keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Self-Organized Criticality

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533367/data-driven-modeling-reveals-cell-behaviors-controlling-self-organization-during-myxococcus-xanthus-development
#1
Christopher R Cotter, Heinz-Bernd Schüttler, Oleg A Igoshin, Lawrence J Shimkets
Collective cell movement is critical to the emergent properties of many multicellular systems, including microbial self-organization in biofilms, embryogenesis, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. However, even the best-studied systems lack a complete picture of how diverse physical and chemical cues act upon individual cells to ensure coordinated multicellular behavior. Known for its social developmental cycle, the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus uses coordinated movement to generate three-dimensional aggregates called fruiting bodies...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523902/kinetically-controlled-layer-by-layer-stacking-of-metal-oxide-2d-nanosheets
#2
Joohyun Lim, Xiaoyan Jin, Yun Kyung Jo, Seul Lee, Seong-Ju Hwang
An efficient chemical way to finely control the layer-by-layer stacking of inorganic nanosheets (NS) is developed by tuning the type and composition of intercalant ion, and the reaction temperature for restacking process. The finely controlled stacking of NS relies on a kinetic control of the self-assembly of NS in the presence of coordinating organic cations. A critical role of organic cations in this assembly highlights the importance of the appropriate activation energy. Of prime importance is that a fine-control of the interstratification of 2D NS is highly effective not only in tailoring its pore structure but also in enhancing its electrode activity...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520427/kinetic-monte-carlo-modeling-of-charge-carriers-in-organic-electronic-devices-suppression-of-the-self-interaction-error
#3
Haoyuan Li, Jean-Luc Brédas
Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations have emerged as an important tool to help improve the efficiency of organic electronic devices by providing a better understanding of their device physics. In the KMC simulation of an organic device, the reliability of the results depends critically on the accuracy of the chosen charge-transfer rates, which are themselves strongly influenced by the site-energy differences. These site-energy differences include components coming from the electrostatic forces present in the system, which are often evaluated through electric potentials described by the Poisson equation...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515313/low-temperature-nullifies-the-circadian-clock-in-cyanobacteria-through-hopf-bifurcation
#4
Yoriko Murayama, Hiroshi Kori, Chiaki Oshima, Takao Kondo, Hideo Iwasaki, Hiroshi Ito
Cold temperatures lead to nullification of circadian rhythms in many organisms. Two typical scenarios explain the disappearance of rhythmicity: the first is oscillation death, which is the transition from self-sustained oscillation to damped oscillation that occurs at a critical temperature. The second scenario is oscillation arrest, in which oscillation terminates at a certain phase. In the field of nonlinear dynamics, these mechanisms are called the Hopf bifurcation and the saddle-node on an invariant circle bifurcation, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510215/species-specific-supercoil-dynamics-of-the-bacterial-nucleoid
#5
N Patrick Higgins
Bacteria organize DNA into self-adherent conglomerates called nucleoids that are replicated, transcribed, and partitioned within the cytoplasm during growth and cell division. Three classes of proteins help condense nucleoids: (1) DNA gyrase generates diffusible negative supercoils that help compact DNA into a dynamic interwound and multiply branched structure; (2) RNA polymerase and abundant small basic nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) create constrained supercoils by binding, bending, and forming cooperative protein-DNA complexes; (3) a multi-protein DNA condensin organizes chromosome structure to assist sister chromosome segregation after replication...
November 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507701/peptide-templated-noble-metal-catalysts-syntheses-and-applications
#6
REVIEW
Wei Wang, Caleb F Anderson, Zongyuan Wang, Wei Wu, Honggang Cui, Chang-Jun Liu
Noble metal catalysts have been widely used in many applications because of their high activity and selectivity. However, a controllable preparation of noble metal catalysts still remains as a significant challenge. To overcome this challenge, peptide templates can play a critical role in the controllable syntheses of catalysts owing to their flexible binding with specific metallic surfaces and self-assembly characteristics. By employing peptide templates, the size, shape, facet, structure, and composition of obtained catalysts can all be specifically controlled under the mild synthesis conditions...
May 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507231/biological-modelling-of-a-computational-spiking-neural-network-with-neuronal-avalanches
#7
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that networks in the brain can self-organize into a critical state where dynamics exhibit a mixture of ordered and disordered patterns. This critical branching phenomenon is termed neuronal avalanches. It has been hypothesized that the homeostatic level balanced between stability and plasticity of this critical state may be the optimal state for performing diverse neural computational tasks. However, the critical region for high performance is narrow and sensitive for spiking neural networks (SNNs)...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505838/correlations-induced-by-depressing-synapses-in-critically-self-organized-networks-with-quenched-dynamics
#8
João Guilherme Ferreira Campos, Ariadne de Andrade Costa, Mauro Copelli, Osame Kinouchi
In a recent work, mean-field analysis and computer simulations were employed to analyze critical self-organization in networks of excitable cellular automata where randomly chosen synapses in the network were depressed after each spike (the so-called annealed dynamics). Calculations agree with simulations of the annealed version, showing that the nominal branching ratio σ converges to unity in the thermodynamic limit, as expected of a self-organized critical system. However, the question remains whether the same results apply to the biological case where only the synapses of firing neurons are depressed (the so-called quenched dynamics)...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504271/probing-nanofriction-and-aubry-type-signatures-in-a-finite-self-organized-system
#9
J Kiethe, R Nigmatullin, D Kalincev, T Schmirander, T E Mehlstäubler
Friction in ordered atomistic layers plays a central role in various nanoscale systems ranging from nanomachines to biological systems. It governs transport properties, wear and dissipation. Defects and incommensurate lattice constants markedly change these properties. Recently, experimental systems have become accessible to probe the dynamics of nanofriction. Here, we present a model system consisting of laser-cooled ions in which nanofriction and transport processes in self-organized systems with back action can be studied with atomic resolution...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490503/entropic-forces-drive-self-organization-and-membrane-fusion-by-snare-proteins
#10
Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Sathish Thiyagarajan, Benjamin S Stratton, Erdem Karatekin, Jason M Warner, James E Rothman, Ben O'Shaughnessy
SNARE proteins are the core of the cell's fusion machinery and mediate virtually all known intracellular membrane fusion reactions on which exocytosis and trafficking depend. Fusion is catalyzed when vesicle-associated v-SNAREs form trans-SNARE complexes ("SNAREpins") with target membrane-associated t-SNAREs, a zippering-like process releasing ∼65 kT per SNAREpin. Fusion requires several SNAREpins, but how they cooperate is unknown and reports of the number required vary widely. To capture the collective behavior on the long timescales of fusion, we developed a highly coarse-grained model that retains key biophysical SNARE properties such as the zippering energy landscape and the surface charge distribution...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486893/relationship-between-functional-status-prior-to-onset-of-critical-illness-and-mortality-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#11
R Rivera-Lopez, R Gutierrez-Rodriguez, C Lopez-Caler, E Aguilar-Alonso, E Castillo-Lorente, M Garcia-Delgado, M D Arias-Verdu, D Iglesias-Posadilla, J E Barrueco-Francioni, G Quesada-Garcia, R Rivera-Fernandez
This prospective study aimed to assess the association between prior functional status and hospital mortality for patients admitted to four intensive care units in Spain between 2006 and 2012. Prior functional status was classified into three groups, using a modification of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), including group 1 with no limitations on activities of daily living; group 2 with some limitations but self-sufficient; and group 3 who were dependent on others for their activities of daily living. Of the 1,757 patients considered (mean Simplified Acute Physiology Score [SAPS] predicted mortality 14...
May 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482567/polymerizable-aggregation-induced-emission-dye-for-preparation-of-cross-linkable-fluorescent-nanoprobes-with-ultra-low-critical-micelle-concentrations
#12
Long Huang, Meiying Liu, Liucheng Mao, Xiqi Zhang, Dazhuang Xu, Qing Wan, Qiang Huang, Yingge Shi, Fengjie Deng, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
In recent years, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) dyes based fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) have achieved significant progress in various biomedical applications. In this work, we developed a covalent strategy to prepare biocompatible AIE-active dyes based cross-linked copolymers (MPC-POSS-PhE) via controllable reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using zwitterionic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), polymerizable AIE dye (named as PhE) and 8-vinyl polyoctahedral silsesquioxanes (POSS) as monomers...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473746/practices-related-to-tobacco-sale-promotion-and-protection-from-tobacco-smoke-exposure-in-restaurants-and-bars-in-kampala-before-implementation-of-the-uganda-tobacco-control-act-2015
#13
Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Daniel Kadobera, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi, Shannon Gravely, Lindsay Robertson, David Guwatudde
BACKGROUND: The Word Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls on parties to implement evidenced-based tobacco control policies, which includes Article 8 (protect the public from exposure to tobacco smoke), and Article 13 (tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS)). In 2015, Uganda passed the Tobacco Control Act 2015 which includes a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and on all forms of TAPS. Prior to implementation, we sought to assess practices related to protection of the public from tobacco smoke exposure, limiting access to tobacco products and TAPS in restaurants and bars in Kampala City to inform implementation of the new law...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472460/did-contracting-effect-the-use-of-primary-health-care-units-in-pakistan
#14
Muhammad Ashar Malik, Ellen Van de Poel, Eddy Van Doorslaer
For many years, Pakistan has had a wide network of Basic Health Units spread across the country, but their utilization by the population in rural and peri-urban areas has remained low. As of 2004, in an attempt to improve the utilization and performance of these public primary healthcare facilities, the government has gradually started contracting-in intergovernmental organizations to manage these BHUs. Using five nationally representative household surveys conducted between 2001 and 2012, and exploiting the gradual roll-out of this reform to apply a difference-in-difference approach, we evaluate its impact on BHU utilization...
May 3, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470392/performance-of-a-new-blunt-tip-coaxial-needle-for-percutaneous-biopsy-and-drainage-of-hard-to-reach-targets
#15
Roberto Luigi Cazzato, Julien Garnon, Behnam Shaygi, Jean Caudrelier, Salem Bauones, Georgia Tsoumakidou, Guillaume Koch, Afshin Gangi
AIM: To present a new blunt-tip coaxial needle (SoftGuard) applied to access "hard-to-reach" targets undergoing percutaneous image-guided biopsy or drainage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All consecutive patients presenting between August and December 2016 with "hard-to-reach" (<10 mm from a critical nearby structure such as vessels, nerves, bowel or adjacent parenchymal organs) solid lesions requiring biopsy (group A) or abscesses requiring drainage for sepsis (group B) were prospectively included...
May 3, 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469254/immune-checkpoint-protein-vista-critically-regulates-the-il-23-il-17-inflammatory-axis
#16
Na Li, Wenwen Xu, Ying Yuan, Natarajan Ayithan, Yasutomo Imai, Xuesong Wu, Halli Miller, Michael Olson, Yunfeng Feng, Yina H Huang, Mary Jo Turk, Samuel T Hwang, Subramaniam Malarkannan, Li Wang
V-domain Immunoglobulin Suppressor of T cell Activation (VISTA) is an inhibitory immune-checkpoint molecule that suppresses CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation when expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Vsir (-/-) mice developed loss of peripheral tolerance and multi-organ chronic inflammatory phenotypes. Vsir (-/-) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were hyper-responsive towards self- and foreign antigens. Whether or not VISTA regulates innate immunity is unknown. Using a murine model of psoriasis induced by TLR7 agonist imiquimod (IMQ), we show that VISTA deficiency exacerbated psoriasiform inflammation...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469176/subsampling-scaling
#17
A Levina, V Priesemann
In real-world applications, observations are often constrained to a small fraction of a system. Such spatial subsampling can be caused by the inaccessibility or the sheer size of the system, and cannot be overcome by longer sampling. Spatial subsampling can strongly bias inferences about a system's aggregated properties. To overcome the bias, we derive analytically a subsampling scaling framework that is applicable to different observables, including distributions of neuronal avalanches, of number of people infected during an epidemic outbreak, and of node degrees...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459112/evaluation-of-an-active-learning-module-to-teach-hazard-and-risk-in-hazard-analysis-and-critical-control-points-haccp-classes
#18
Omar A Oyarzabal, Ellen Rowe
The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458200/conservation-of-groundwater-from-over-exploitation-scientific-analyses-for-groundwater-resources-management
#19
Fi-John Chang, Chien-Wei Huang, Su-Ting Cheng, Li-Chiu Chang
Groundwater over-exploitation has produced many critical problems in the southern Taiwan. The accumulated stresses and demands make groundwater management a complex issue that needs innovative scientific analyses for deriving better water management strategies. In this study, we aimed to provide scientific analyses of the groundwater systems in the Pingtung Plain through soft-computing techniques to explore its spatial-temporal and hydro-geological characteristics for the elaboration of future groundwater management plans and in decision-making process...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456161/balance-of-excitation-and-inhibition-determines-1-f-power-spectrum-in-neuronal-networks
#20
F Lombardi, H J Herrmann, L de Arcangelis
The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches...
April 2017: Chaos
keyword
keyword
15504
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"