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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211708/direct-observation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-short-electron-bunches-in-storage-rings
#1
C Evain, E Roussel, M Le Parquier, C Szwaj, M-A Tordeux, J-B Brubach, L Manceron, P Roy, S Bielawski
In recent synchrotron radiation facilities, the use of short (picosecond) electron bunches is a powerful method for producing giant pulses of terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation. Here we report on the first direct observation of these pulse shapes with a few picoseconds resolution, and of their dynamics over a long time. We thus confirm in a very direct way the theories predicting an interplay between two physical processes. Below a critical bunch charge, we observe a train of identical THz pulses (a broadband Terahertz comb) stemming from the shortness of the electron bunches...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208370/emergent-pattern-formation-in-an-interstitial-biofilm
#2
Cameron Zachreson, Christian Wolff, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Milos Toth
Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191928/self-assembling-multidomain-peptide-nanofibers-for-delivery-of-bioactive-molecules-and-tissue-regeneration
#3
Amanda N Moore, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Multidomain peptides (MDPs) are a class of self-assembling peptides that are organized in a β-sheet motif, resulting in a nanofibrous architecture. This structure is stabilized by hydrophobic packing in the fiber core and a hydrogen-bonding network down the fiber long axis. Under easily controllable conditions, regulated by electrostatic interactions between the peptides and the pH and salt composition of the solvent, the nanofiber length can be dramatically extended, resulting in fiber entanglement and hydrogel formation...
February 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191853/hyperplectonemes-a-higher-order-compact-and-dynamic-dna-self-organization
#4
Aleksandre Japaridze, Georgi Muskhelishvili, Fabrizio Benedetti, Agni Gavriilidou, Renato Zenobi, Paolo De Los Rios, Giovanni Longo, Giovanni Dietler
Bacterial chromosome has a compact structure that dynamically changes its shape in response to bacterial growth rate and growth phase. Determining how chromatin remains accessible to DNA binding proteins and transcription machinery is crucial to understand the link between genetic regulation, DNA structure and topology. Here, we study very large supercoiled dsDNA using high-resolution characterization, theoretical modelling and molecular dynamics calculations. We unveil a new type of highly ordered DNA organization forming in the presence of attractive DNA-DNA interactions, which we call hyperplectonemes...
February 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186822/one-dimensional-self-organization-and-nonequilibrium-phase-transition-in-a-hamiltonian-system
#5
Jiao Wang, Giulio Casati
Self-organization and nonequilibrium phase transitions are well known to occur in two- and three-dimensional dissipative systems. Here, instead, we provide numerical evidence that these phenomena also occur in a one-dimensional Hamiltonian system. To this end, we calculate the heat conductivity by coupling the two ends of our system to two heat baths at different temperatures. It is found that when the temperature difference is smaller than a critical value, the heat conductivity increases with the system size in power law with an exponent considerably smaller than 1...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185975/effect-of-geopolitical-forces-on-neurosurgical-training-in-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Kara E Dempsey, Mahmood M Qureshi, Solomon M Ondoma, Robert J Dempsey
BACKGROUND: The population of Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a critical shortage and maldistribution of healthcare professionals, especially highlighted in surgical subspecialties such as neurosurgery. In light of the Lancet Report and the World Health Organization's directive to provide essential surgical care through the developing world, solutions need to be found to close this training and distribution gap. METHODS: Methods correcting the situation will only succeed if one understands the geopolitical forces which have shaped the distribution of healthcare in the region and continue to this day...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179656/inflammation-metaflammation-and-immunometabolic-disorders
#7
Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Proper regulation and management of energy, substrate diversity and quantity, as well as macromolecular synthesis and breakdown processes, are fundamental to cellular and organismal survival and are paramount to health. Cellular and multicellular organization are defended by the immune response, a robust and critical system through which self is distinguished from non-self, pathogenic signals are recognized and eliminated, and tissue homeostasis is safeguarded. Many layers of evolutionarily conserved interactions occur between immune response and metabolism...
February 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166685/spontaneous-germinal-centers-and-autoimmunity
#8
Phillip P Domeier, Stephanie L Schell, Ziaur S M Rahman
Germinal centers (GCs) are dynamic microenvironments that form in the secondary lymphoid organs and generate somatically mutated high-affinity antibodies necessary to establish an effective humoral immune response. Tight regulation of GC responses is critical for maintaining self-tolerance. GCs can arise in the absence of purposeful immunization or overt infection (called spontaneous GCs, Spt-GCs). In autoimmune-prone mice and patients with autoimmune disease, aberrant regulation of Spt-GCs is thought to promote the development of somatically mutated pathogenic autoantibodies and the subsequent development of autoimmunity...
February 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165714/morphological-evolution-of-block-copolymer-particles-effect-of-solvent-evaporation-rate-on-particle-shape-and-morphology
#9
Jae Man Shin, Yongjoo Kim, Hongseok Yun, Gi-Ra Yi, Bumjoon J Kim
Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles...
February 6, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163984/fluid-mechanics-as-a-driver-of-tissue-scale-mechanical-signaling-in-organogenesis
#10
Rachel M Gilbert, Joshua T Morgan, Elizabeth S Marcin, Jason P Gleghorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organogenesis is the process during development by which cells self-assemble into complex, multi-scale tissues. Whereas significant focus and research effort has demonstrated the importance of solid mechanics in organogenesis, less attention has been given to the fluid forces that provide mechanical cues over tissue length scales. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluid motion and pressure is capable of creating spatial gradients of forces acting on cells, thus eliciting distinct and localized signaling patterns essential for proper organ formation...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160336/self-assembled-monolayers-as-patterning-tool-for-organic-electronic-devices
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Schmaltz, Giuseppe Sforazzini, Thomas Reichert, Holger Frauenrath
The patterning of functional materials represents a crucial step for the implementation of organic semiconducting materials into functional devices. Classical patterning techniques such as photolithography or shadow masking exhibit certain limitations in terms of choice of materials, processing techniques and feasibility for large area fabrication. The use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as a patterning tool offers a wide variety of opportunities, from the region-selective deposition of active components to guiding the crystallization direction...
February 3, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157168/regulation-of-t-cell-activation-and-differentiation-by-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-pathogenic-role-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-multiple-sclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Cristina Ulivieri, Cosima T Baldari
How autoreactive tissue-infiltrated effector T cells are induced and sustained in autoimmune disease, usually dominated by the Th1 and Th17 subsets, is still largely unknown. In organ-specific autoimmunity, self-reactive T cells initially activated by dendritic cells (DCs) in the lymph nodes migrate and infiltrate into the target tissues where their reactivation by peripheral tissue antigen is a prerequisite for effector cytokine production and tissue destruction. The target tissue microenvironment, as well as the local microenvironment at the immune synapse formed by T cells that encounter cognate antigen presenting cells (APCs) shave recently emerged as critical factors in shaping the differentiation and function of self-reactive effector T cells, providing the signals required for their activation in the form of the self-antigen and cytokine milieu...
February 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150999/adaptive-local-information-transfer-in-random-boolean-networks
#13
Taichi Haruna
Living systems such as gene regulatory networks and neuronal networks have been supposed to work close to dynamical criticality, where their information-processing ability is optimal at the whole-system level. We investigate how this global information-processing optimality is related to the local information transfer at each individual-unit level. In particular, we introduce an internal adjustment process of the local information transfer and examine whether the former can emerge from the latter. We propose an adaptive random Boolean network model in which each unit rewires its incoming arcs from other units to balance stability of its information processing based on the measurement of the local information transfer pattern...
February 2, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145283/accurate-description-of-the-electronic-structure-of-organic-semiconductors-by-gw-methods
#14
Noa Marom
Electronic properties associated with charged excitations, such as the ionization potential (IP), the electron affinity (EA), and the energy level alignment at interfaces, are critical parameters for the performance of organic electronic devices. To computationally design organic semiconductors and functional interfaces with tailored properties for target applications it is necessary to accurately predict these properties from first principles. Many-body perturbation theory is often used for this purpose within the GW approximation, where G is the one particle Green's function and W is the dynamically screened Coulomb interaction...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139904/bactericidal-effects-of-natural-nanotopography-of-dragonfly-wing-on-escherichia-coli
#15
Chaturanga D Bandara, Sanjleena Singh, Isaac O Afara, Tuquabo Tesfamichael, Annalena Wolff, Kostya Ken Ostrikov, Adekunle Oloyede
Nano-textured surfaces (NTS) are critical to organisms as self-adaptation and survival tools. These NTS have been actively mimicked in the process of developing bactericidal surfaces for diverse biomedical and hygiene applications. To design and fabricate bactericidal topographies effectively for various applications, understanding the bactericidal mechanism of NTS in nature is essential. The current mechanistic explanations on natural bactericidal activity of nanopillars have not utilized recent advances in microscopy to study the natural interaction...
January 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134015/transforming-narratives-into-educational-tools-the-collaborative-development-of-a-transformative-learning-tool-based-on-nicaraguan-adolescents-creative-writing-about-intimate-partner-violence
#16
Robyn Singleton, María de la Paz Picado Araúz, Kathleen Trocin, Kate Winskell
The use of narrative has become increasingly popular in the public health, community development, and education fields. Via emotionally engaging plotlines with authentic, captivating characters, stories provide an opportunity for participants to be carried away imaginatively into the characters' world while connecting the story with their own lived experiences. Stories have been highlighted as valuable tools in transformative learning. However, little published literature exists demonstrating applications of stories in group-based transformative learning curricula...
January 1, 2017: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132028/digit-a-tool-for-detection-and-identification-of-genomic-interchromosomal-translocations
#17
Richard Meier, Stefan Graw, Peter Beyerlein, Devin Koestler, Julian R Molina, Jeremy Chien
Structural variations (SVs) in genomic DNA can have profound effects on the evolution of living organisms, on phenotypic variations and on disease processes. A critical step in discovering the full extent of structural variations is the development of tools to characterize these variations accurately in next generation sequencing data. Toward this goal, we developed a software pipeline named digit that implements a novel measure of mapping ambiguity to discover interchromosomal SVs from mate-pair and pair-end sequencing data...
January 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131824/a-dynamic-model-of-immune-responses-to-antigen-presentation-predicts-different-regions-of-tumor-or-pathogen-elimination
#18
Eduardo D Sontag
The immune system must discriminate between agents of disease and an organism's healthy cells. While the identification of an antigen as self/non-self is critically important, the dynamic features of antigen presentation may also determine the immune system's response. Here, we use a simple mathematical model of immune activation to explore the idea of antigen discrimination through dynamics. We propose that antigen presentation is coupled to two nodes, one regulatory and one effecting the immune response, through an incoherent feedforward loop and repressive feedback...
January 25, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126250/the-effects-of-authentic-leadership-organizational-identification-and-occupational-coping-self-efficacy-on%C3%A2-new-graduate-nurses-job-turnover-intentions%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-canada
#19
Fatmah Fallatah, Heather K S Laschinger, Emily A Read
BACKGROUND: Nurses' turnover has a costly impact on organizations, patients, and nurses. Numerous studies have highlighted the critical role of nursing leadership in enhancing new nurses' retention. PURPOSE: To examine the influence of authentic leadership on new nurses' job turnover intentions through their personal identification with the leader, organizational identification, and occupational coping self-efficacy. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional national study of Canadian new graduate nurses was conducted using structural equation modeling...
December 8, 2016: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122402/anticipating-changes-to-future-connectivity-within-a-network-of-marine-protected-areas
#20
M A Coleman, P Cetina-Heredia, M Roughan, M Feng, E van Sebille, B P Kelaher
Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity is required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
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