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Autoimmune neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333935/association-between-human-papilloma-virus-hpv-vaccination-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#1
Angela Meggiolaro, Giuseppe Migliara, Giuseppe La Torre
INTRODUCTION: The vaccination against Humanpapilloma Virus (HPV) is an effective strategy to prevent high-risk HPV infection and subsequent cervical carcinogenesis. Although the safety profile has been ascertained, the relation with the development of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders (AD) appears still controversial. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people, typically striking females. The main purpose of this review was to assess the association between HPV vaccination and MS...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332416/-autoimmune-encephalitis-possibilities-in-the-laboratory-investigation
#2
Katalin Böröcz, Zsófia Hayden, Viktória Mészáros, Zsuzsanna Csizmadia, Kornélia Farkas, Zoltán Kellermayer, Péter Balogh, Ferenc Nagy, Tímea Berki
INTRODUCTION: The role of autoimmune responses against central nervous system (CNS) antigens in encephalitis presenting with non-classified neurologic or psychiatric symptoms has been appreciated in the past decade. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis has a poor prognosis and is most commonly associated with lung, ovarium, and testicular neoplasms, leading to immune reactions against intracellular antigens (anti-Hu/ANNA1, anti-Ri/ANNA2, anti-CV2/CRMP5 and anti-Ma2/Ta). In contrast, the recently described autoimmune encephalitis subtypes present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, respond to autoimmune therapies well and usually associate with autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface receptors (NMDAR, GABABR, AMPAR) or synaptic proteins (LGI1, CASPR2)...
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329729/elevated-neuron-specific-enolase-and-s100-calcium-binding-protein-b-concentrations-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#3
Baozhu Liu, Zuoshan Xie, Guanghui Liu, Yong Gu, Suyue Pan, Honghao Wang
BACKGROUND: Anti‑N‑methyl‑d‑aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune neurological disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) are structural proteins of the central nervous system (CNS). In patients with CNS injury accompanied by nervous tissue and cellular damage, these structural proteins are released from cells; their extracellular concentrations, including those in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, subsequently increase...
January 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327271/-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes-a-current-summary
#4
REVIEW
D De Simoni, R Höftberger
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNNS) are remote effects of a tumor and mediated by an altered immune reaction. In the last ten years, the spectrum of PNNS has changed profoundly with the discovery of a new category of neurological diseases that are associated with antibodies against surface or synaptic antigens. In contrast to classical PNNS, patients with surface receptor autoimmunity are often highly responsive to immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an update on the most relevant PNNS, focusing on specific syndromes associated with antibodies against classical onconeuronal antigens as well as surface and synaptic proteins...
January 11, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325110/impact-of-genetic-risk-loci-for-multiple-sclerosis-on-expression-of-proximal-genes-in-patients
#5
Tojo James, Magdalena Lindén, Hiromasa Morikawa, Sunjay Jude Fernandes, Sabrina Ruhrmann, Mikael Huss, Maya Brandi, Fredrik Piehl, Maja Jagodic, Jesper Tegnér, Mohsen Khademi, Tomas Olsson, David Gomez-Cabrero, Ingrid Kockum
Despite advancements in genetic studies, it is difficult to understand and characterize the functional relevance of disease-associated genetic variants, especially in the context of a complex multifactorial disease such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Since a large proportion of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are context-specific, we performed RNA-Seq in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients (n = 145) to identify eQTLs in regions centered on 109 MS risk SNPs and seven associated HLA variants...
January 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321229/the-national-incidence-of-pml-in-sweden-1988-2013
#6
Ellen Iacobaeus, Sarah Burkill, Shahram Bahmanyar, Ramil Hakim, Camilla Byström, Michael Fored, Tomas Olsson, Lou Brundin, Scott Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and patient characteristics in Sweden between 1988 and 2013. METHODS: All PML diagnoses in Sweden between 1988 and 2013 were identified in the National Patient Register. Information to validate the diagnosis and patient characteristics was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Medical record review classified 108 out of 250 patients (43%) as definite (n = 84), probable (n = 4), or possible (n = 20) PML according to diagnostic criteria...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315107/multiple-sclerosis-and-exercise-a-literature-review
#7
Eric R Reynolds, Andrew D Ashbaugh, Brandon J Hockenberry, Christopher A McGrew
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disabling neurological conditions of young adults and affects more than 2.3 million people worldwide. Given the high likelihood for disability and decreased neurological function, there have been concerns about the role of exercise in MS patients with a fear of increased injury. This article looks at recent articles evaluating the role of exercise in MS and can hopefully be used by patients, caregivers, and health care providers to guide decision making about the role of exercise in patients with MS...
January 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313588/paraneoplastic-inverse-myasthenic-syndrome-as-a-presentation-of-bronchogenic-carcinoma
#8
G S Chowdhary, Malav Jhala
Tumours may produce growth factors and cytokines responsible for signs and symptoms distant to the primary or metastatic site. This may be the first sign of a malignancy and its recognition may be critical for early cancer detection. Moreover, proper diagnosis spares the patient of extensive and expensive search for an alternate cause of the neurological dysfunction. In neurological paraneoplastic syndromes like Lambert Eaton Myasthenic syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer, evidence of autoimmunity against presynaptic neuro-muscular junction by anti voltage gated calcium channel anti bodies is well documented...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310866/initial-clinical-presentation-of-young-children-with-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#9
Marion Favier, Bastien Joubert, Géraldine Picard, Véronique Rogemond, Laure Thomas, Sylvain Rheims, Marion Bailhache, Frédéric Villega, Jean-Michel Pédespan, Giulia Berzero, Dimitri Psimaras, Jean-Christophe Antoine, Virginie Desestret, Jérôme Honnorat
Autoimmune encephalitis with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor autoantibodies (NMDA-R-Abs) is a recently described disease affecting adult and pediatric patients. Symptoms of the disease are now perfectly described in the adult population but the clinical presentation is less known in young children. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical presentation and the specificities of symptoms presented by young children with NMDA-R-Abs encephalitis to improve diagnosis of this disease, and to compare these to a series of previously published female adult patients...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309416/long-term-safety-of-rituximab-induced-peripheral-b-cell-depletion-in-autoimmune-neurological-diseases
#10
Anza B Memon, Adil Javed, Christina Caon, Shitiz Srivastawa, Fen Bao, Evanthia Bernitsas, Jessica Chorostecki, Alexandros Tselis, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Omar Khan
BACKGROUND: B-cells play a pivotal role in several autoimmune diseases, including patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders (PIMND), such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO), multiple sclerosis (MS), and myasthenia gravis (MG). Targeting B-cells has been an effective approach in ameliorating both central and peripheral autoimmune diseases. However, there is a paucity of literature on the safety of continuous B-cell depletion over a long period of time. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the long-term safety, incidence of infections, and malignancies in subjects receiving continuous therapy with a B-cell depleting agent rituximab over at least 3 years or longer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304089/autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases-increase-dementia-risk-in-middle-aged-patients-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Tzu-Min Lin, Wei-Sheng Chen, Jau-Jiuan Sheu, Yi-Hsuan Chen, Jin-Hua Chen, Chi-Ching Chang
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is a common neurological disease that substantially affects public health. A previous study revealed that dementia occurs when the body's immune system attacks the cells of the brain, indicating that dementia may be similar to autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). In the current retrospective cohort study, we focused on middle-aged ARD patients (45 years or older) to investigate the association between ARDs in middle-aged people and dementia by using a nationwide population-based database in Taiwan...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303953/voltage-gated-potassium-channel-antibody-autoimmune-encephalopathy-presenting-with-isolated-psychosis-in-an-adolescent
#12
David A Kahn
Antibody-mediated encephalopathies associated with serum or cerebrospinal fluid antibodies directed against neuronal structures may present with a multitude of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Although some of the antibody-driven conditions are now well recognized in adults (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis), the spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations in the pediatric population is less clear. Psychosis, confusion, catatonia, and additional behavioral changes, along with seizures, encephalopathy, and movement disorders, may be initial manifestations or concurrent features in all age groups...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303952/voltage-gated-potassium-channel-antibody-autoimmune-encephalopathy-presenting-with-isolated-psychosis-in-an-adolescent
#13
Natalie C Pon, Kimberly M Houck, Eyal Muscal, Sindhu A Idicula
Antibody-mediated encephalopathies associated with serum or cerebrospinal fluid antibodies directed against neuronal structures may present with a multitude of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Although some of the antibody-driven conditions are now well recognized in adults (eg, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis), the spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations in the pediatric population is less clear. Psychosis, confusion, catatonia, and additional behavioral changes, along with seizures, encephalopathy, and movement disorders, may be initial manifestations or concurrent features in all age groups...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297541/miller-fisher-syndrome-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#14
Mustafa Aldag, Sebnem Albeyoglu, Ufuk Ciloglu, Hakan Kutlu, Levent Ceylan
Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is an uncommon neurological disorder that is considered a variant of the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). It is clinically defined by a triad of symptoms, namely ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. These acute inflammatory polyradiculopathic syndromes can be triggered by viral infections, major surgery, pregnancy or vaccination. While the overall incidence of GBS is 1.2-2.3 per 100 000 per year, MFS is a relatively rare disorder. Only six cases of GBS after cardiac surgery have been reported, and to our knowledge, we describe the first case of MFS after coronary artery bypass surgery...
November 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288630/a-review-of-women-s-neurology
#15
REVIEW
M Angela O'Neal
The concern about what is best practice when caring for women with neurologic disease is a common clinical scenario. Therefore, knowledge about women's health issues and their intersection with neurologic disorders is imperative. This review will discuss the appropriate gender based considerations in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, autoimmune disease, sleep, stroke and paraneoplastic disorders.
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288202/gm-csf-promotes-chronic-disability-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-altering-the-composition-of-central-nervous-system-infiltrating-cells-but-is-dispensable-for-disease-induction
#16
Patrick C Duncker, Joshua S Stoolman, Amanda K Huber, Benjamin M Segal
GM-CSF has been portrayed as a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, ostensibly, in multiple sclerosis. C57BL/6 mice deficient in GM-CSF are resistant to EAE induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 The mechanism of action of GM-CSF in EAE is poorly understood. In this study, we show that GM-CSF augments the accumulation of MOG35-55-specific T cells in the skin draining lymph nodes of primed mice, but it is not required for the development of encephalitogenic T cells...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282342/-motor-symptoms-of-autoimmune-encephalopathies
#17
Yuichi Tashiro, Hiroshi Takashima
Autoimmune encephalopathies are clinically and immunologically heterogeneous disorders. At least 20 types of autoimmune encephalopathies have been discovered, with the most common type being Hashimoto encephalopathy. In clinical situations, we often observe that patients with autoimmune encephalopathy are misdiagnosed because they exhibit signs similar to those observed in functional psychogenic movement, conversion, or somatoform disorders. We clinically examined over 100 patients with autoimmune encephalopathy...
December 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279367/cell-specific-and-region-specific-transcriptomics-in-the-multiple-sclerosis-model-focus-on-astrocytes
#18
Noriko Itoh, Yuichiro Itoh, Alessia Tassoni, Emily Ren, Max Kaito, Ai Ohno, Yan Ao, Vista Farkhondeh, Hadley Johnsonbaugh, Josh Burda, Michael V Sofroniew, Rhonda R Voskuhl
Changes in gene expression that occur across the central nervous system (CNS) during neurological diseases do not address the heterogeneity of cell types from one CNS region to another and are complicated by alterations in cellular composition during disease. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is multifocal by definition. Here, a cell-specific and region-specific transcriptomics approach was used to determine gene expression changes in astrocytes in the most widely used MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274753/multiple-sclerosis-re-examined-essential-and-emerging-clinical-concepts
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan Zurawski, James Stankiewicz
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by exacerbations of neurological dysfunction due to inflammatory demyelination. Neurologic symptoms typically present in young adulthood and vary based on the site of inflammation, though weakness, sensory impairment, brainstem dysfunction and vision loss are common. MS occurs more frequently in women and its development is complex-genetics, hormones, geography, vitamin D, and viral exposure all play roles. Early MS is characterized by relapsing-remitting course and inflammation of the white matter though as patients age, the disease often transitions to a pathologically distinct secondary progressive phase with gradual disability accrual affecting gait, coordination and bladder function...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262438/autoimmune-encephalitis-in-critical-care-optimizing-immunosuppression
#20
Daniel B Rubin, Ayush Batra, Ivana Vodopivec, Henrikas Vaitkevicius
Autoimmune diseases affecting the nervous systems are a common cause of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Although there exist several well-described clinical syndromes, patients more commonly present with progressive neurologic dysfunction and laboratory and radiographic evidence of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. In the critical care setting, the urgency to intervene to prevent permanent damage to the nervous system and secondary injury from the systemic manifestations of these syndromes often conflicts with diagnostic uncertainty...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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