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Self-Organized Criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333497/not-all-nonnormal-distributions-are-created-equal-improved-theoretical-and-measurement-precision
#1
Harry Joo, Herman Aguinis, Kyle J Bradley
We offer a four-category taxonomy of individual output distributions (i.e., distributions of cumulative results): (1) pure power law; (2) lognormal; (3) exponential tail (including exponential and power law with an exponential cutoff); and (4) symmetric or potentially symmetric (including normal, Poisson, and Weibull). The four categories are uniquely associated with mutually exclusive generative mechanisms: self-organized criticality, proportionate differentiation, incremental differentiation, and homogenization...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330829/does-telehealth-monitoring-identify-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-reduce-hospitalisations-an-analysis-of-system-data
#2
Melissa Kargiannakis, Deborah A Fitzsimmons, Claire L Bentley, Gail A Mountain
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence and associated cost of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unsustainable. Health care organizations are focusing on ways to support self-management and prevent hospital admissions, including telehealth-monitoring services capturing physiological and health status data. This paper reports on data captured during a pilot randomized controlled trial of telehealth-supported care within a community-based service for patients discharged from hospital following an exacerbation of their COPD...
March 22, 2017: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302101/preventing-diabetes-in-obese-latino-youth-with-prediabetes-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Erica G Soltero, Yolanda P Konopken, Micah L Olson, Colleen S Keller, Felipe G Castro, Allison N Williams, Donald L Patrick, Stephanie Ayers, Houchun H Hu, Matthew Sandoval, Janiel Pimentel, William C Knowler, Kevin D Frick, Gabriel Q Shaibi
BACKGROUND: Obese Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and represents a critical opportunity for intervention. However, to date, no diabetes prevention studies have been conducted in obese Latino youth with prediabetes, a highly vulnerable and underserved group. Therefore, we propose a randomized-controlled trial to test the short-term (6-month) and long-term (12-month) efficacy of a culturally-grounded, lifestyle intervention, as compared to usual care, for improving glucose tolerance and reducing diabetes risk in 120 obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297949/criticality-and-turbulence-in-a-resistive-magnetohydrodynamic-current-sheet
#4
Alexander J Klimas, Vadim M Uritsky
Scaling properties of a two-dimensional (2d) plasma physical current-sheet simulation model involving a full set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with current-dependent resistivity are investigated. The current sheet supports a spatial magnetic field reversal that is forced through loading of magnetic flux containing plasma at boundaries of the simulation domain. A balance is reached between loading and annihilation of the magnetic flux through reconnection at the current sheet; the transport of magnetic flux from boundaries to current sheet is realized in the form of spatiotemporal avalanches exhibiting power-law statistics of lifetimes and sizes...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286106/regulatory-immune-cells-and-functions-in-autoimmunity-and-transplantation-immunology
#5
REVIEW
Gabor Papp, Peter Boros, Britt Nakken, Peter Szodoray, Margit Zeher
In physiological circumstances, various tolerogenic mechanisms support the protection of self-structures during immune responses. However, quantitative and/or qualitative changes in regulatory immune cells and mediators can evoke auto-reactive immune responses, and upon susceptible genetic background, along with the presence of other concomitant etiological factors, autoimmune disease may develop. In transplant immunology, tolerogenic mechanisms are also critical, since the balance between of alloantigen-reactive effector cells and the regulatory immune cells will ultimately determine whether a graft is accepted or rejected...
March 7, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285908/are-cdi-systems-multicolored-facultative-helping-greenbeards
#6
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Danka, Erin C Garcia, Peggy A Cotter
Competitive and cooperative interactions between organisms, including bacteria, can significantly impact the composition of a community and the fitness of its members, as well as the fitness of their hosts when communities are living on or within other organisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical to the development of strategies to control microbiological communities that impact animal and plant health and also for understanding the evolution of social behaviors, which has been challenging for evolutionary biologists...
March 9, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277967/plant-electrome-can-be-pushed-toward-a-self-organized-critical-state-by-external-cues-evidences-from-a-study-with-soybean-seedlings-subject-to-different-environmental-conditions
#7
Gustavo M Souza, Arlan S Ferreira, Gustavo F R Saraiva, Gabriel R A Toledo
In the present study, we have investigated how the low-voltage electrical signals of soybean seedlings change their temporal dynamic under different environmental conditions (cold, low light, and low osmotic potential). We have used electrophytografic technique (EPG) with sub-dermal electrodes inserted in 15-days-old seedlings located between root and shoot, accounting for a significant part of the individual seedlings. Herein, to work on a specific framework to settle this type of the study, we are adopting the term "electrome" as a reference to the totality of electrical activity measured...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272773/comparative-rna-seq-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-distinct-metabolic-pathways-in-diabetic-nerve-and-kidney-disease
#8
Lucy M Hinder, Meeyoung Park, Amy E Rumora, Junguk Hur, Felix Eichinger, Subramaniam Pennathur, Matthias Kretzler, Frank C Brosius, Eva L Feldman
Treating insulin resistance with pioglitazone normalizes renal function and improves small nerve fibre function and architecture; however, it does not affect large myelinated nerve fibre function in mouse models of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), indicating that pioglitazone affects the body in a tissue-specific manner. To identify distinct molecular pathways regulating diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and nephropathy (DN), as well those affected by pioglitazone, we assessed DPN and DN gene transcript expression in control and diabetic mice with or without pioglitazone treatment...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262668/rapid-self-assembly-of-complex-biomolecular-architectures-during-mussel-byssus-biofabrication
#9
Tobias Priemel, Elena Degtyar, Mason N Dean, Matthew J Harrington
Protein-based biogenic materials provide important inspiration for the development of high-performance polymers. The fibrous mussel byssus, for instance, exhibits exceptional wet adhesion, abrasion resistance, toughness and self-healing capacity-properties that arise from an intricate hierarchical organization formed in minutes from a fluid secretion of over 10 different protein precursors. However, a poor understanding of this dynamic biofabrication process has hindered effective translation of byssus design principles into synthetic materials...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256226/kinetics-of-surface-driven-self-assembly-and-fatigue-induced-disassembly-of-a-virus-based-nanocoating
#10
Alejandro Valbuena, Mauricio G Mateu
Self-assembling protein layers provide a "bottom-up" approach for precisely organizing functional elements at the nanoscale over a large solid surface area. The design of protein sheets with architecture and physical properties suitable for nanotechnological applications may be greatly facilitated by a thorough understanding of the principles that underlie their self-assembly and disassembly. In a previous study, the hexagonal lattice formed by the capsid protein (CA) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was self-assembled as a monomolecular layer directly onto a solid substrate, and its mechanical properties and dynamics at equilibrium were analyzed by atomic force microscopy...
February 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244140/student-peer-teaching-in-paediatric-simulation-training-is-a-feasible-low-cost-alternative-for-education
#11
Michael Wagner, Lukas P Mileder, Katharina Goeral, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Francesco S Cardona, Angelika Berger, Georg M Schmölzer, Monika Olischar
AIM: The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. METHODS: Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were video recorded for evaluation...
February 28, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242704/tolerance-to-structural-disorder-and-tunable-mechanical-behavior-in-self-assembled-superlattices-of-polymer-grafted-nanocrystals
#12
X Wendy Gu, Xingchen Ye, David M Koshy, Shraddha Vachhani, Peter Hosemann, A Paul Alivisatos
Large, freestanding membranes with remarkably high elastic modulus (>10 GPa) have been fabricated through the self-assembly of ligand-stabilized inorganic nanocrystals, even though these nanocrystals are connected only by soft organic ligands (e.g., dodecanethiol or DNA) that are not cross-linked or entangled. Recent developments in the synthesis of polymer-grafted nanocrystals have greatly expanded the library of accessible superlattice architectures, which allows superlattice mechanical behavior to be linked to specific structural features...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237114/monitoring-autophagic-responses-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
M E Papandreou, N Tavernarakis
Autophagy, from the Greek auto (self) and phagy (eating), is a self-degradative process critical for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Its rapidly responsive, highly dynamic nature renders this process essential for adapting to and offsetting acute/harsh conditions such as starvation, organelle dysfunction, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. Autophagy involves an intricate network of interacting factors with multiple levels of control. Importantly, dysregulation of autophagy has been linked to numerous debilitating pathologies, including cancer and neurodegenerative conditions in humans...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211708/direct-observation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-short-electron-bunches-in-storage-rings
#14
C Evain, E Roussel, M Le Parquier, C Szwaj, M-A Tordeux, J-B Brubach, L Manceron, P Roy, S Bielawski
In recent synchrotron radiation facilities, the use of short (picosecond) electron bunches is a powerful method for producing giant pulses of terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation. Here we report on the first direct observation of these pulse shapes with a few picoseconds resolution, and of their dynamics over a long time. We thus confirm in a very direct way the theories predicting an interplay between two physical processes. Below a critical bunch charge, we observe a train of identical THz pulses (a broadband Terahertz comb) stemming from the shortness of the electron bunches...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208370/emergent-pattern-formation-in-an-interstitial-biofilm
#15
Cameron Zachreson, Christian Wolff, Cynthia B Whitchurch, Milos Toth
Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191928/self-assembling-multidomain-peptide-nanofibers-for-delivery-of-bioactive-molecules-and-tissue-regeneration
#16
Amanda N Moore, Jeffrey D Hartgerink
Multidomain peptides (MDPs) are a class of self-assembling peptides that are organized in a β-sheet motif, resulting in a nanofibrous architecture. This structure is stabilized by hydrophobic packing in the fiber core and a hydrogen-bonding network down the fiber long axis. Under easily controllable conditions, regulated by electrostatic interactions between the peptides and the pH and salt composition of the solvent, the nanofiber length can be dramatically extended, resulting in fiber entanglement and hydrogel formation...
February 13, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191853/hyperplectonemes-a-higher-order-compact-and-dynamic-dna-self-organization
#17
Aleksandre Japaridze, Georgi Muskhelishvili, Fabrizio Benedetti, Agni F M Gavriilidou, Renato Zenobi, Paolo De Los Rios, Giovanni Longo, Giovanni Dietler
Bacterial chromosome has a compact structure that dynamically changes its shape in response to bacterial growth rate and growth phase. Determining how chromatin remains accessible to DNA binding proteins, and transcription machinery is crucial to understand the link between genetic regulation, DNA structure, and topology. Here, we study very large supercoiled dsDNA using high-resolution characterization, theoretical modeling, and molecular dynamics calculations. We unveil a new type of highly ordered DNA organization forming in the presence of attractive DNA-DNA interactions, which we call hyperplectonemes...
March 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186822/one-dimensional-self-organization-and-nonequilibrium-phase-transition-in-a-hamiltonian-system
#18
Jiao Wang, Giulio Casati
Self-organization and nonequilibrium phase transitions are well known to occur in two- and three-dimensional dissipative systems. Here, instead, we provide numerical evidence that these phenomena also occur in a one-dimensional Hamiltonian system. To this end, we calculate the heat conductivity by coupling the two ends of our system to two heat baths at different temperatures. It is found that when the temperature difference is smaller than a critical value, the heat conductivity increases with the system size in power law with an exponent considerably smaller than 1...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185975/effect-of-geopolitical-forces-on-neurosurgical-training-in-sub-saharan-africa
#19
Kara E Dempsey, Mahmood M Qureshi, Solomon M Ondoma, Robert J Dempsey
BACKGROUND: The population of Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from a critical shortage and maldistribution of healthcare professionals, especially highlighted in surgical subspecialties such as neurosurgery. In light of the Lancet Report and the World Health Organization's directive to provide essential surgical care through the developing world, solutions need to be found to close this training and distribution gap. METHODS: Methods correcting the situation will only succeed if one understands the geopolitical forces which have shaped the distribution of healthcare in the region and continue to this day...
February 6, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179656/inflammation-metaflammation-and-immunometabolic-disorders
#20
Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Proper regulation and management of energy, substrate diversity and quantity, as well as macromolecular synthesis and breakdown processes, are fundamental to cellular and organismal survival and are paramount to health. Cellular and multicellular organization are defended by the immune response, a robust and critical system through which self is distinguished from non-self, pathogenic signals are recognized and eliminated, and tissue homeostasis is safeguarded. Many layers of evolutionarily conserved interactions occur between immune response and metabolism...
February 8, 2017: Nature
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