-lasting pain blockers, this finding marks the first time a PSP has been shown to have an established effect in veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145289/mercury-poisoning-through-intravenous-administration-two-case-reports-with-literature-review
#4
Qiuying Lu, Zilong Liu, Xiaorui Chen
RATIONALE: Metallic mercury poisoning through intravenous injection is rare, especially for a homicide attempt. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease are challenging. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 34-year-old male presented with pyrexia, chill, fatigue, body aches, and pain of the dorsal aspect of right foot. Another case is that of a 29-year-old male who committed suicide by injecting himself metallic mercury 15 g intravenously and presented with dizzy, dyspnea, fatigue, sweatiness, and waist soreness...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143551/independent-validation-of-the-icu-requirement-score-in-a-cohort-of-acutely-poisoned-adults
#5
Regina Böll, Katrin Romanek, Sabrina Schmoll, Raphael Stich, Armin Ott, Jochen Stenzel, Stefanie Geith, Florian Eyer, Christian Rabe
OBJECTIVE: To independently validate the predictive value of the intensive care requirement score (IRS) in unselected poisoned patients. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred and seventeen out of 585 admissions for acute intoxications could be analyzed. Eleven were excluded for a condition already requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support at admission (e.g., preclinical intubation). A further 57 admissions were excluded due to missing data...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143438/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-nanoparticles-on-dichlorvos-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-injury
#6
Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian, Aida Azami, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Development of biocompatible antioxidant nanoparticles for xenobiotic-induced liver disease treatment by oral or parenteral administration is of great interest in medicine. In the current study, we demonstrate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 nanoparticles (CoQ10-NPs) on hepatotoxicity induced by dichlorvos (DDVP) as an organophosphate. Although CoQ10 is an efficient antioxidant, its poor bioavailability has limited the applications of this useful agent. First, CoQ10-NPs were prepared then characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143350/dna-variants-and-organophosphate-neurotoxicity-among-emerging-farmers-in-the-western-cape-of-south-africa
#7
Tracy Glass, Mohamed A Dalvie, Zelda Holtman, Anna A Vorster, Rajkumar S Ramesar, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies investigating modification of organophosphate (OP) neurotoxicity by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) polymorphisms have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 301 emerging farmers was conducted. Neurotoxicity testing included forward and backward recall, digit span, and vibration sensitivity testing. Questionnaire data included demography, potential confounders, and work history of pesticide exposures...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143032/reaction-monitoring-reveals-poisoning-mechanism-of-pd2-dba-3-and-guides-catalyst-selection
#8
Chiara Colletto, Jordi Burés, Igor Larrosa
We have discovered that the dba ligand in the commonly used Pd2(dba)3·CHCl3 cross-coupling pre-catalyst is susceptible to bis-arylation when used in the presence of aryl iodides. The in situ formed dbaAr2 ligands result in Pd-species with altered catalytic activity. In the case of study, the room temperature C3 arylation of benzo[b]thiophenes with aryl iodides, we have observed a marked catalyst deactivation when dba is arylated with electron-deficient aryl iodides, accounting for the poor yields obtained in the C3 arylation reactions with these aryl iodides...
November 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142799/respiratory-failure-following-organophosphate-poisoning-a-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
Pirthvi Raj Giyanwani, Ujala Zubair, Osama Salam, Zarafshan Zubair
Organophosphates (OPs) account for a large portion of suicides globally. OP manifests as cholinergic crises, which underlie respiratory failure. There are many pathways by which respiration is inhibited secondary to organophosphate poisoning. These include central as well as peripheral mechanisms, with central mechanisms predominating. We conducted a literature review in June 2017. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for studies that reported acute organophosphate poisoning in humans. In our review, data were collected from studies published during the years 2001 to 2016...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142562/drug-poisoning-and-associated-factors-in-western-saudi-arabia-a-five-year-retrospective-chart-review-2011-2016
#10
Sami H Alzahrani, Ali H Alqahtani, Fayssal Mostafa Farahat, Mohammed Abdel Galil Elnour, Jamil Bashawri
Objective: Drug poisoning is a globally common cause of emergency-room admissions. This study explores drug-poisoning prevalence patterns, associated risk factors (gender, age and exposure circumstances), and outcomes in western Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of Clinical drug poisoning cases (2011-2016). The data were retrieved from the Saudi Ministry of Health's record and Patients' medical charts were analyzed. Results: The Ministry of Health received 1,474 reports of drug poisoning during 2011-2016...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141517/protective-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-on-organophosphate-poisoning
#11
Bahattin Avci, S Sirri Bilge, Gokhan Arslan, Omer Alici, Ozge Darakci, Turkhan Baratzada, Engin Ciftcioglu, Turker Yardan, Ayhan Bozkurt
In this study, we aimed to study the possible preventive effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary omega-3 fatty acid, on toxicity caused by chlorpyrifos (CPF). Six groups of Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) consisting of equal numbers of males and females (n = 8) were assigned to study. The rats were orally given for 5 days. The control group was administered pure olive oil, which was the vehicle for CPF. The CPF challenge groups were administered oral physiological saline, pure olive oil, or DHA (50, 100 and 400 mg/kg dosages) for 5 days...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138589/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-toxicity-from-amanita-mushroom-poisoning
#12
Satariya Trakulsrichai, Charuwan Sriapha, Achara Tongpoo, Umaporn Udomsubpayakul, Sunun Wongvisavakorn, Sahaphume Srisuma, Winai Wananukul
Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015. Results: There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Most cases were male and from the north-east region. Hepatitis, acute kidney injury, jaundice, and coagulopathy accounted for 74%, 46...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138563/squarticles-as-the-nanoantidotes-to-sequester-the-overdosed-antidepressant-for-detoxification
#13
Chun-Han Chen, Tse-Hung Huang, Ahmed O Elzoghby, Pei-Wen Wang, Chia-Wen Chang, Jia-You Fang
The increasing death rate caused by drug overdose points to an urgent demand for the development of novel detoxification therapy. In an attempt to detoxify tricyclic antidepressant overdose, we prepared a lipid nanoemulsion, called squarticles, as the nanoantidote. Squalene was the major lipid matrix of the squarticles. Here, we present the animal study to investigate both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of squarticles on amitriptyline intoxication. The anionic and cationic squarticles had average diameters of 97 and 122 nm, respectively...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138448/antimicrobial-peptides-in-frog-poisons-constitute-a-molecular-toxin-delivery-system-against-predators
#14
Constantijn Raaymakers, Elin Verbrugghe, Sophie Hernot, Tom Hellebuyck, Cecilia Betti, Cindy Peleman, Myriam Claeys, Wim Bert, Vicky Caveliers, Steven Ballet, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Kim Roelants
Animals using toxic peptides and proteins for predation or defense typically depend on specialized morphological structures, like fangs, spines, or a stinger, for effective intoxication. Here we show that amphibian poisons instead incorporate their own molecular system for toxin delivery to attacking predators. Skin-secreted peptides, generally considered part of the amphibian immune system, permeabilize oral epithelial tissue and enable fast access of cosecreted toxins to the predator's bloodstream and organs...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137869/morbidity-and-mortality-in-homeless-individuals-prisoners-sex-workers-and-individuals-with-substance-use-disorders-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Robert W Aldridge, Alistair Story, Stephen W Hwang, Merete Nordentoft, Serena A Luchenski, Greg Hartwell, Emily J Tweed, Dan Lewer, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Inclusion health focuses on people in extremely poor health due to poverty, marginalisation, and multimorbidity. We aimed to review morbidity and mortality data on four overlapping populations who experience considerable social exclusion: homeless populations, individuals with substance use disorders, sex workers, and imprisoned individuals. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Oct 1, 2015...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137861/renal-replacement-therapy-in-severe-phenobarbital-poisoning-another-brick-in-the-wall
#16
A Bedet, A Alestra, D Vodovar, A Mekontso Dessap, N de Prost
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137467/evaluation-of-serum-copper-level-in-naswar-smokeless-tobacco-addicts-using-flame-atomic-absorption-spectroscopy
#17
Asmat Ullah, Abad Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Ismail Khan
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse and its consequences are a matter of great concern in South-East Asian countries, especially Pakistan and Afghanistan. Due to contamination of Naswar with copper, or by any other physiological mechanism, there is a great chance of copper poisoning in addicts. Keeping in view the literature, there is no comparative study on serum copper levels (SCuL) in Naswar addicts. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate SCuL in this population. METHODS: The current study was performed in September 2016 where a total of 75 volunteers (selected from villages near the University of Peshawar, Pakistan) were grouped as Naswar addicts (n = 45) and the control group (n = 30)...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137047/massive-neonatal-intracranial-hemorrhage-caused-by-bromadiolone-a-case-report
#18
Mingsheng Ma, Mengqi Zhang, Xiaoyan Tang, Zhenghong Li
RATIONALE: Bromadiolone, often called a super-warfarin, is a potent rodenticide with long half-life. Skin and mucosal bleeding is the most common clinical manifestations of its intoxication. Bromadiolone intoxications in adults and children have been reported, but this phenomenon is rarely seen in fetuses. This paper presents a case of neonate with massive intracranial hemorrhage mediated by bromadiolone intoxication, highlighting that the bromadiolone is potentially lethal to the fetus...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135964/the-killer-of-socrates-coniine-and-related-alkaloids-in-the-plant-kingdom
#19
REVIEW
Hannu Hotti, Heiko Rischer
Coniine, a polyketide-derived alkaloid, is poisonous to humans and animals. It is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, which leads to inhibition of the nervous system, eventually causing death by suffocation in mammals. Coniine's most famous victim is Socrates who was sentenced to death by poison chalice containing poison hemlock in 399 BC. In chemistry, coniine holds two historical records: It is the first alkaloid the chemical structure of which was established (in 1881), and that was chemically synthesized (in 1886)...
November 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135913/management-of-ciguatoxin-risk-in-eastern-australia
#20
Hazel Farrell, Shauna A Murray, Anthony Zammit, Alan W Edwards
Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of New South Wales (NSW) on the east coast of Australia. Previously, documented cases of CFP in NSW were few, and primarily linked to fish imported from other regions. Since 2015, thirteen individuals were affected across four additional CFP cases in NSW, linked to fish imported from tropical locations. The apparent increase in CFP in NSW from locally sourced catch, combined with the risk of CFP from imported fish, has highlighted several considerations that should be incorporated into risk management strategies to minimize CFP exposure for seafood consumers...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
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