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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352711/gold-cleaning-methods-for-preparation-of-cell-culture-surfaces-for-self-assembled-monolayers-of-zwitterionic-oligopeptides
#1
Junko Enomoto, Tatsuto Kageyama, Dina Myasnikova, Kisaki Onishi, Yuka Kobayashi, Yoko Taruno, Takahiro Kanai, Junji Fukuda
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350187/multifractal-dynamics-of-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#2
Frigyes Samuel Racz, Peter Mukli, Zoltan Nagy, Andras Eke
Brain function is organized as a network of functional connections between different neuronal populations with connection strengths dynamically changing in time and space. Studies investigating functional connectivity (FC) usually follow a static approach when describing FC by considering the connectivity strengths constant, however a dynamic approach seems more reasonable, as this way the spatio-temporal dynamics of the underlying system can also be captured. Objective: The scale-free, i.e. fractal nature of neural dynamics is an inherent property of the nervous system...
January 19, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347929/the-hiv-self-testing-debate-where-do-we-stand
#3
REVIEW
Marilou Gagnon, Martin French, Yamilee Hébert
BACKGROUND: Emphasis on HIV testing as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care has grown tremendously over the past decade. In turn, this emphasis on testing has created a demand for new policies, programs, and technologies that can potentially increase access to and uptake of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HST) technologies have gained important momentum following the approval of the over-the-counter self-tests in the United States, the UK, and France. While the renewed interest in HST has given rise to a number of high quality reviews of empirical studies conducted on this topic, we have yet to find an article that captures the extent of the debate on HST...
January 18, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347657/mapping-of-the-bak-tang-and-wiesenfeld-sandpile-model-on-a-two-dimensional-ising-correlated-percolation-lattice-to-the-two-dimensional-self-avoiding-random-walk
#4
J Cheraghalizadeh, M N Najafi, H Dashti-Naserabadi, H Mohammadzadeh
The self-organized criticality on the random fractal networks has many motivations, like the movement pattern of fluid in the porous media. In addition to the randomness, introducing correlation between the neighboring portions of the porous media has some nontrivial effects. In this paper, we consider the Ising-like interactions between the active sites as the simplest method to bring correlations in the porous media, and we investigate the statistics of the BTW model in it. These correlations are controlled by the artificial "temperature" T and the sign of the Ising coupling...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347197/dynamical-crossover-in-a-stochastic-model-of-cell-fate-decision
#5
Hiroki Yamaguchi, Kyogo Kawaguchi, Takahiro Sagawa
We study the asymptotic behaviors of stochastic cell fate decision between proliferation and differentiation. We propose a model of a self-replicating Langevin system, where cells choose their fate (i.e., proliferation or differentiation) depending on local cell density. Based on this model, we propose a scenario for multicellular organisms to maintain the density of cells (i.e., homeostasis) through finite-ranged cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, we numerically show that the distribution of the number of descendant cells changes over time, thus unifying the previously proposed two models regarding homeostasis: the critical birth death process and the voter model...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346984/mechanical-failure-in-amorphous-solids-scale-free-spinodal-criticality
#6
Itamar Procaccia, Corrado Rainone, Murari Singh
The mechanical failure of amorphous media is a ubiquitous phenomenon from material engineering to geology. It has been noticed for a long time that the phenomenon is "scale-free," indicating some type of criticality. In spite of attempts to invoke "Self-Organized Criticality," the physical origin of this criticality, and also its universal nature, being quite insensitive to the nature of microscopic interactions, remained elusive. Recently we proposed that the precise nature of this critical behavior is manifested by a spinodal point of a thermodynamic phase transition...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346908/mechanisms-of-self-organized-criticality-in-social-processes-of-knowledge-creation
#7
Bosiljka Tadić, Marija Mitrović Dankulov, Roderick Melnik
In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A)...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341775/mixing-by-unstirring-hyperuniform-dispersion-of-interacting-particles-upon-chaotic-advection
#8
Joost H Weijs, Denis Bartolo
We show how to achieve both fast and hyperuniform dispersions of particles in viscous fluids. To do so, we first extend the concept of critical random organization to chaotic drives. We show how palindromic sequences of chaotic advection cause microscopic particles to effectively interact at long range, thereby inhibiting critical self-organization. Based on this understanding we go around this limitation and design sequences of stirring and unstirring which simultaneously optimize the speed of particle spreading and the homogeneity of the resulting dispersions...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334522/themes-in-literature-related-to-incidence-risk-and-prevention-of-cancer-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients-on-immunosuppressive-therapy
#9
Stefanie L Rashti
BACKGROUND: Solid-organ transplants provide a second chance to thousands of critically ill patients with end-organ failure each year. Immunosuppressants are administered to patients to prevent graft rejection of a transplanted organ, such as a heart, kidney, or liver, while placing the recipient at greater risk for infection and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The literature provides evidence of various cancers that have been found to develop in patients' posttransplantation...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323267/scaffold-free-generation-of-uniform-adipose-spheroids-for-metabolism-research-and-drug-discovery
#10
Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Francoise A Gourronc, Anna Chaly, David A Wadkins, Anthony J Burand, Kathleen R Markan, Sharon O Idiga, Meng Wu, Matthew J Potthoff, James A Ankrum
Adipose tissue dysfunction is critical to the development of type II diabetes and other metabolic diseases. While monolayer cell culture has been useful for studying fat biology, 2D culture often does not reflect the complexity of fat tissue. Animal models are also problematic in that they are expensive, time consuming, and may not completely recapitulate human biology because of species variation. To address these problems, we have developed a scaffold-free method to generate 3D adipose spheroids from primary or immortal human or mouse pre-adipocytes...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322489/measurement-in-pediatric-epilepsy-self-management-a-critical-review
#11
REVIEW
Gigi Smith, Avani C Modi, Erica K Johnson, Ross Shegog, Joan K Austin, Janelle L Wagner
Given the paucity of information available regarding self-management, the aims of this paper are to synthesize the literature on factors associated with and measures to assess self-management in pediatric epilepsy. INCLUSION CRITERIA: youth birth to 18 years with a seizure disorder or an epilepsy diagnosis and/or their caregivers, published 1985-2014 in English, and conducted in countries with a very high human development index. The review was conducted in 6 phases: (1) identification of bibliographical search criteria and databases; (2) abstract assessment; (3) full article review; (4) organization of final citations into categories; (5) identification of predictors, potential mediators/moderators, and outcomes associated with self-management factors and categorization of factors as influences, processes, or behaviors across individual, family, community, and health care domains; and (6) critique of self-management instrument studies...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307614/noncoding-rnas-in-liver-cancer-stem-cells-the-big-impact-of-little-things
#12
Hongwei Lv, Guishuai Lv, Qin Han, Wen Yang, Hongyang Wang
The high rate of recurrence and heterogeneity make hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as one of the most prevalent malignancy worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, are responsible for cancer initiation, metastasis, drug resistance and relapse, accounting for the heterogeneous and hierarchical organizations of HCC. Therefore, CSCs are novel targets for more efficient liver cancer therapies. New data continues to mount on the functions of noncoding RNAs in multiple processes of liver CSCs, including malignant proliferation, self-renewal, tumorigenicity, and survival...
January 4, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301451/dopamine-self-polymerized-along-with-hydroxyapatite-onto-the-preactivated-titanium-percutaneous-implants-surface-to-promote-human-gingival-fibroblast-behavior-and-antimicrobial-activity-for-biological-sealing
#13
Minggang Yang, Peipei Jiang, Yang Ge, Fang Lan, Xuedong Zhou, Jing He, Yao Wu
The clinical success of dental implants requires not only the optimum osseointegration but also the integration of implant surface with soft tissues to form biological sealing. In this study, alkali-heat treatment was applied to modify the pure titanium surface constructing a unique micro-and nano-structure. Then, poly(dopamine), along and with the additional incorporation of hydroxyapatite and carboxymethyl chitosan have been successfully infiltrated into the preactivated Ti surface during dopamine self-polymerization proceeding...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289607/basis-of-self-organized-proportion-regulation-resulting-from-local-contacts
#14
Mayuko Iwamoto, Daishin Ueyama
One of the fundamental problems in biology concerns the method by which a cluster of organisms can regulate the proportion of individuals that perform various roles or modes as if each individual is aware of the overall situation without a leader. In various species, a specific ratio exists at multiple levels, from the process of cell differentiation in multicellular organisms to the situation of social dilemma in a group of human beings. This study determines a common basis for regulating collective behavior that is realized by a series of local contacts between individuals...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284305/how-functional-is-moringa-oleifera-a-review-of-its-nutritive-medicinal-and-socioeconomic-potential
#15
Oluwadara Oluwaseun Alegbeleye
Moringa oleifera is an important tropical food plant that seems to have great nutritional, therapeutic, industrial, agricultural, and socioeconomic values. Dietary consumption of its parts and preparations is encouraged by several organizations, health food enthusiasts, and other specialists as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in the treatment of various diseases. Studies extoling its ability to mitigate various degenerative ailments now exist in both the scientific and the popular literature...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251703/a-pilot-registry-of-trauma-surgeons-willing-and-ready-to-respond-to-disasters
#16
Daniel Grabo, Aaron Strumwasser, Kyle Remick, Susan Briggs
BACKGROUND: A well-defined means of organizing surgeons based on functional capabilities in disaster response has been lacking. We sought to create a pilot registry of surgeons, organized by functional capacities, available to respond to disasters in conjunction with the American College of Surgeons Operation Giving Back and to better understand their participation in disaster medicine training. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey of the members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma and the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma aimed at establishing a pilot registry of qualified trauma surgeons available to respond to disasters...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238855/epigenesis-by-experience-romantic-empiricism-and-non-kantian-biology
#17
Amanda Jo Goldstein
Reconstructions of Romantic-era life science in general, and epigenesis in particular, frequently take the Kantian logic of autotelic "self-organization" as their primary reference point. I argue in this essay that the Kantian conceptual rubric hinders our historical and theoretical understanding of epigenesis, Romantic and otherwise. Neither a neutral gloss on epigenesis, nor separable from the epistemological deflation of biological knowledge that has received intensive scrutiny in the history and philosophy of science, Kant's heuristics of autonomous "self-organization" in the third Critique amount to the strategic capture of epigenesis from nature, for thought, in thought's critical transcendence of nature...
December 13, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236525/convergence-in-reports-of-adolescents-psychopathology-a-focus-on-disorganized-attachment-and-reflective-functioning
#18
Jessica L Borelli, Alexandra Palmer, Salome Vanwoerden, Carla Sharp
Although convergence in parent-youth reports of adolescent psychopathology is critical for treatment planning, research documents a pervasive lack of agreement in ratings of adolescents' symptoms. Attachment insecurity (particularly disorganized attachment) and impoverished reflective functioning (RF) are 2 theoretically implicated predictors of low convergence that have not been examined in the literature. In a cross-sectional investigation of adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, we examined whether disorganized attachment and low (adolescent and parent) RF were associated with patterns of convergence in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235858/self-assembly-of-chiral-metal-organic-tetartoid
#19
Dong Luo, Xue-Zhi Wang, Chen Yang, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Dan Li
Chiral coordination cages feature both chirality and defined inner space, providing advanced molecular materials. A series of chiral 20-nucleous cobalt-imidazolate cages were synthesized by self-assembly of 72 sub-components, and feature novel structure of tetartoid (tetragonal pentagonal dodecahedron). Spontaneous resolution of racemic tetartoidal cages ( and ) into a conglomer-ate of homochiral crystals are observed, while both homochiral  and  tetartoidal cage can be obtained through the chiral induc-tion of (D)- and (L)-enantiomers of menthol, respectively...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#20
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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