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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164609/who-benefits-from-adolescent-sleep-interventions-moderators-of-treatment-efficacy-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-and-mindfulness-based-group-sleep-intervention-for-at-risk-adolescents
#1
Matthew J Blake, Laura M Blake, Orli Schwartz, Monika Raniti, Joanna M Waloszek, Greg Murray, Julian G Simmons, Elizabeth Landau, Ronald E Dahl, Dana L McMakin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test moderators of therapeutic improvement in an adolescent cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention. Specifically, we examined whether the effects of the program on postintervention sleep outcomes were dependent on participant gender and/or measures of sleep duration, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy prior to the interventions. METHOD: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 59...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138252/apical-polarization-and-lumenogenesis-the-apicosome-sheds-new-light
#2
Alejandra I Romero-Morales, Natalya A Ortolano, Vivian Gama
Establishment of apico-basal polarity is critical for the lumenal epiblast-like morphogenesis of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). In this issue, Taniguchi et al. (2017. J Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083.jcb201704085) describe a structure called the apicosome, generated in single hPSCs, that allows them to self-organize and form the lumenal epiblast-like stage.
November 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131636/template-guided-assembly-of-silk-fibroin-on-cellulose-nanofibers-for-robust-nanostructures-with-ultrafast-water-transport
#3
Rui Xiong, Ho Shin Kim, Shuaidi Zhang, Sunghan Kim, Volodymyr F Korolovych, Ruilong Ma, Yaroslava G Yingling, Canhui Lu, Vladimir V Tsukruk
The construction of multilength scaled hierarchical nanostructures from diverse natural components is critical in the progress toward all-natural nanocomposites with structural robustness and versatile added functionalities. Here, we report a spontaneous formation of peculiar "shish kebab" nanostructures with the periodic arrangement of silk fibroin domains along straight segments of cellulose nanofibers. We suggest that the formation of these shish kebab nanostructures is facilitated by the preferential organization of heterogeneous (β-sheets and amorphous silk) domains along the cellulose nanofiber driven by modulated axial distribution of crystalline planes, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions as suggested by all-atom molecular dynamic simulations...
November 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117559/an-eye-organoid-approach-identifies-six3-suppression-of-r-spondin-2-as-a-critical-step-in-mouse-neuroretina-differentiation
#4
Nozomu Takata, Deepti Abbey, Luciano Fiore, Sandra Acosta, Ruopeng Feng, Hyea Jin Gil, Alfonso Lavado, Xin Geng, Ashley Interiano, Geoffrey Neale, Mototsugu Eiraku, Yoshiki Sasai, Guillermo Oliver
Recent advances in self-organizing, 3-dimensional tissue cultures of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provided an in vitro model that recapitulates many aspects of the in vivo developmental steps. Using Rax-GFP-expressing ESCs, newly generated Six3(-/-) iPSCs, and conditional null Six3(delta/f);Rax-Cre ESCs, we identified Six3 repression of R-spondin 2 (Rspo2) as a required step during optic vesicle morphogenesis and neuroretina differentiation. We validated these results in vivo by showing that transient ectopic expression of Rspo2 in the anterior neural plate of transgenic mouse embryos was sufficient to inhibit neuroretina differentiation...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114686/modulation-of-xpc-peptide-on-binding-tb-3-to-euplotes-octocarinatus-centrin
#5
Enxian Shi, Wenlong Zhang, Yaqin Zhao, Binsheng Yang
Centrins are Ca(2+)-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotic organisms. Xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein (XPC), a dominant component of the nuclear excision repair (NER) pathway, is a critical target protein of centrins. A 22-residue peptide (K842-R863) from XPC was used to investigate the effect of metal ions (Ca(2+) and Tb(3+)) on the peptide binding of Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and fluorescence spectroscopy. ITC and tryptophan spectrofluorimetric titrations revealed that metal ions (Ca(2+) and Tb(3+)) could enhance the affinity between EoCen and the XPC peptide, and the enhanced effects were closely related to the ion potential of metal ions...
November 8, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114058/filament-rigidity-and-connectivity-tune-the-deformation-modes-of-active-biopolymer-networks
#6
Samantha Stam, Simon L Freedman, Shiladitya Banerjee, Kimberly L Weirich, Aaron R Dinner, Margaret L Gardel
Molecular motors embedded within collections of actin and microtubule filaments underlie the dynamics of cytoskeletal assemblies. Understanding the physics of such motor-filament materials is critical to developing a physical model of the cytoskeleton and designing biomimetic active materials. Here, we demonstrate through experiments and simulations that the rigidity and connectivity of filaments in active biopolymer networks regulates the anisotropy and the length scale of the underlying deformations, yielding materials with variable contractility...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112078/survival-outcomes-following-the-use-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-as-a-rescue-technology-in-critically-ill-patients-results-from-pennsylvania-2007-2015
#7
Marco D Huesch, Andrew Foy, Christoph Brehm
OBJECTIVE: To examine real-world outcomes of survival, length of stay, and discharge destination, among all adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation admissions in one state over nearly a decade. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of administrative discharge data. SETTING: State-wide administrative discharge data from Pennsylvania between 2007 and 2015. PATIENTS: All 2,948 consecutive patients billed under a Diagnosis-Related Grouper 3 grouper and in whom a procedural code for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was present, admitted between the beginning of 2007 and the end of 2015 to hospitals regulated by the state of Pennsylvania...
November 3, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109916/self-medication-practices-and-rational-drug-use-habits-among-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study-from-kahramanmara%C3%A5-turkey
#8
Ramazan Azim Okyay, Ayşegül Erdoğan
Background: Self-medication refers to the use of medicines to treat self-diagnosed diseases without consulting any healthcare professionals. Irrational drug use and self-medication have serious negative consequences both on health and economy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the habits related to rational use of drugs (RUD) and to estimate the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on university students in Kahramanmaraş...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107581/developmental-estrogen-exposures-and-disruptions-to-maternal-behavior-and-brain-effects-of-ethinyl-estradiol-a-common-positive-control
#9
Mary C Catanese, Laura N Vandenberg
Due of its structural similarity to the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is widely used to study the effects of estrogenic substances on sensitive organs at multiple stages of development. Here, we investigated the effects of EE2 on maternal behavior and the maternal brain in females exposed during gestation and the perinatal period. We assessed several components of maternal behavior including nesting behavior and pup retrieval; characterized the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)α in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a brain region critical for the display of maternal behavior; and measured expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic cells, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a brain region important in maternal motivation...
November 7, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107376/relevance-of-transportation-to-correlations-among-criticality-physical-means-of-propagation-and-distribution-of-dengue-fever-cases-in-the-state-of-bahia
#10
Hugo Saba, Marcelo A Moret, Florisneide R Barreto, Marcio Luis Valença Araújo, Eduardo Manuel F Jorge, Aloisio S Nascimento Filho, Jose Garcia Vivas Miranda
Dengue infection is a public health problem with a complex distribution. The physical means of propagation and the dynamics of diffusion of the disease between municipalities need to be analysed to direct efficient public policies to prevent dengue infection. The present study presents correlations of occurrences of reported cases of dengue infection among municipalities, self-organized criticality (SOC), and transportation between areas, identifying the municipalities that play an important role in the diffusion of dengue across the state of Bahia, Brazil...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106435/a-self-assembly-toolbox-for-thiophene-based-conjugated-polyelectrolytes-surfactants-solvent-and-copolymerisation
#11
Judith E Houston, Michèle Chevrier, Marie-Sousai Appavou, Stephen M King, Sébastien Clément, Rachel C Evans
Targeted control of the aggregation, morphology and optical properties of conjugated polymers is critical for the development of high performance optoelectronic devices. Here, self-assembly approaches are used to strategically manipulate the order, conformation and spatial distribution of conjugated polymers in solution and subsequently prepared thin films. The supramolecular complex organisation of phosphonium-functionalised homo- (P3HTPMe3) and diblock (P3HT-b-P3HTPMe3) ionic conjugated polythiophenes upon solvent-mediation and co-assembly with oppositely charged surfactants is investigated...
November 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102480/what-are-the-key-elements-for-implementing-intensive-primary-care-a-multisite-veterans-health-administration-case-study
#12
Evelyn T Chang, Pushpa V Raja, Susan E Stockdale, Marian L Katz, Donna M Zulman, Jessica A Eng, Kathy H Hedrick, Jeffrey L Jackson, Neha Pathak, Brook Watts, Carrie Patton, Gordon Schectman, Steven M Asch
Many integrated health systems and accountable care organizations have turned to intensive primary care programs to improve quality of care and reduce costs for high-need high-cost patients. How best to implement such programs remains an active area of discussion. In 2014, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented five distinct intensive primary care programs as part of a demonstration project that targeted Veterans at the highest risk for hospitalization. We found that programs evolved over time, eventually converging on the implementation of the following elements: 1) an interdisciplinary care team, 2) chronic disease management, 3) comprehensive patient assessment and evaluation, 4) care and case management, 5) transitional care support, 6) preventive home visits, 7) pharmaceutical services, 8) chronic disease self-management, 9) caregiver support services, 10) health coaching, and 11) advanced care planning...
October 25, 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095841/comparative-coastal-risk-index-ccri-a-multidisciplinary-risk-index-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#13
Juliano Calil, Borja G Reguero, Ana R Zamora, Iñigo J Losada, Fernando J Méndez
As the world's population grows to a projected 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low-lying areas exposed to coastal hazards is projected to increase. Critical infrastructure and valuable assets continue to be placed in vulnerable areas, and in recent years, millions of people have been displaced by natural hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Risks related to natural hazards are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards, the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system and its exposure to such hazards...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094402/black-swans-cognition-and-the-power-of-learning-from-failure
#14
Allison S Catalano, Kent Redford, Richard Margoluis, Andrew T Knight
Failure carries undeniable stigma and is difficult to confront for individuals, teams, and organizations. Disciplines such as commercial and military aviation, medicine, and business have long histories of grappling with it, beginning with the recognition that failure is inevitable in every human endeavor. While conservation may arguably be more complex, conservation professionals can draw upon the research and experience of these other disciplines to institutionalize activities and attitudes that foster learning from failures, whether they are minor setbacks or major disasters...
November 1, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092417/bi-soc-states-in-one-dimensional-random-cellular-automaton
#15
Zbigniew Czechowski, Agnieszka Budek
Two statistically stationary states with power-law scaling of avalanches are found in a simple 1 D cellular automaton. Features of the fixed points, the spiral saddle and the saddle with index 1, are investigated. The migration of states of the automaton between these two self-organized criticality states is demonstrated during evolution of the system in computer simulations. The automaton, being a slowly driven system, can be applied as a toy model of earthquake supercycles.
October 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078286/biological-conservation-law-as-an-emerging-functionality-in-dynamical-neuronal-networks
#16
Boris Podobnik, Marko Jusup, Zoran Tiganj, Wen-Xu Wang, Javier M Buldú, H Eugene Stanley
Scientists strive to understand how functionalities, such as conservation laws, emerge in complex systems. Living complex systems in particular create high-ordered functionalities by pairing up low-ordered complementary processes, e.g., one process to build and the other to correct. We propose a network mechanism that demonstrates how collective statistical laws can emerge at a macro (i.e., whole-network) level even when they do not exist at a unit (i.e., network-node) level. Drawing inspiration from neuroscience, we model a highly stylized dynamical neuronal network in which neurons fire either randomly or in response to the firing of neighboring neurons...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077863/seen-through-the-patients-eyes-safety-of-chronic-illness-care
#17
Melissa Desmedt, Mirko Petrovic, Jochen Bergs, Dominique Vandijck, Hubertus Vrijhoef, Johan Hellings, Peter Vermeir, Lieselot Cool, Ezra Dessers
Objective: Due to the increasing burden of chronic diseases, a considerable part of care delivery will continue to shift from secondary to primary care, and home care settings. Despite the growing importance of primary care, concerns about the safety of patients in hospitals have thus far driven most research in the field. Therefore, the present study sought to explore patients' perceptions and experiences of the safety of primary chronic care. Design: An observational, cross-sectional study design was applied...
October 25, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062288/perception-of-risk-and-terrorism-related-behavior-change-dual-influences-of-probabilistic-reasoning-and-reality-testing
#18
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough
The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061552/designing-a-self-management-app-for-young-people-with-type-1-diabetes-methodological-challenges-experiences-and-recommendations
#19
Pernille Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Gitte Reventlov Husted, Grete Teilmann, Eva Hommel, Birthe Susanne Olsen, Finn Kensing
BACKGROUND: Young people with type 1 diabetes often struggle to self-manage their disease. Mobile health (mHealth) apps show promise in supporting self-management of chronic conditions such as type 1 diabetes. Many health care providers become involved in app development. Unfortunately, limited information is available to guide their selection of appropriate methods, techniques, and tools for a participatory design (PD) project in health care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to develop an mHealth app to support young people in self-managing type 1 diabetes...
October 23, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057211/relative-relationships-of-general-shame-and-body-shame-with-body-dysmorphic-phenomenology-and-psychosocial-outcomes
#20
Hilary Weingarden, Keith D Renshaw, Eliza Davidson, Sabine Wilhelm
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived flaw in appearance and repetitive avoidance behaviors. BDD involves severe psychosocial outcomes (e.g., depression, suicidality, functional impairment). Identifying correlates of BDD symptoms and outcomes can inform treatment. Shame, a painful emotion felt in response to critical self-judgment, may be one key correlate. However, research on shame in BDD is scarce and previous studies have not distinguished general shame from body shame...
July 2017: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
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