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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716960/bacterial-tubulin-a-b-exhibit-polarized-growth-mixed-polarity-bundling-and-destabilization-by-gtp-hydrolysis
#1
César Díaz-Celis, Viviana I Risca, Felipe Hurtado, Jessica K Polka, Scott D Hansen, Daniel Maturana, Rosalba Lagos, R Dyche Mullins, Octavio Monasterio
Bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter express homologs of eukaryotic α- and β-tubulin, called BtubA and BtubB, that have been observed to assemble into filaments in presence of GTP. BtubA/B polymers are proposed to be composed in vitro by two to six protofilaments, in contrast to in vivo where they have been reported to form 5-protofilaments tubes named bacterial microtubules (bMTs). The btubAB genes likely entered the Prosthecobacter lineage via horizontal gene transfer and may derive from an early ancestor of the modern eukaryotic microtubule (MT)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703295/expanding-career-pathways-in-conservation-science
#2
Erika Zavaleta, Clare Aslan, Wendy Palen, Tom Sisk, Maureen E Ryan, Brett Dickson
Since its inception, conservation biology has inspired thousands of students, spurred the creation of new initiatives, organizations and agencies, and informed conservation efforts worldwide. Nevertheless, global biodiversity loss is accelerating (Butchart et al. 2010), and our field needs to change to keep pace with mounting challenges. Conservation would benefit if scientists more enthusiastically pushed the institutional boundaries of our field through their efforts to expand their own and others' career options and professional opportunities...
July 13, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701473/zbtb7a-induction-in-alveolar-macrophages-is-implicated-in-anti-hla-mediated-lung-allograft-rejection
#3
Deepak K Nayak, Fangyu Zhou, Min Xu, Jing Huang, Moriya Tsuji, Jinsheng Yu, Ramsey Hachem, Andrew E Gelman, Ross M Bremner, Michael A Smith, Thalachallour Mohanakumar
Chronic rejection significantly limits long-term success of solid organ transplantation. De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen after human lung transplantation predispose lung grafts to chronic rejection. We sought to delineate mediators and mechanisms of DSA pathogenesis and to define early inflammatory events that trigger chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients and obliterative airway disease, a correlate of human chronic rejection, in mouse. Induction of transcription factor zinc finger and BTB domain containing protein 7a (Zbtb7a) was an early response critical in the DSA-induced chronic rejection...
July 12, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696313/behavioral-self-organization-underlies-the-resilience-of-a-coastal-ecosystem
#4
Hélène de Paoli, Tjisse van der Heide, Aniek van den Berg, Brian R Silliman, Peter M J Herman, Johan van de Koppel
Self-organized spatial patterns occur in many terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Theoretical models and observational studies suggest self-organization, the formation of patterns due to ecological interactions, is critical for enhanced ecosystem resilience. However, experimental tests of this cross-ecosystem theory are lacking. In this study, we experimentally test the hypothesis that self-organized pattern formation improves the persistence of mussel beds (Mytilus edulis) on intertidal flats. In natural beds, mussels generate self-organized patterns at two different spatial scales: regularly spaced clusters of mussels at centimeter scale driven by behavioral aggregation and large-scale, regularly spaced bands at meter scale driven by ecological feedback mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691083/sub-100-nm-metafluorophores-with-digitally-tunable-optical-properties-self-assembled-from-dna
#5
Johannes B Woehrstein, Maximilian T Strauss, Luvena L Ong, Bryan Wei, David Y Zhang, Ralf Jungmann, Peng Yin
Fluorescence microscopy allows specific target detection down to the level of single molecules and has become an enabling tool in biological research. To transduce the biological information to an imageable signal, we have developed a variety of fluorescent probes, such as organic dyes or fluorescent proteins with different colors. Despite their success, a limitation on constructing small fluorescent probes is the lack of a general framework to achieve precise and programmable control of critical optical properties, such as color and brightness...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691027/hand-hygiene-practices-and-microbial-investigation-of-hand-contact-swab-among-physiotherapists-in-an-ebola-endemic-region-implications-for-public-health
#6
S Ibeneme, V Maduako, G C Ibeneme, A Ezuma, T U Ettu, N F Onyemelukwe, D Limaye, G Fortwengel
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene practices (HHP), as a critical component of infection prevention/control, were investigated among physiotherapists in an Ebola endemic region. METHOD: A standardized instrument was administered to 44 randomly selected physiotherapists (23 males and 21 females), from three tertiary hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria. Fifteen participants (aged 22-59 years) participated in focus group discussions (FGDs) and comprised 19 participants in a subsequent laboratory study...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689040/unsupervised-learning-techniques-reveal-heterogeneity-in-memory-cd8-t-cell-differentiation-following-acute-chronic-and-latent-viral-infections
#7
Mingyong Liu, Erik S Barton, Ryan N Jennings, Darby G Oldenburg, Juliann M Whirry, Douglas W White, Jason M Grayson
CD8(+) T lymphocytes are critical for the control of gammaherpesvirus latency. To determine how memory CD8(+) T cells generated during latency differ from those primed during acute or chronic viral infection, we adoptively transferred naive P14 CD8(+) T cells into uninfected recipients, and examined surface proteins, cytokines and transcription factors following infection with the Armstrong (acute) or Clone 13 (chronic) strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), or murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) expressing the LCMV epitope D(b)GP33-41...
July 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686678/self-reported-hiv-positive-status-but-subsequent-hiv-negative-test-result-using-rapid-diagnostic-testing-algorithms-among-seven-sub-saharan-african-military-populations
#8
Judith Harbertson, Braden R Hale, Bonnie R Tran, Anne G Thomas, Michael P Grillo, Marni B Jacobs, Jennifer McAnany, Richard A Shaffer
HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681859/building-membrane-nanopores
#9
REVIEW
Stefan Howorka
Membrane nanopores-hollow nanoscale barrels that puncture biological or synthetic membranes-have become powerful tools in chemical- and biosensing, and have achieved notable success in portable DNA sequencing. The pores can be self-assembled from a variety of materials, including proteins, peptides, synthetic organic compounds and, more recently, DNA. But which building material is best for which application, and what is the relationship between pore structure and function? In this Review, I critically compare the characteristics of the different building materials, and explore the influence of the building material on pore structure, dynamics and function...
July 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681151/three-dimensional-spatiotemporal-modeling-of-colon-cancer-organoids-reveals-that-multimodal-control-of-stem-cell-self-renewal-is-a-critical-determinant-of-size-and-shape-in-early-stages-of-tumor-growth
#10
Huaming Yan, Anna Konstorum, John S Lowengrub
We develop a three-dimensional multispecies mathematical model to simulate the growth of colon cancer organoids containing stem, progenitor and terminally differentiated cells, as a model of early (prevascular) tumor growth. Stem cells (SCs) secrete short-range self-renewal promoters (e.g., Wnt) and their long-range inhibitors (e.g., Dkk) and proliferate slowly. Committed progenitor (CP) cells proliferate more rapidly and differentiate to produce post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells that release differentiation promoters, forming negative feedback loops on SC and CP self-renewal...
July 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680395/a-biologically-plausible-architecture-of-the-striatum-to-solve-context-dependent-reinforcement-learning-tasks
#11
Sabyasachi Shivkumar, Vignesh Muralidharan, V Srinivasa Chakravarthy
Basal ganglia circuit is an important subcortical system of the brain thought to be responsible for reward-based learning. Striatum, the largest nucleus of the basal ganglia, serves as an input port that maps cortical information. Microanatomical studies show that the striatum is a mosaic of specialized input-output structures called striosomes and regions of the surrounding matrix called the matrisomes. We have developed a computational model of the striatum using layered self-organizing maps to capture the center-surround structure seen experimentally and explain its functional significance...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674811/a-phenotype-based-rnai-screening-for-ras-erk-mapk-signaling-associated-stem-cell-regulators-in-c-elegans
#12
Myon-Hee Lee, Dong Suk Yoon
Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to generate differentiated cell types. A regulatory network that controls this balance is critical for stem cell homeostasis and normal animal development. Particularly, Ras-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway is critical for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in mammals, including humans. Aberrant regulation of Ras-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway results in either stem cell or overproliferation. Therefore, the identification of Ras-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway-associated regulators is critical to understand the mechanism of stem cell (possibly cancer stem cell) control...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672276/biological-stress-reactivity-as-an-index-of-the-two-polarities-of-the-experience-model
#13
Jaime R Silva, Anastassia Vivanco-Carlevari, Mauricio Barrientos, Claudio Martínez, Luis A Salazar, Mariane Krause
The two-polarities model of personality argues that experience is organized around two axes: interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. Differential emphasis on one of these poles defines adaptive and pathological experiences, generating anaclitic or introjective tendencies. The anaclitic pattern, on one hand, has been conceptually related with an exaggerated emphasis on interpersonal relatedness. On the other hand, the introjective pattern has been connected to high levels of self-criticism. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychophysiological basis for this relationship...
June 24, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672111/analyzing-spin-selectivity-in-dna-mediated-charge-transfer-via-fluorescence-microscopy
#14
John M Abendroth, Nako Nakatsuka, Matthew Ye, Dokyun Kim, Eric E Fullerton, Anne M Andrews, Paul S Weiss
Understanding spin-selective interactions between electrons and chiral molecules is critical to elucidating the significance of electron spin in biological processes and to assessing the potential of chiral assemblies for organic spintronics applications. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy to visualize the effects of spin-dependent charge transport in self-assembled monolayers of double-stranded DNA on ferromagnetic substrates. Patterned DNA arrays provide background regions for every measurement to enable quantification of substrate magnetization-dependent fluorescence due to the chiral-induced spin selectivity effect...
July 3, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665581/pathways-to-structure-property-relationships-of-peptide-materials-interfaces-challenges-in-predicting-molecular-structures
#15
Tiffany R Walsh
An in-depth appreciation of how to manipulate the molecular-level recognition between peptides and aqueous materials interfaces, including nanoparticles, will advance technologies based on self-organized metamaterials for photonics and plasmonics, biosensing, catalysis, energy generation and harvesting, and nanomedicine. Exploitation of the materials-selective binding of biomolecules is pivotal to success in these areas and may be particularly key to producing new hierarchically structured biobased materials...
June 30, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663132/developmental-neurogenesis-in-mouse-and-xenopus-is-impaired-in-the-absence-of-nosip
#16
Meike Hoffmeister, Julia Krieg, Alexander Ehrke, Franziska A Seigfried, Lisa Wischmann, Petra Dietmann, Susanne J Kühl, Stefanie Oess
BACKGROUND: Genetic deletion of Nosip in mice causes holoprosencephaly, however, the function of Nosip in neurogenesis is currently unknown. RESULTS: We combined two vertebrate model organisms, the mouse and the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, to study the function of Nosip in neurogenesis. We found, that size and cortical thickness of the developing brain of Nosip knockout mice were reduced. Accordingly, the formation of postmitotic neurons was greatly diminished, concomitant with a reduced number of apical and basal neural progenitor cells in vivo...
June 27, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661039/rho-kinase-inhibitor-y-27632-facilitates-the-proliferation-migration-and-pluripotency-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#17
Ting Wang, Wenyan Kang, Lingqian Du, Shaohua Ge
The selective in vitro expansion and differentiation of multipotent stem cells are critical steps in cell-based regenerative therapies, while technical challenges have limited cell yield and thus affected the success of these potential treatments. The Rho GTPases and downstream Rho kinases are central regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics during cell cycle and determine the balance between stem cells self-renewal, lineage commitment and apoptosis. Trans-4-[(1R)-aminoethyl]-N-(4-pyridinyl)cylohexanecarboxamidedihydrochloride (Y-27632), Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, involves various cellular functions that include actin cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion, cell motility and anti-apoptosis...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659581/the-emergence-and-transient-behaviour-of-collective-motion-in-active-filament-systems
#18
Ryo Suzuki, Andreas R Bausch
Most living systems, ranging from animal flocks, self-motile microorganisms to the cytoskeleton rely on self-organization processes to perform their own specific function. Despite its importance, the general understanding of how individual active constituents initiate the intriguing pattern formation phenomena on all these different length scales still remains elusive. Here, using a high density actomyosin motility assay system, we show that the observed collective motion arises from a seeding process driven by enhanced acute angle collisions...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657500/-a-very-steep-climb-therapists-perspectives-on-barriers-to-disclosure-of-child-sexual-abuse-experiences-for-men
#19
Elizabeth Gruenfeld, Danny G Willis, Scott D Easton
Recent studies indicate that men experience unique barriers to disclosure of child sexual abuse. Blind spots held by mental health providers and social service agencies may inadvertently help produce and sustain these barriers. However, therapists who specialize in treating this population may also hold important insights into the barriers clients face. Because delayed and nondisclosure of child sexual abuse have been associated with negative mental health outcomes for adult survivors, understanding these barriers is critical to improve clinical practice and facilitate help-seeking...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657204/self-assembled-dendritic-pt-nanostructure-with-high-index-facets-as-highly-active-and-durable-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction
#20
Youngjin Jang, Kwang-Hyun Choi, Dong Young Chung, Ji Eun Lee, Namgee Jung, Yung-Eun Sung
The durability issues of Pt catalyst should be resolved for the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Nanocrystal structures with high-index facets have been recently explored to solve the critical durability problem of fuel cell catalysts as Pt catalysts with high-index facets can preserve the ordered surfaces without change of the original structures. However, it is very difficult to develop effective and practical synthetic methods for Pt-based nanostructures with high-index facets. The current study describes a simple one-pot synthesis of self-assembled dendritic Pt nanostructures with electrochemically active and stable high-index facets...
June 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
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