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Self-Organized Criticality

Amanda S Harper-Leatherman, Jean Marie Wallace, Debra R Rolison
Sol-gel-derived aerogels are three-dimensional, nanoscale materials that combine large surface area with high porosity. These traits make them useful for any rate-critical chemical process, particularly sensing or electrochemical applications, once physical or chemical moieties are incorporated into the gels to add their functionality to the ultraporous scaffold. Incorporating biomolecules into aerogels, other than such rugged species as lipases or cellulose, has been challenging due to the inability of most biomolecules to remain structurally intact within the gels during the necessary supercritical fluid (SCF) processing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yinan Cui, Giacomo Po, Nasr Ghoniem
We demonstrate, through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics simulations, that the complex dynamical response of nano- and microcrystals to external constraints can be tuned. Under load rate control, strain bursts are shown to exhibit scale-free avalanche statistics, similar to critical phenomena in many physical systems. For the other extreme of displacement rate control, strain burst response transitions to quasiperiodic oscillations, similar to stick-slip earthquakes. External load mode control is shown to enable a qualitative transition in the complex collective dynamics of dislocations from self-organized criticality to quasiperiodic oscillations...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Joshua Sparrow
The infant mental health field can amplify its effects when it extends its purview beyond the dyad to the larger contexts in which infants and adult caregivers interact and develop over time. Within health, mental health, education, and other human service organizations, the quality of relationships is a critical variable in the individual-level outcomes that such organizations seek. The goals of this work and the means for accomplishing them are highly dependent on human qualities and interactions that are shaped by organizational processes...
October 19, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Anthony G Hudetz, Jeannette A Vizuete, Siveshigan Pillay, George A Mashour
Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Adriana Borriello, Ilaria Caldarelli, Debora Bencivenga, Emanuela Stampone, Silverio Perrotta, Adriana Oliva, Fulvio Della Ragione
The hope of selectively targeting cancer cells by therapy and eradicating definitively malignancies is based on the identification of pathways or metabolisms that clearly distinguish "normal" from "transformed" phenotypes. Some tyrosine kinase activities, specifically unregulated and potently activated in malignant cells, might represent important targets of therapy. Consequently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) might be thought as the "vanguard" of molecularly targeted therapy for human neoplasias. Imatinib and the successive generations of inhibitors of Bcr-Abl1 kinase, represent the major successful examples of TKI use in cancer treatment...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Shiv Kumar Sarin, Ashok Choudhury
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a distinct entity that differs from acute liver failure and decompensated cirrhosis in timing, presence of treatable acute precipitant, and course of disease, with a potential for self-recovery. The core concept is acute deterioration of existing liver function in a patient of chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in response to an acute insult. The insult should be a hepatic one and presentation in the form of liver failure (jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy, ascites) with or without extrahepatic organ failure in a defined time frame...
December 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Lei Tong, Yang Xie, Hongbo Yu
Experiments on the adult visual cortex of cats, ferrets and monkeys have revealed organized spatial relationships between multiple feature maps which can also be reproduced by the Kohonen and elastic net self-organization models. However, attempts to apply these models to simulate the temporal kinetics of monocular deprivation during the critical period, and their effects on the spatial arrangement of feature maps, have led to conflicting results. In this study, we performed monocular deprivation (MD) and chronic imaging in the ferret visual cortex during the critical period of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
A Coetzer, A H Kidane, M Bekele, A D Hundera, E G Pieracci, M L Shiferaw, R Wallace, L H Nel
The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool was developed through a joint effort of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), to provide a standard mechanism for countries to assess their rabies situation and measure progress in eliminating the disease. Because the African continent has the highest per capita death rate from rabies, and Ethiopia is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries, Ethiopia undertook a self-assessment by means of the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Research
Joseph D Forrester, Haiwei Henry Guo, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: Coccidioidomycosis, commonly called "valley fever," "San Joaquin fever," "desert fever," or "desert rheumatism," is a multi-system illness caused by infection with Coccidioides fungi (C. immitis or C. posadasii). This organism is endemic to the desert Southwest regions of the United States and Mexico and to parts of South America. The manifestations of infection occur along a spectrum from asymptomatic to mild self-limited fever to severe disseminated disease. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature...
October 14, 2016: Surgical Infections
Zong-Wen Wei, Bing-Hong Wang
Some real-world networks are shown to be fractal or self-similar. It is widespread that such a phenomenon originates from the repulsion between hubs or disassortativity. Here we show that this common belief fails to capture the causality. Our key insight to address it is to pinpoint links critical to fractality. Those links with small edge betweenness centrality (BC) constitute a special architecture called fractal reference system, which gives birth to the fractal structure of those reported networks. In contrast, a small amount of links with high BC enable small-world effects, hiding the intrinsic fractality...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Benjamin P Partlow, Mehran Bagheri, James L Harden, David L Kaplan
Native silk fibers exhibit strength and toughness that rival those of the best synthetic fibers. Importantly, the silkworm is able to spin these fibers using only water as a solvent with fine control of applied shear, drawing, pH and salt concentrations to efficiently convert the spinning dope into a fiber. This is in contrast to synthetic polymers that often require organic solvents and extreme processing conditions. Further insight is still needed into the mechanisms by which silkworms are capable of spinning such tough fibers...
October 13, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Shea M Balish, Dan Conacher, Lori Dithurbide
PURPOSE: Preliminary findings suggest sport participation is positively associated with happiness. However, it is unknown if this association is universal and how sport compares to other leisure activities in terms of an association with happiness. This study had 3 objectives: (a) to test if sport membership is associated with happiness, (b) to test if this relationship is universal, and (c) to compare sport membership to other leisure activities. METHOD: Hierarchal Bernoulli modeling was used to analyze the 6th wave (2014) of the World Values Survey (nSs = 67,736, ncountries = 48)...
October 12, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
H Van Bui, F Grillo, J R van Ommen
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a gas-phase deposition technique that, by relying on self-terminating surface chemistry, enables the control of the amount of deposited material down to the atomic level. While mostly used in semiconductor technology for the deposition of ceramic oxides and nitrides on wafers, ALD lends itself to the deposition of a wealth of materials on virtually every substrate. In particular, ALD and its organic counterpart molecular layer deposition (MLD), have opened up attractive avenues for the synthesis of novel nanostructured materials...
October 11, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
David G Angeler
This paper builds a bridge between heavy metal music, complexity theory and sustainability science to show the potential of the (auditory) arts to inform different aspects of complex systems of people and nature. The links are described along different dimensions. This first dimension focuses on the scientific aspect of heavy metal. It uses complex adaptive systems theory to show that the rapid diversification and evolution of heavy metal into multiple subgenres leads to a self-organizing and resilient socio-musicological system...
2016: SpringerPlus
Лариса Ф Матюха, Тетяна А Титова, Тетяна М Бухановська, Богдан О Смаль
INTRODUCTION: diabetes mellitus is among the main challenges in the establishment of an effective health care system. A significant prevalence of disease and, consequently, a large number of complications, caused by it, provokes a constant searching for new measures and means for the struggle. In Ukraine, as in other countries, among methods of such a struggle is to standardize medical care. AIM: explore the state of health care for patients with diabetes in Ukraine...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Guixia Zhao, Guigao Liu, Hong Pang, Huimin Liu, Huabin Zhang, Kun Chang, Xianguang Meng, Xiaojun Wang, Jinhua Ye
A series of rod-like porous graphitic-carbon nitrides (short as CNs) with enhanced in-plane ordering have been fabricated through self-assembled heptazine hydrate precursors for the first time. By controlling the calcination of the preformed precursors with different temperature-rising rates, the resulted CNs (SAHEP-CNs-1) with the most ordered and least stacked graphitic planar are showing a tremendously improved hydrogen evolution rate of 420 μmol h(-1) under visible light and a remarkable apparent quantum efficiency of 8...
September 26, 2016: Small
S Bozdech, K Krischer, D A Crespo-Yapur, E Savinova, A Bonnefont
The formation of a self-organized spatial domain during current-controlled CO oxidation, a kinetically bistable reaction, is investigated experimentally and by deterministic simulations as a function of the electrode size and of the supporting electrolyte concentration. Decreasing the microelectrode size leads to the suppression of the spatial instability at the electrode and thus stabilizes the S-NDR branch of the reaction. The critical microelectrode size capable of supporting sustained domain formation is shown to be strongly affected by the sulfuric acid concentration, the characteristic time of the positive feedback loop increasing with the sulfate concentration...
September 16, 2016: Faraday Discussions
José María Parisi, Damián Cairatti, José Luis Castro
Objective Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) play a critical role in quality assurance. The objective of this work is to describe the actions taken by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to strengthen OMCLs in the Region of the Americas. Methods A descriptive study was conducted by the External Quality Control Program (EQCP) to assess the diagnostic and overall performance of OMCLs; human resource training; measures adopted by the Pan American Network for Drug Regulatory Harmonization (PANDRH) to facilitate prequalification of OMCLs by the World Health Organization (WHO) as reference laboratories for United Nations agencies; and the technical documents developed by the Working Group on Good Laboratory Practice (WGGLP) and their level of implementation...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Nanbo Liu, Sha Huang, Bin Yao, Jiangfan Xie, Xu Wu, Xiaobing Fu
3D bioprinting matrices are novel platforms for tissue regeneration. Tissue self-organization is a critical process during regeneration that implies the features of organogenesis. However, it is not clear from the current evidences whether 3D printed construct plays a role in guiding tissue self-organization in vitro. Based on our previous study, we bioprinted a 3D matrix as the restrictive niche for direct sweat gland differentiation of epidermal progenitors by different pore structure (300-μm or 400-μm nozzle diameters printed) and reported a long-term gradual transition of differentiated cells into glandular morphogenesis occurs within the 3D construct in vitro...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Deborah J Wiebe, Vicki Helgeson, Cynthia A Berg
Diabetes self-management is crucial to maintaining quality of life and preventing long-term complications, and it occurs daily in the context of close interpersonal relationships. This article examines how social relationships are central to meeting the complex demands of managing Type I and Type 2 diabetes across the life span. The social context of diabetes management includes multiple resources, including family (parents, spouses), peers, romantic partners, and health care providers. We discuss how these social resources change across the life span, focusing on childhood and adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood and aging...
October 2016: American Psychologist
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