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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719760/for-whom-the-mind-wanders-and-when-varies-across-laboratory-and-daily-life-settings
#1
Michael J Kane, Georgina M Gross, Charlotte A Chun, Bridget A Smeekens, Matt E Meier, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil
Undergraduates ( N = 274) participated in a weeklong daily-life experience-sampling study of mind wandering after being assessed in the lab for executive-control abilities (working memory capacity; attention-restraint ability; attention-constraint ability; and propensity for task-unrelated thoughts, or TUTs) and personality traits. Eight times a day, electronic devices prompted subjects to report on their current thoughts and context. Working memory capacity and attention abilities predicted subjects' TUT rates in the lab, but predicted the frequency of daily-life mind wandering only as a function of subjects' momentary attempts to concentrate...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719188/phage-selection-of-cyclic-peptides-for-application-in-research-and-drug-development
#2
Kaycie Deyle, Xu-Dong Kong, Christian Heinis
Cyclic peptides can bind to protein targets with high affinities and selectivities, which makes them an attractive modality for the development of research reagents and therapeutics. Additional properties, including low inherent toxicity, efficient chemical synthesis, and facile modification with labels or immobilization reagents, increase their attractiveness. Cyclic peptide ligands against a wide range of protein targets have been isolated from natural sources such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals...
July 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718817/time-to-spread-your-wings-a-review-of-the-avian-ancient-dna-field
#3
REVIEW
Alicia Grealy, Nicolas J Rawlence, Michael Bunce
Ancient DNA (aDNA) has the ability to inform the evolutionary history of both extant and extinct taxa; however, the use of aDNA in the study of avian evolution is lacking in comparison to other vertebrates, despite birds being one of the most species-rich vertebrate classes. Here, we review the field of "avian ancient DNA" by summarising the past three decades of literature on this topic. Most studies over this time have used avian aDNA to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and clarify taxonomy based on the sequencing of a few mitochondrial loci, but recent studies are moving toward using a comparative genomics approach to address developmental and functional questions...
July 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718717/movies-in-mind-dr-strange-i-think-i-am-a-receptor-%C3%A2-therefore-i-am
#4
Sumit Anand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718623/a-multimodal-spectroscopic-imaging-method-to-characterize-the-metal-and-macromolecular-content-of-proteinaceous-aggregates-amyloid-plaques
#5
Kelly L Summers, Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Mitchell Kiernan, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, David Paterson, Mark J Tobin, Ryu Takechi, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, John C Mamo, Hugh H Harris, Mark J Hackett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major international health and economic concern. A key pathological feature of AD is so-called "amyloid-β-plaques", or "Aβ-plaques", which are deposits of aggregated protein, enriched with the Aβ fragment of amyloid precursor protein. Despite their name, the deposits are not pure Aβ and have a heterogeneous, chemically complex composition that can include multiple proteins, lipids, and metal ions (Fe, Cu, or Zn). Despite extensive research, it is still uncertain whether Aβ-plaques are a cause or a consequence of AD pathology...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718396/a-structured-literature-review-on-the-role-of-mindfulness-mindful-eating-and-intuitive-eating-in-changing-eating-behaviours-effectiveness-and-associated-potential-mechanisms
#6
Janet M Warren, Nicola Smith, Margaret Ashwell
The role of mindfulness, mindful eating and a newer concept of intuitive eating in modulating eating habits is an area of increasing interest. In this structured literature review, a summary of the current evidence is presented, together with details of interventions undertaken and the tools to measure outcomes. It is broad in scope given the emerging evidence base in this area. The review yielded sixty-eight publications: twenty-three interventions in obese/overweight populations; twenty-nine interventions in normal-weight populations; sixteen observational studies, three of which were carried out in overweight/obese populations...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718052/zen-and-the-art-of-living-mindfully-the-health-enhancing-potential-of-zen-aesthetics
#7
T Lomas, N Etcoff, W Van Gordon, E Shonin
Amidst the burgeoning enthusiasm for mindfulness in the West, there is a concern that the largely secular 'de-contextualized' way in which it is being harnessed is denuding it of its potential to improve health and well-being. As such, efforts are underway to 're-contextualize' mindfulness, explicitly drawing on the wider framework of Buddhist ideas and practices in which it was initially developed. This paper aims to contribute to this, doing so by focusing on Zen Buddhism, and in particular on Zen aesthetic principles...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717920/mother-and-adolescent-eating-in-the-context-of-food-insecurity-findings-from-urban-public-housing
#8
Meg Bruening, Joanna Lucio, Stephanie Brennhofer
Introduction Anecdotal evidence suggests that parents protect their children from food insecurity and its effects, but few studies have concurrently assessed food insecurity among youth and parents. The purpose of this study was to examine food insecurity and eating behaviors among an urban sample of mother-adolescent dyads. Methods Mother-adolescent dyads (n = 55) were from six public housing sites in Phoenix, Arizona who completed surveys during 2014. Multivariate mixed linear and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between mother and adolescent eating behaviors in the context of food insecurity...
July 17, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717725/minding-the-gaps-in-cancer-pain-management-education-a-multicenter-study-of-clinical-residents-and-fellows-in-a-low-versus-high-resource-setting
#9
Charles Amoatey Odonkor, Ernest Osei-Bonsu, Oswald Tetteh, Andy Haig, Robert Samuel Mayer, Thomas J Smith
PURPOSE: Inadequate pain management training has been reported as a major cause of undertreatment of cancer pain. Yet, past research has not comprehensively compared the quality of cancer pain management education among physicians in training in high-resource countries (HRCs) with those in low-resource countries (LRCs). The purpose of this study was to examine and compare gaps in cancer pain management education among physician trainees in an HRC (United States) versus an LRC (Ghana)...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717542/evaluation-of-postoperative-hydronephrosis-following-semirigid-ureteroscopy-incidence-and-predictors
#10
Mehmet İlker Gökçe, Barış Esen, Başak Gülpınar, Adil Hüseynov, Mete Özkidik, Evren Süer
OBJECTIVE: Hydronephrosis developing following ureteroscopy (URS) is an important issue associated with the long-term postoperative renal functions. Studies investigating the role of postoperative imaging revealed conflicting results. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of hydronephrosis following semirigid URS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the results of 455 patients who underwent U RS a nd postoperative imaging with non-contrast computed tomography (CT)...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717229/investigation-of-autistic-traits-through-strategic-decision-making-in-games-with-adaptive-agents
#11
Alexis B Craig, Emily Grossman, Jeffrey L Krichmar
Autism Spectrum Disorders are characterized by difficulties in communicating and cooperating with other people. Impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to infer what another person is thinking, may contribute to these social deficits. The present study assesses the relationship between autistic traits and decision-making in a socioeconomic game environment that measures ToM and cooperation. We quantified participant strategy during game play with computer agents that simulated aspects of ToM or fixed strategy agents with static behaviors or heuristics...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717075/clinical-characteristics-of-bacteremia-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-at-a-tertiary-hospital
#12
Hiroki Namikawa, Koichi Yamada, Hiroki Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Yoshihiro Tochino, Yasuhiko Takemoto, Yukihiro Kaneko, Taichi Shuto, Hiroshi Kakeya
Objective In recent years, infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms has become an important issue. However, comparative studies of the bacteremia caused by ESBL Enterobacteriaceae and non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae are extremely rare in Japan. This study aimed to assess the risk factors and prognosis of patients with bacteremia due to ESBL Escherichia coli (E. coli). Methods The medical records of 31 patients with ESBL E. coli bacteremia and 98 patients with non-ESBL E. coli bacteremia who had been admitted to Osaka City University Hospital between January 2011 and June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715777/regular-cannabis-and-alcohol-use-is-associated-with-resting-state-time-course-power-spectra-in-incarcerated-adolescents
#13
Sandra Thijssen, Barnaly Rashid, Shruti Gopal, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Vince D Calhoun, Kent A Kiehl
Cannabis and alcohol are believed to have widespread effects on the brain. Although adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, the adolescent brain may also be particularly vulnerable to the effects of drug exposure due to its rapid maturation. Here, we examined the association between cannabis and alcohol use duration and resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of male juvenile delinquents. The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
July 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715476/spot-on-for-liars-how-public-scrutiny-influences-ethical-behavior
#14
Andreas Ostermaier, Matthias Uhl
We examine whether people are more honest in public than in private. In a laboratory experiment, we have subjects roll dice and report outcomes either in public or in private. Higher reports yield more money and lies cannot be detected. We also elicit subjects' ethical mindsets and their expectations about others' reports. We find that outcome-minded subjects lie less in public to conform with their expectations about others' reports. Ironically, these expectations are false. Rule-minded subjects, in turn, do not respond to public scrutiny...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714910/minding-the-cyber-physical-gap-model-based-analysis-and-mitigation-of-systemic-perception-induced-failure
#15
Yaniv Mordecai, Dov Dori
The cyber-physical gap (CPG) is the difference between the 'real' state of the world and the way the system perceives it. This discrepancy often stems from the limitations of sensing and data collection technologies and capabilities, and is inevitable at some degree in any cyber-physical system (CPS). Ignoring or misrepresenting such limitations during system modeling, specification, design, and analysis can potentially result in systemic misconceptions, disrupted functionality and performance, system failure, severe damage, and potential detrimental impacts on the system and its environment...
July 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714808/-it-was-hard-work-every-session-therapists-view-of-successful-psychoanalytic-treatments
#16
Andrzej Werbart, Peter Missios, Fredrik Waldenström, Peter Lilliengren
OBJECTIVE: To explore therapists' experiences of the therapeutic process in successful cases of psychoanalytic psychotherapy. METHOD: A two-stage, mixed-method design was used. Sixteen successful cases were drawn from a sample of 92 young adults in psychoanalytic psychotherapy according to Jacobson's criteria for reliable and clinically significant improvement. Therapist interviews at baseline and termination were analyzed applying Inductive Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: Three core themes emerged: Being Particularly Motivated to be This Patient's Therapist, Maintaining a Safe and Attentive Therapeutic Position, and Assiduous Work Every Session...
July 17, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714581/psychometric-evaluation-and-norms-for-the-multidimensional-assessment-of-interoceptive-awareness-maia-in-a-clinical-eating-disorders-sample
#17
Tiffany A Brown, Laura A Berner, Michelle D Jones, Erin E Reilly, Anne Cusack, Leslie K Anderson, Walter H Kaye, Christina E Wierenga
Altered interoceptive awareness (IA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders; however, few comprehensive self-report measures of IA exist in eating disorders. The present study sought to validate the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), originally developed to assess IA in individuals practicing mind-body therapies, in an eating disorder sample. Adult and adolescent patients (n = 376) completed assessments upon admission to a partial hospital programme. Analyses examined the factor structure of the MAIA, scale means, scale-scale correlations, internal consistency and construct validity...
July 17, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713760/prosthetic-consideration-in-implant-supported-prosthesis-a-review-of-literature
#18
REVIEW
Manga Snigdha Gowd, Thatapudi Shankar, Rajeev Ranjan, Arpita Singh
Modern dentistry has changed tremendously with implant therapy. For the successful implant therapy, making a proper treatment plan considering both surgical and prosthetic part in mind is the key of success. Often practitioners tend to create a treatment plan overlooking the basic principles of prosthetic part. This present review has discussed various prosthetic consideration of implant-supported prosthesis. A step-by-step detailed prosthetic option with their indications has been discussed to help all dental implant practitioners in making of an optimal treatment plan for each case...
June 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713304/eye-behavior-associated-with-internally-versus-externally-directed-cognition
#19
Mathias Benedek, Robert Stoiser, Sonja Walcher, Christof Körner
What do our eyes do when we are focused on internal representations such as during imagination or planning? Evidence from mind wandering research suggests that spontaneous shifts from externally directed cognition (EDC) to internally directed cognition (IDC) involves oculomotor changes indicative of visual disengagement. In the present study, we investigated potential differences in eye behavior between goal-directed forms of IDC and EDC. To this end, we manipulated the focus of attention (internal versus external) in two demanding cognitive tasks (anagram and sentence generation)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713096/the-directions-of-development-of-legal-regulation-of-patenting-the-methods-of-treatment-in-ukraine-considering-the-european-and-world-experience
#20
Vitalii Pashkov, Yevhen Hrekov, Maryna Hrekova
INTRODUCTION: the current state of patenting legal regulation of medical treatment in Ukraine and in the world is analyzed, the directions for the further development are determined. The author defines "non-industrial medical" and socio-ethical theories in the field of medical treatment patent protection. The existence of exclusively formal "monopoly" of the patent owner is noted, as well as the inapplicability of the majority of the patented achievements in this field in Ukraine. AIM: the purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of patenting legal regulation of medical treatment in Ukraine and in the world, to analyze the limitation of patent protection basic conception in the medical field and to determine the tendencies and perspectives of the legal protection mechanism of further development in this field in Ukraine, considering the European and world regulation experience...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
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