keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Self-Organized Criticality

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643812/-conscience-clause-in-end-of-life-care
#1
Ludovica De Panfilis, Daniela Cattaneo, Luisanna Cola, Maddalena Gasparini, Corinna Porteri, Daniela Tarquini, Alessandro Tiezzi, Simone Veronese, Silvia Zullo, Eugenio Pucci
The article proposes a critical reflection on issues that appeal to the conscience clause as part of end of life care can produce and what can guarantee freedom of conscience, self-determination of those involved and respect for the dignity of the sick person. After a philosophical and normative analysis, the article is organized on the basis of two important documents for discussion: a position paper of Società Italiana di Anestesia Analgesia Rianimazione e Terapia Intensiva (SIAARTI) signed by several scientific societies "Grandi insufficienze d'organo end stage: cure intensive o cure palliative?" and the Design of Law currently being debated "Norme in materia di consenso informato e di disposizioni anticipate di trattamento"...
May 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642047/erectile-dysfunction-in-young-men-a-review-of-the-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#2
REVIEW
Hoang Minh Tue Nguyen, Andrew T Gabrielson, Wayne J G Hellstrom
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important health concern that can significantly affect a man's psychosocial well-being. ED has traditionally been considered a disease of old age; however, contemporary evidence suggests a growing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years. The process of achieving an erection is multifaceted; there are many potential mechanisms that can be disrupted. It is critical to identify the specific causes of ED before proceeding with potentially costly and invasive therapeutic options...
June 19, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621365/bio-inspired-intelligent-evaporation-modulation-in-a-thermo-sensitive-nanogel-colloid-solution-for-self-thermoregulation
#4
Zhi Huang, Kang Liu, Yanhui Feng, Jun Zhou, Xinxin Zhang
Intelligent evaporation and temperature modulation plays an important role in self-regulation of living organisms and many industrial applications. Here we demonstrate that a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogel colloid solution can spontaneously and intelligently modulate its evaporation rate with temperature variation, which has a larger evaporation rate than distilled water at a temperature higher than its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and a smaller evaporation rate at a temperature lower than its LCST...
June 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619411/where-we-fall-down-tensions-in-teaching-social-medicine-and-global-health
#5
Amy Finnegan, Michelle Morse, Marisa Nadas, Michael Westerhaus
BACKGROUND: As global health interest has risen, so too has the relevance of education on the social determinants of health and health equity. Social medicine offers a particularly salient framework for educating on the social determinants of health, health disparities, and health equity. SocMed and EqualHealth, 2 unique but related organizations, offer annual global health courses in Uganda, Haiti, and the United States, which train students to understand and respond to the social determinants of health through praxis, self-reflection and self-awareness, and building collaborative partnerships across difference...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616997/emotion-and-the-prefrontal-cortex-an-integrative-review
#6
Matthew L Dixon, Ravi Thiruchselvam, Rebecca Todd, Kalina Christoff
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in the generation and regulation of emotion. However, we lack an integrative framework for understanding how different emotion-related functions are organized across the entire expanse of the PFC, as prior reviews have generally focused on specific emotional processes (e.g., decision making) or specific anatomical regions (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex). Additionally, psychological theories and neuroscientific investigations have proceeded largely independently because of the lack of a common framework...
June 15, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613314/directed-ordering-of-phase-separated-domains-and-dewetting-of-thin-polymer-blend-films-on-a-topographically-patterned-substrate
#7
Nandini Bhandaru, Alamgir Karim, Rabibrata Mukherjee
Substrate pattern guided self-organization of ultrathin and confined polymeric films on a topographically patterned substrate is a useful approach for obtaining ordered meso and nano structures over large areas, particularly if the ordering is achieved during film preparation itself, eliminating any post-processing such as thermal or solvent vapor annealing. By casting a dilute solution of two immiscible polymers, polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), from a common solvent (toluene) on a topographically patterned substrate with a grating geometry, we show the formation of self-organized meso patterns with various degrees of ordering...
June 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608673/organic-donor-acceptor-complexes-as-novel-organic-semiconductors
#8
Jing Zhang, Wei Xu, Peng Sheng, Guangyao Zhao, Daoben Zhu
Organic donor-acceptor (DA) complexes have attracted wide attention in recent decades, resulting in the rapid development of organic binary system electronics. The design and synthesis of organic DA complexes with a variety of component structures have mainly focused on metallicity (or even superconductivity), emission, or ferroelectricity studies. Further efforts have been made in high-performance electronic investigations. The chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides DA complexes with a great number of possibilities for semiconducting applications...
June 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594842/-if-my-husband-leaves-me-i-will-go-home-and-suffer-so-better-cling-to-him-and-hide-this-thing-the-influence-of-gender-on-option-b-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-participation-in-malawi-and-uganda
#9
Valerie L Flax, Jennifer Yourkavitch, Elialilia S Okello, John Kadzandira, Anne Ruhweza Katahoire, Alister C Munthali
The role of gender in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) participation under Option B+ has not been adequately studied, but it is critical for reducing losses to follow-up. This study used qualitative methods to examine the interplay of gender and individual, interpersonal, health system, and community factors that contribute to PMTCT participation in Malawi and Uganda. We conducted in-depth interviews with women in PMTCT, women lost to follow-up, government health workers, and stakeholders at organizations supporting PMTCT as well as focus group discussions with men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588139/manipulating-the-abcs-of-self-assembly-via-low-%C3%AF-block-polymer-design
#10
Alice B Chang, Christopher M Bates, Byeongdu Lee, Carol M Garland, Simon C Jones, Russell K W Spencer, Mark W Matsen, Robert H Grubbs
Block polymer self-assembly typically translates molecular chain connectivity into mesoscale structure by exploiting incompatible blocks with large interaction parameters (χij). In this article, we demonstrate that the converse approach, encoding low-χ interactions in ABC bottlebrush triblock terpolymers (χAC [Formula: see text] 0), promotes organization into a unique mixed-domain lamellar morphology, which we designate LAMP Transmission electron microscopy indicates that LAMP exhibits ACBC domain connectivity, in contrast to conventional three-domain lamellae (LAM3) with ABCB periods...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586205/black-anatase-formation-by-annealing-of-amorphous-nanoparticles-and-the-role-of-the-ti2o3-shell-in-self-organized-crystallization-by-particle-attachment
#11
Mengkun Tian, Masoud Mahjouri-Samani, Kai Wang, Alexander A Puretzky, David B Geohegan, Wesley D Tennyson, Nicholas Cross, Christopher M Rouleau, Thomas A Zawodzinski, Gerd Duscher, Gyula Eres
We use amorphous titania nanoparticle networks produced by pulsed laser vaporization at room temperature as a model system for understanding the mechanism of formation of black titania. Here, we characterize the transformation of amorphous nanoparticles by annealing in pure Ar at 400 °C, the lowest temperature at which black titania was observed. Atomic resolution electron microscopy methods and electron energy loss spectroscopy show that the onset of crystallization occurs by nucleation of an anatase core that is surrounded by an amorphous Ti2O3 shell...
June 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584107/adaptive-self-organization-of-bali-s-ancient-rice-terraces
#12
J Stephen Lansing, Stefan Thurner, Ning Ning Chung, Aurélie Coudurier-Curveur, Çağil Karakaş, Kurt A Fesenmyer, Lock Yue Chew
Spatial patterning often occurs in ecosystems as a result of a self-organizing process caused by feedback between organisms and the physical environment. Here, we show that the spatial patterns observable in centuries-old Balinese rice terraces are also created by feedback between farmers' decisions and the ecology of the paddies, which triggers a transition from local to global-scale control of water shortages and rice pests. We propose an evolutionary game, based on local farmers' decisions that predicts specific power laws in spatial patterning that are also seen in a multispectral image analysis of Balinese rice terraces...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576664/uncertainty-and-stress-why-it-causes-diseases-and-how-it-is-mastered-by-the-brain
#13
REVIEW
Achim Peters, Bruce S McEwen, Karl Friston
The term 'stress' - coined in 1936 - has many definitions, but until now has lacked a theoretical foundation. Here we present an information-theoretic approach - based on the 'free energy principle' - defining the essence of stress; namely, uncertainty. We address three questions: What is uncertainty? What does it do to us? What are our resources to master it? Mathematically speaking, uncertainty is entropy or 'expected surprise'. The 'free energy principle' rests upon the fact that self-organizing biological agents resist a tendency to disorder and must therefore minimize the entropy of their sensory states...
May 30, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575125/emergence-of-local-synchronization-in-neuronal-networks-with-adaptive-couplings
#14
Shilpa Chakravartula, Premananda Indic, Bala Sundaram, Timothy Killingback
Local synchronization, both prolonged and transient, of oscillatory neuronal behavior in cortical networks plays a fundamental role in many aspects of perception and cognition. Here we study networks of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with a new type of adaptive coupling, and show that these networks naturally produce both permanent and transient synchronization of local clusters of neurons. These deterministic systems exhibit complex dynamics with 1/fη power spectra, which appears to be a consequence of a novel form of self-organized criticality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573205/prediction-of-organic-reaction-outcomes-using-machine-learning
#15
Connor W Coley, Regina Barzilay, Tommi S Jaakkola, William H Green, Klavs F Jensen
Computer assistance in synthesis design has existed for over 40 years, yet retrosynthesis planning software has struggled to achieve widespread adoption. One critical challenge in developing high-quality pathway suggestions is that proposed reaction steps often fail when attempted in the laboratory, despite initially seeming viable. The true measure of success for any synthesis program is whether the predicted outcome matches what is observed experimentally. We report a model framework for anticipating reaction outcomes that combines the traditional use of reaction templates with the flexibility in pattern recognition afforded by neural networks...
May 24, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570376/research-use-of-nurses-working-in-the-critical-care-units-barriers-and-facilitators
#16
Issa M Hweidi, Loai Issa Tawalbeh, Musa A Al-Hassan, Razan M Alayadeh, Ahmed Mohammad Al-Smadi
BACKGROUND: There is a distinct gap between theory and practice with respect to research use in clinical practice, particularly in critical care units, that could be related to the presence of a number of barriers that hinder the use of research findings. AIMS: The aims of the study were to identify barriers and facilitators to research use as perceived by Jordanian nurses in critical care units and to examine the predictors of research use among those nurses. METHODS: The study used a cross-sectional, correlational design...
July 2017: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559223/dropout-from-an-ehealth-intervention-for-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-qualitative-study
#17
Silje Stangeland Lie, Bjørg Karlsen, Ellen Renate Oord, Marit Graue, Bjørg Oftedal
BACKGROUND: Adequate self-management is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment, as people make the majority of daily treatment measures and health decisions. The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the complexity of diabetes self-management demonstrate the need for innovative and effective ways to deliver self-management support. eHealth interventions are promoted worldwide and hold a great potential in future health care for people with chronic diseases such as T2DM...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552964/criticality-meets-learning-criticality-signatures-in-a-self-organizing-recurrent-neural-network
#18
Bruno Del Papa, Viola Priesemann, Jochen Triesch
Many experiments have suggested that the brain operates close to a critical state, based on signatures of criticality such as power-law distributed neuronal avalanches. In neural network models, criticality is a dynamical state that maximizes information processing capacities, e.g. sensitivity to input, dynamical range and storage capacity, which makes it a favorable candidate state for brain function. Although models that self-organize towards a critical state have been proposed, the relation between criticality signatures and learning is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545492/non-participants-in-policy-efforts-to-promote-evidence-based-practices-in-a-large-behavioral-health-system
#19
Rebecca E Stewart, Danielle R Adams, David S Mandell, Gayatri Nangia, Lauren Shaffer, Arthur C Evans, Ronnie Rubin, Shawna Weaver, Trevor R Hadley, Rinad S Beidas
BACKGROUND: System-wide training initiatives to support and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs) in behavioral health systems have become increasingly widespread. Understanding more about organizations who do not participate in EBP training initiatives is a critical piece of the dissemination and implementation puzzle if we endeavor to increase access in community settings. METHODS: We conducted 30 1-h semi-structured interviews with leaders in non-participating agencies who did not formally participate in system-wide training initiatives to implement EBPs in the City of Philadelphia, with the goal to understand why they did not participate...
May 25, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541504/e3-ubiquitin-ligases-ubiquitous-actors-in-plant-development-and-abiotic-stress-responses
#20
Kai Shu, Wenyu Yang
Understanding the precise regulatory mechanisms of plant development and stress responses at the post-translational level is currently a topic of intensive research. Protein ubiquitination, including the sequential performances of ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes, is a refined post-translational modification ubiquitous in all eukaryotes. Plants are an integral part of our ecosystem and, as sessile organisms, the ability to perceive internal and external signals and to adapt well to various environmental challenges is crucial for their survival...
May 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
keyword
keyword
15504
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"