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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079641/world-health-organization-framework-multimodal-hand-hygiene-strategy-in-piedmont-italy-health-care-facilities
#1
Fabrizio Bert, Sebastian Giacomelli, Daniela Ceresetti, Carla Maria Zotti
OBJECTIVES: In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the "Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework" (HHSAF) to evaluate the level of the application of the Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy (MHHIS), which defines preventive interventions, standards, and tools conceived to improve hand hygiene in healthcare facilities. The aim of our study was to evaluate the implementation of the MHHIS in Piedmont healthcare units in 2014 using the HHSAF document. METHODS: Our surveillance was performed through collection and analysis of the data from 50 Piedmont healthcare facilities recorded through the HHSAF in 2014...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074646/differences-in-protein-concentration-dependence-for-nucleation-and-elongation-in-light-chain-amyloid-formation
#2
Luis Miguel Blancas-Mejía, Pinaki Misra, Marina Ramirez-Alvarado
Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by the deposition of the immunoglobulin light chain into amyloid fibrils, resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. Amyloid fibrils have the ability to self-propagate recruiting soluble protein into the fibril by a nucleation-polymerization mechanism, characteristic of auto-catalytic reactions. Experimental data suggest the existence of a critical concentration to initiate fibril formation. As such, the initial concentration of soluble amyloidogenic protein is expected to have a profound effect on the rate of fibril formation...
January 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073739/the-associations-among-individual-factors-ehealth-literacy-and-health-promoting-lifestyles-among-college-students
#3
Shu-Ching Yang, Yi-Fang Luo, Chia-Hsun Chiang
BACKGROUND: eHealth literacy is gaining importance for maintaining and promoting health. Studies have found that individuals with high eHealth literacy are more likely to adopt healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. In addition, previous studies have shown that various individual factors (eg, frequency of seeking information on health issues, degree of health concern, frequency of eating organic food, and students' college major) are associated with eHealth literacy and health-promoting lifestyles...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051935/adjusting-to-chronic-health-conditions
#4
Vicki S Helgeson, Melissa Zajdel
Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment...
January 3, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049555/foxp3-positive-regulatory-t-cells-and-kidney-allograft%C3%A2-tolerance
#5
REVIEW
Alessandro Alessandrini, Laurence A Turka
Normal immune homeostasis is achieved by several mechanisms, and prominent among them is immunoregulation. Although several types of regulatory lymphocyte populations have been described, CD4 T cells expressing the FOXP3 transcription factor (FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells [FOXP3(+) Tregs]) are the best understood. This population of cells is critical for maintaining self-tolerance throughout the life of the organism. FOXP3(+) Tregs can develop within the thymus, but also under select circumstances, naive peripheral T cells can be induced to express FOXP3 and become stable Tregs as well...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048516/su-f-e-03-pet-ct-guided-dose-boost-to-hypoxic-sub-volume-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinomas-using-self-optimizing-non-uniform-vmat
#6
J Qiu, X Zheng, H Liu, B Chen, W Zhuo
PURPOSE: This study is to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) to hypoxic subvolume (HTV) in nasopharyngeal carcinomas under the guidance of 18F-Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET/CT using a novel non-uniform volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)technique. METHODS: Eight nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with conventional uniform VMAT were retrospectively analyzed. For each treatment, actual conventional uniform VMAT plan with two or more arcs (2-2...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042074/a-communications-bundle-to-improve-satisfaction-for-critically-ill-patients-and-their-families-a-prospective-cohort-pilot-study
#7
Rana L Awdish, Dana Buick, Maria Kokas, Hanan Berlin, Catherine Jackman, Cari Williamson, Michael P Mendez, Kristen Chasteen
CONTEXT: Communication skills training with simulated patients is used by many academic centers, but how to translate skills learned in simulated settings to improve communication in real encounters has not been described. OBJECTIVE: We developed a communications bundle to facilitate skill transfer from simulation to real encounters and improve patient and/or family satisfaction with physician communication. We tested the feasibility of its use in our hospital's medical intensive care unit (MICU)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039063/encapsulation-of-primary-salivary-gland-cells-in-enzymatically-degradable-poly-ethylene-glycol-hydrogels-promotes-acinar-cell-characteristics
#8
Andrew D Shubin, Timothy J Felong, Brittany E Schutrum, Debria S L Joe, Catherine E Ovitt, Danielle S W Benoit
: Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers leads to permanent xerostomia due to the loss of secretory acinar cells in the salivary glands. Regenerative treatments utilizing primary submandibular gland (SMG) cells show modest improvements in salivary secretory function, but there is limited evidence of salivary gland regeneration. We have recently shown that poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels can support the survival and proliferation of SMG cells as multicellular spheres in vitro...
December 27, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018338/the-pd1-pd-l1-2-pathway-from-discovery-to-clinical-implementation
#9
REVIEW
Kankana Bardhan, Theodora Anagnostou, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
The immune system maintains a critically organized network to defend against foreign particles, while evading self-reactivity simultaneously. T lymphocytes function as effectors and play an important regulatory role to orchestrate the immune signals. Although central tolerance mechanism results in the removal of the most of the autoreactive T cells during thymic selection, a fraction of self-reactive lymphocytes escapes to the periphery and pose a threat to cause autoimmunity. The immune system evolved various mechanisms to constrain such autoreactive T cells and maintain peripheral tolerance, including T cell anergy, deletion, and suppression by regulatory T cells (TRegs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017791/conditions-to-minimize-soft-single-biomolecule-deformation-when-imaging-with-atomic-force-microscopy
#10
Christian Godon, Jean-Marie Teulon, Michael Odorico, Christian Basset, Matthieu Meillan, Luc Vellutini, Shu-Wen W Chen, Jean-Luc Pellequer
A recurrent interrogation when imaging soft biomolecules using atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the putative deformation of molecules leading to a bias in recording true topographical surfaces. Deformation of biomolecules comes from three sources: sample instability, adsorption to the imaging substrate, and crushing under tip pressure. To disentangle these causes, we measured the maximum height of a well-known biomolecule, the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), under eight different experimental conditions positing that the maximum height value is a specific indicator of sample deformations...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998976/sialylation-controls-prion-fate-in-vivo
#11
Saurabh Srivastava, Elizaveta Katorcha, Martin L Daus, Peter Lasch, Michael Beekes, Ilia V Baskakov
Prions or PrP(Sc) are proteinaceous infectious agents that consist of misfolded, self-replicating states of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein or PrP(C) The current work tests a new hypothesis that sialylation determines the fate of prions in an organism. To begin, we produced control PrP(Sc) from PrP(C) using Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCAb), and also generated PrP(Sc) with reduced sialylation levels using the same method but with partially desialylated PrP(C) as a substrate (dsPMCAb)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997556/self-organizing-global-gene-expression-regulated-through-criticality-mechanism-of-the-cell-fate-change
#12
Masa Tsuchiya, Alessandro Giuliani, Midori Hashimoto, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Kenichi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: A fundamental issue in bioscience is to understand the mechanism that underlies the dynamic control of genome-wide expression through the complex temporal-spatial self-organization of the genome to regulate the change in cell fate. We address this issue by elucidating a physically motivated mechanism of self-organization. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Building upon transcriptome experimental data for seven distinct cell fates, including early embryonic development, we demonstrate that self-organized criticality (SOC) plays an essential role in the dynamic control of global gene expression regulation at both the population and single-cell levels...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982599/computational-and-experimental-investigation-of-the-structure-of-peptide-monolayers-on-gold-nanoparticles
#13
Elena Colangelo, Qiubo Chen, Adam M Davidson, David Paramelle, Michael B Sullivan, Martin Volk, Raphaël Lévy
The self-assembly and self-organization of small molecules on the surface of nanoparticles constitute a potential route toward the preparation of advanced proteinlike nanosystems. However, their structural characterization, critical to the design of bionanomaterials with well-defined biophysical and biochemical properties, remains highly challenging. Here, a computational model for peptide-capped gold nanoparticles (GNPs) is developed using experimentally characterized Cys-Ala-Leu-Asn-Asn (CALNN)- and Cys-Phe-Gly-Ala-Ile-Leu-Ser-Ser (CFGAILSS)-capped GNPs as a benchmark...
December 30, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979964/schwannomin-interacting-protein-1-isoform-iqcj-schip1-is-a-multi-partner-ankyrin-and-spectrin-binding-protein-involved-in-the-organization-of-nodes-of-ranvier
#14
Pierre-Marie Martin, Carmen Cifuentes-Diaz, Jérôme Devaux, Marta Garcia, Jocelyne Bureau, Sylvie Thomasseau, Esther Klingler, Jean-Antoine Girault, Laurence Goutebroze
Nodes of Ranvier are essential regions for action potential conduction in myelinated fibers. They are enriched in multimolecular complexes comprised of voltage-gated Nav and Kv7 channels associated with cell adhesion molecules. Cytoskeletal proteins ankyrin-G (AnkG) and βIV-spectrin control the organization of these complexes and provide mechanical support to the plasma membrane. IQCJ-SCHIP1 is a cytoplasmic protein present in axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. It interacts with AnkG and is absent from nodes and axon initial segments of βIV-spectrin and AnkG mutant mice...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967190/inducing-self-organized-criticality-in-a-network-toy-model-by-neighborhood-assortativity
#15
Alfonso Allen-Perkins, Javier Galeano, Juan Manuel Pastor
Complex networks are a recent type of framework used to study complex systems with many interacting elements, such as self-organized criticality (SOC). The network nodes' tendency to link to other nodes of similar type is characterized by assortative mixing. Real networks exhibit assortative mixing by vertex degree, however, typical random network models, such as the Erdős-Rényi or the Barabási-Albert model, show no assortative arrangements. In this paper we introduce the notion of neighborhood assortativity as the tendency of a node to belong to a community (its neighborhood) showing an average property similar to its own...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967147/mesoscale-pattern-formation-of-self-propelled-rods-with-velocity-reversal
#16
Robert Großmann, Fernando Peruani, Markus Bär
We study self-propelled particles with velocity reversal interacting by uniaxial (nematic) alignment within a coarse-grained hydrodynamic theory. Combining analytical and numerical continuation techniques, we show that the physics of this active system is essentially controlled by the reversal frequency. In particular, we find that elongated, high-density, ordered patterns, called bands, emerge via subcritical bifurcations from spatially homogeneous states. Our analysis reveals further that the interaction of bands is weakly attractive and, consequently, bands fuse upon collision in analogy with nonequilibrium nucleation processes...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960076/a-plasma-membrane-template-for-macropinocytic-cups
#17
Douwe M Veltman, Thomas D Williams, Gareth Bloomfield, Bi-Chang Chen, Eric Betzig, Robert H Insall, Robert R Kay
Macropinocytosis is a fundamental mechanism that allows cells to take up extracellular liquid into large vesicles. It critically depends on the formation of a ring of protrusive actin beneath the plasma membrane, which develops into the macropinocytic cup. We show that macropinocytic cups in Dictyostelium are organised around coincident intense patches of PIP3, active Ras and active Rac. These signalling patches are invariably associated with a ring of active SCAR/WAVE at their periphery, as are all examined structures based on PIP3 patches, including phagocytic cups and basal waves...
December 13, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959511/real-time-imaging-of-self-organization-and-mechanical-competition-in-carbon-nanotube-forest-growth
#18
Viswanath Balakrishnan, Mostafa Bedewy, Eric R Meshot, Sebastian W Pattinson, Erik S Polsen, Fabrice Laye, Dmitri N Zakharov, Eric A Stach, A John Hart
The properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) networks and analogous materials comprising filamentary nanostructures are governed by the intrinsic filament properties and their hierarchical organization and interconnection. As a result, direct knowledge of the collective dynamics of CNT synthesis and self-organization is essential to engineering improved CNT materials for applications such as membranes and thermal interfaces. Here, we use real-time environmental transmission electron microscopy (E-TEM) to observe nucleation and self-organization of CNTs into vertically aligned forests...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956608/self-organization-of-actin-networks-by-a-monomeric-myosin
#19
Dario Saczko-Brack, Ewa Warchol, Benoit Rogez, Markus Kröss, Sarah M Heissler, James R Sellers, Christopher Batters, Claudia Veigel
The organization of actomyosin networks lies at the center of many types of cellular motility, including cell polarization and collective cell migration during development and morphogenesis. Myosin-IXa is critically involved in these processes. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we resolved actin bundles assembled by myosin-IXa. Electron microscopic data revealed that the bundles consisted of highly ordered lattices with parallel actin polarity. The myosin-IXa motor domains aligned across the network, forming cross-links at a repeat distance of precisely 36 nm, matching the helical repeat of actin...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951430/protect-this-house-cytosolic-sensing-of-viruses
#20
REVIEW
Michael J McFadden, Nandan S Gokhale, Stacy M Horner
The ability to recognize invading viral pathogens and to distinguish their components from those of the host cell is critical to initiate the innate immune response. The efficiency of this detection is an important factor in determining the susceptibility of the cell to viral infection. Innate sensing of viruses is, therefore, an indispensable step in the line of defense for cells and organisms. Recent discoveries have uncovered novel sensors of viral components and hallmarks of infection, as well as mechanisms by which cells discriminate between self and non-self...
December 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
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