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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914793/multi-aperture-shower-design-for-the-improvement-of-the-transverse-uniformity-of-mocvd-derived-gdybco-films
#1
Ruipeng Zhao, Qing Liu, Yudong Xia, Fei Zhang, Yuming Lu, Chuanbing Cai, Bowan Tao, Yanrong Li
A multi-aperture shower design is reported to improve the transverse uniformity of GdYBCO superconducting films on the template of sputtered-LaMnO₃/epitaxial-MgO/IBAD-MgO/solution deposition planarization (SDP)-Y₂O₃-buffered Hastelloy tapes. The GdYBCO films were prepared by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process. The transverse uniformities of structure, morphology, thickness, and performance were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), step profiler, and the standard four-probe method using the criteria of 1 μV/cm, respectively...
September 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914121/evidence-based-recommendations-to-improve-reproductive-healthcare-for-incarcerated-women
#2
Andrea Knittel, Angeline Ti, Sarah Schear, Megan Comfort
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe standards for evidence-based reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women. Design/methodology/approach The literature on reproductive healthcare in the US criminal justice system and recommendations from professional organizations were reviewed and critical areas of concern were identified. Within these areas, studies and expert opinion were synthesized and policy recommendations were formulated through an iterative process of group discussion and document revision...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910516/controlling-differentiation-of-stem-cells-for-developing-personalized-organ-on-chip-platforms
#3
REVIEW
Armin Geraili, Parya Jafari, Mohsen Sheikh Hassani, Behnaz Heidary Araghi, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Amir Mohammad Ghafari, Sara Hasanpour Tamrin, Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres, Ahmad Rezaei Kolahchi, Samad Ahadian, Amir Sanati-Nezhad
Organ-on-chip (OOC) platforms have attracted attentions of pharmaceutical companies as powerful tools for screening of existing drugs and development of new drug candidates. OOCs have primarily used human cell lines or primary cells to develop biomimetic tissue models. However, the ability of human stem cells in unlimited self-renewal and differentiation into multiple lineages has made them attractive for OOCs. The microfluidic technology has enabled precise control of stem cell differentiation using soluble factors, biophysical cues, and electromagnetic signals...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899607/the-scholarly-productivity-and-work-environments-of-academic-pharmacists
#4
Shane P Desselle, Brienna Andrews, Julia Lui, G Leela Raja
BACKGROUND: Productive faculty are key to generating new knowledge and advancing pharmacy practice. The work environments of academic pharmacists are critical to their vitality, commitment, and longevity. OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify correlates of faculty scholarly productivity and teaching effectiveness, considering personal and environmental characteristics; (2) determine the relationship between a faculty's perception of organizational citizenship behaviors they witness with the organizational culture of their employing college/school of pharmacy; and (3) describe the relationship between organizational climate, job satisfaction, and commitment of academic pharmacists...
September 8, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899193/maternal-self-critical-and-dependent-personality-styles-and-mother-infant-communication
#5
Beatrice Beebe, Frank Lachmann
This study investigated mother-infant communication in relation to Blatt's measures of adult personality organization, namely, interpersonal relatedness and self-definition, defining the higher ends of these two measures as dependency and self-criticism, respectively. A nonclinical sample of 126 mother-infant dyads provided the data. An evaluation of maternal self-criticism and dependency was made six weeks postpartum; four months postpartum, mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were studied and analyzed in conjunction with the earlier evaluation...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886382/distinct-mesenchymal-lineages-and-niches-promote-epithelial-self-renewal-and-myofibrogenesis-in-the-lung
#6
Jarod A Zepp, William J Zacharias, David B Frank, Christina A Cavanaugh, Su Zhou, Michael P Morley, Edward E Morrisey
The lung is an architecturally complex organ comprising a heterogeneous mixture of various epithelial and mesenchymal lineages. We use single-cell RNA sequencing and signaling lineage reporters to generate a spatial and transcriptional map of the lung mesenchyme. We find that each mesenchymal lineage has a distinct spatial address and transcriptional profile leading to unique niche regulatory functions. The mesenchymal alveolar niche cell is Wnt responsive, expresses Pdgfrα, and is critical for alveolar epithelial cell growth and self-renewal...
September 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885818/molecular-fin-effect-from-heterogeneous-self-assembled-monolayer-enhances-thermal-conductance-across-hard-soft-interfaces
#7
Xingfei Wei, Teng Zhang, Tengfei Luo
Thermal transport across hard-soft interfaces is critical to many modern applications, such as composite materials, thermal management in microelectronics, solar-thermal phase transition and nanoparticle-assisted hyperthermia therapeutics. In this study, we use equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations combined with the Green-Kubo method to study how molecularly heterogeneous structures of the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) affect the thermal transport across the interfaces between the SAM-functionalized gold and organic liquids (hexylamine, propylamine and hexane)...
September 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885193/time-crystals-a-review
#8
Krzysztof Sacha, Jakub Zakrzewski
Time crystals are time-periodic self-organized structures postulated by Frank Wilczek in 2012. While the original concept was strongly criticized, it stimulated at the same time an intensive research leading to propositions and experimental verifications of discrete (or Floquet) time crystals -- the structures that appear in the time domain due to spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The struggle to observe discrete time crystals is reviewed here together with propositions that generalize this concept introducing condensed matter like physics in the time domain...
September 8, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882157/symptom-management-in-complex-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-icd-11-view-and-experience-of-patients-and-their-relatives-a-mixed-methods-approach-research-proposal
#9
Manuel P Stadtmann, Andreas Maercker, Jochen Binder, Wilfried Schnepp
OBJECTIVE: Using the framework of IDC-11, complex post-traumatic stress disorder will be diagnosed using the core criteria of a post-traumatic stress disorder and the presence of at least one symptom from the following three domains: symptoms of emotional dysregulation, negative self-concept, and problems in interpersonal relationships. In the literature, these symptoms are discussed as a common reason for seeking treatment. The symptoms can influence and impair the quality of life. This article describes a mixed methods study with a sequential exploratory design...
September 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876930/effects-of-optical-purity-and-finite-system-size-on-self-assembly-of-12-hydroxystearic-acid-in-hexane-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#10
Ryan Gordon, Spencer T Stober, Cameron F Abrams
12-Hydroxystearic acid (12HSA) and its derivatives are well known organogelators, and they play critical roles in a variety of applications. The overall aggregate structure of 12HSA is sensitive to the chirality at the twelfth carbon, but a fundamental understanding of this dependence is lacking. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on microsecond long time scales for (1) (R)-12HSA, (2) (S)-12HSA and (3) a 50/50 racemic mixture, each solvated at 12.5 wt-\% in explicit hexane. Self-assembly was accelerated by turning off alkyl chain dihedral gauche states and forcing the molecules to adopt an all-trans conformation...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864533/first-critical-repressive-h3k27me3-marks-in-embryonic-stem-cells-identified-using-designed-protein-inhibitor
#11
James D Moody, Shiri Levy, Julie Mathieu, Yalan Xing, Woojin Kim, Cheng Dong, Wolfram Tempel, Aaron M Robitaille, Luke T Dang, Amy Ferreccio, Damien Detraux, Sonia Sidhu, Licheng Zhu, Lauren Carter, Chao Xu, Cristina Valensisi, Yuliang Wang, R David Hawkins, Jinrong Min, Randall T Moon, Stuart H Orkin, David Baker, Hannele Ruohola-Baker
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) histone methyltransferase plays a central role in epigenetic regulation in development and in cancer, and hence to interrogate its role in a specific developmental transition, methods are needed for disrupting function of the complex with high temporal and spatial precision. The catalytic and substrate recognition functions of PRC2 are coupled by binding of the N-terminal helix of the Ezh2 methylase to an extended groove on the EED trimethyl lysine binding subunit. Disrupting PRC2 function can in principle be achieved by blocking this single interaction, but there are few approaches for blocking specific protein-protein interactions in living cells and organisms...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863148/a-conceptual-and-computational-framework-for-modelling-and-understanding-the-non-equilibrium-gene-regulatory-networks-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#12
Richard B Greaves, Sabine Dietmann, Austin Smith, Susan Stepney, Julianne D Halley
The capacity of pluripotent embryonic stem cells to differentiate into any cell type in the body makes them invaluable in the field of regenerative medicine. However, because of the complexity of both the core pluripotency network and the process of cell fate computation it is not yet possible to control the fate of stem cells. We present a theoretical model of stem cell fate computation that is based on Halley and Winkler's Branching Process Theory (BPT) and on Greaves et al.'s agent-based computer simulation derived from that theoretical model...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858619/the-spatiotemporal-organization-of-the-striatum-encodes-action-space
#13
Andreas Klaus, Gabriela J Martins, Vitor B Paixao, Pengcheng Zhou, Liam Paninski, Rui M Costa
Activity in striatal direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons (SPNs) is critical for proper movement. However, little is known about the spatiotemporal organization of this activity. We investigated the spatiotemporal organization of SPN ensemble activity in mice during self-paced, natural movements using microendoscopic imaging. Activity in both pathways showed predominantly local but also some long-range correlations. Using a novel approach to cluster and quantify behaviors based on continuous accelerometer and video data, we found that SPN ensembles active during specific actions were spatially closer and more correlated overall...
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858289/production-of-tunable-nanomaterials-using-hierarchically-assembled-bacteriophages
#14
Ju Hun Lee, Christopher M Warner, Hyo-Eon Jin, Eftihia Barnes, Aimee R Poda, Edward J Perkins, Seung-Wuk Lee
Large-scale fabrication of precisely defined nanostructures with tunable functions is critical to the exploitation of nanoscience and nanotechnology for production of electronic devices, energy generators, biosensors, and bionanomedicines. Although self-assembly processes have been developed to exploit biological molecules for functional materials, the resulting nanostructures and functions are still very limited, and scalable synthesis is far from being realized. Recently, we have established a bacteriophage-based biomimetic process, called 'self-templating assembly'...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856849/mechanisms-of-quiescent-hair-follicle-stem-cell-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Rui Yi
Maintaining a pool of adult stem cells is essential for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. In mammalian tissues, notably hair follicles, blood, and muscle, stem cells acquire quiescence and infrequently divide for self-renewal. Mechanistic understanding of stem cell quiescence is critical for applying these multipotent cells in regenerative medicine and interrogating their roles in human diseases such as cancer. Quiescent and dividing epithelial stem cells located in hair follicle are conspicuously organized in a spatiotemporally specific manner, allowing them to be studied at a considerable depth...
August 30, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854930/sex-workers-as-peer-health-advocates-community-empowerment-and-transformative-learning-through-a-canadian-pilot-program
#16
Cecilia Benoit, Lynne Belle-Isle, Michaela Smith, Rachel Phillips, Leah Shumka, Chris Atchison, Mikael Jansson, Charlotte Loppie, Jackson Flagg
BACKGROUND: Social marginalization and criminalization create health and safety risks for sex workers and reduce their access to health promotion and prevention services compared to the general population. Community empowerment-based interventions that prioritize the engagement of sex workers show promising results. Peer-to-peer interventions, wherein sex workers act as educators of their colleagues, managers, clients and romantic partners, foster community mobilization and critical consciousness among sex workers and equip them to exercise agency in their work and personal lives...
August 30, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842400/increased-effector-memory-insulin-specific-cd4-t-cells-correlate-with-insulin-autoantibodies-in-recent-onset-type-1-diabetic-patients
#17
Justin A Spanier, Nathanael L Sahli, Joseph C Wilson, Tijana Martinov, Thamotharampillai Dileepan, Adam L Burrack, Erik B Finger, Bruce R Blazar, Aaron W Michels, Antoinette Moran, Marc K Jenkins, Brian T Fife
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from T-cell mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells. Insulin represents a key self-antigen in disease pathogenesis as recent studies identified proinsulin responding T-cells from inflamed pancreatic islets of recent onset T1D organ donors. These cells respond to an insulin B chain epitope presented by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ8 molecule associated with high T1D risk. It is now critical to understand insulin specific T-cell frequency and phenotype in peripheral blood...
August 25, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827762/formation-of-side-discharges-in-dielectric-barrier-discharge
#18
Weili Fan, Zhengming Sheng, Lifang Dong, Fucheng Liu, Xiaoxia Zhong, Yiqian Cui, Fang Hao, Tian Du
Pattern formation and self-organization are fascinating phenomena found widely in nature and in laboratory environment such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Significant efforts have been made to explain the dynamic pattern formation. In DBD, the formation of side discharges is generally supposed to be a key factor responsible for diversity and spatial-temporal symmetry breaking of pattern formation. However, it is still not clear how such discharges are induced. Here, we present the observations of side discharges in a filamentary dielectric barrier discharge from both numerical simulations and experiments...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826905/molecular-membrane-dynamics-insights-into-synaptic-function-and-neuropathological-disease
#19
REVIEW
Hiroko Bannai
The fluid mosaic model states that molecules in the plasma membrane can freely undergo lateral diffusion; however, in neurons and glia, specific membrane molecules are concentrated in cellular microdomains to overcome the randomizing effects of free diffusion. This specialized distribution of membrane molecules is crucial for various cell functions; one example is the accumulation of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynaptic neuronal membrane, which enables efficient synaptic transmission. Quantum dot-single particle tracking (QD-SPT) is a super-resolution imaging technique that uses semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots as fluorescent probes, and is a powerful tool for analyzing protein and lipid behavior in the plasma membrane...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#20
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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