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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144996/new-roles-and-controls-of-mast-cells
#1
REVIEW
Eric Espinosa, Salvatore Valitutti
Mast cells are innate immune cells implicated in immune surveillance and defense. They are filled with secretory granules where a vast array of molecules endowed with multiple biological activities are stored. The process of granule secretion, named degranulation, is a tightly controlled biological phenomenon that allows mast cells to rapidly and efficiently release bioactive mediators in response to extracellular stimuli. MC degranulation allows fighting pathogens, limiting envenomation and contributes to tissue homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142382/capillary-leak-syndrome-following-snakebite-envenomation
#2
REVIEW
V Udayabhaskaran, E T Arun Thomas, Bhagya Shaji
Capillary leak syndrome is a unique complication that follows Russell's viper envenomation. This syndrome has a very high fatality rate and is characterized by parotid swelling, chemosis, periorbital edema, hypotension, albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. This syndrome is frequently recognized from the southern parts of India, especially from the state of Kerala. It has been postulated that a vascular apoptosis inducing component of Russell's viper venom that is not neutralized by the commercially available anti-snake venom (ASV) is responsible for this complication as it occurs even after adequate doses of ASV administration in most cases...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137120/aspidosperma-pyrifolium-has-anti-inflammatory-properties-an-experimental-study-in-mice-with-peritonitis-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-venom-or-carrageenan
#3
Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de Souza Lima, Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt, Allanny Alves Furtado, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Emerson Michell da Silva Siqueira, Ruth Medeiros Oliveira, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha, Keyla Borges Ferreira Rocha, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Silvana Maria Zucolotto, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133072/treatment-of-pediatric-black-widow-spider-envenomation-a-national-poison-center-s-experience
#4
Miguel Glatstein, Gary Carbell, Dennis Scolnik, Ayelet Rimon, Christopher Hoyte
BACKGROUND: Black widow species (Latrodectus species) envenomation can produce a syndrome characterized by painful muscle rigidity and autonomic disturbances. Symptoms tend to be more severe in young children and adults. We describe black widow spider exposures and treatment in the pediatric age group, and investigate reasons for not using antivenom in severe cases. METHODS: All black widow exposures reported to the Rocky Mountain Poison Center between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015, were reviewed...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123914/persistent-pit-viper-envenomation-in-a-cat
#5
Igor Yankin, Michael Schaer, Matthew Johnson, Tessa Meland, Leonel A Londoño
Case summary: A 4-year-old female spayed, indoor/outdoor domestic mediumhair cat presented with multiple bleeding puncture wounds and hemorrhagic shock. The cat was diagnosed with suspected pit viper envenomation based on the location and appearance of the bite wounds, as well as the presence of severe coagulopathy with prolonged activated coagulation time (762 s), which responded to antivenom administration. The clinical course of the cat was unique owing to the prolonged clinical signs of envenomation that appeared as intermittent coagulopathy and hemorrhage over a 2 week period...
July 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113827/toxins-in-neurobiology-new-tools-from-old-molecules
#6
REVIEW
Irina Vetter
Molecules with neurotoxic properties are nearly ubiquitous in nature and are produced by some simple unicellular organisms including algae and bacteria, as well as complex multicellular organisms ranging from plants to invertebrate and vertebrate animals. While the biological roles of many neurotoxins are unknown, and some are simply metabolic waste products, it is perhaps not surprising that most toxins likely provide important survival advantages given the often substantial metabolic production cost to toxic organisms...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112156/effects-of-lonomia-obliqua-venom-on-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-contribution-of-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#7
João Alfredo Moraes, Genilson Rodrigues, Vany Nascimento-Silva, Mariana Renovato-Martins, Markus Berger, Jorge Almeida Guimarães, Christina Barja-Fidalgo
Envenomation caused by human contact with the caterpillar Lonomia is characterized by deleterious effects on coagulation and patency of blood vessels. The cellular effects induced by Lonomia obliqua venom highlights its capacity to activate endothelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory phenotype. Having more knowledge about the mechanisms involved in envenomation may contribute to better treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effects of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE) on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
November 7, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111117/identification-of-b-cell-recognized-linear-epitopes-in-a-snake-venom-serine-proteinase-from-the-central-american-bushmaster-lachesis-stenophrys
#8
M Madrigal, A Alape-Girón, E Barboza-Arguedas, W Aguilar-Ulloa, M Flores-Díaz
Snake venom serine proteinases are toxins that perturb hemostasis acting on proteins from the blood coagulation cascade, the fibrinolytic or the kallikrein-kinin system. Despite the relevance of these enzymes in envenomations by viper bites, the characterization of the antibody response to these toxins at the molecular level has not been previously addressed. In this work surface-located B cell recognized linear epitopes from a Lachesis stenophrys venom serine proteinase (UniProt accession number Q072L7) were predicted using an artificial neuronal network at the ABCpred server, the corresponding peptides were synthesized and their immunoreactivity was analyzed against a panel of experimental and therapeutic antivenoms...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111116/coevolution-takes-the-sting-out-of-it-evolutionary-biology-and-mechanisms-of-toxin-resistance-in-animals
#9
REVIEW
Kevin Arbuckle, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Nicholas R Casewell
Understanding how biotic interactions shape the genomes of the interacting species is a long-sought goal of evolutionary biology that has been hampered by the scarcity of tractable systems in which specific genomic features can be linked to complex phenotypes involved in interspecific interactions. In this review we present the compelling case of evolved resistance to the toxic challenge of venomous or poisonous animals as one such system. Animal venoms and poisons can be comprised of few or of many individual toxins...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108023/health-seeking-behavior-following-snakebites-in-sri-lanka-results-of-an-island-wide-community-based-survey
#10
Dileepa Senajith Ediriweera, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Nipul Kithsiri Gunawardena, Shaluka Francis Jayamanne, David Griffiths Lalloo, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva
INTRODUCTION: Sri Lanka has a population of 21 million and about 80,000 snakebites occur annually. However, there are limited data on health seeking behavior following bites. We investigated the effects of snakebite and envenoming on health seeking behavior in Sri Lanka. METHODS: In a community-based island-wide survey conducted in Sri Lanka 44,136 households were sampled using a multistage cluster sampling method. An individual who reported experiencing a snakebite within the preceding 12 months was considered a case...
November 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107080/genotoxicity-evaluation-induced-by-tityus-serrulatus-scorpion-venom-in-mice
#11
Nathalia Coral Galvani, Thais Ceresér Vilela, Angelino Chitoma Domingos, Mírian Ívens Fagundes, Luiza Macarini Bosa, Indiani Conti Della Vechia, Rahisa Scussel, Márcia Pereira, Bethina Trevisol Steiner, Adriani Paganini Damiani, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, Vanessa Moraes De Andrade, Ricardo Andrez Machado de Ávila
Tityus serrulatus is the scorpion associated with the most severe cases of scorpion envenoming in Brazil. However, there are no studies reporting the genotoxic effects of this venom in natural or experimental envenomations. It is well known that DNA-damage responses are providing opportunities for improving disease detection and management. In this study was evaluating the genotoxicity of the T. serrulatus venom in different organs (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, blood, heart, lung, liver and kidney) and periods in mice experimentally envenomed...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102099/white-lipped-tree-viper-cryptelytrops-albolabris-envenomation-in-an-american-viper-keeper
#12
Spencer Greene, Laura Ann Galdamez, Richard Tomasheski
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are common in many regions of the United States. Bites from exotic species, however, are rare. The white-lipped tree viper, Cryptelytrops (formerly Trimeresurus) albolabris, is a pit viper native to Southeast Asia. Bites are common in countries such as Myanmar, India, Thailand, Indonesia, and China. In this report, we describe an envenomation in an American viper keeper. CASE REPORT: A healthy 28-year-old right-handed man who collects venomous snakes experienced a bite to the distal left thumb from a neonatal C...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102095/resource-utilization-after-snakebite-severity-score-implementation%C3%A2-into-treatment-algorithm-of-crotaline-bite
#13
Amanda L Fowler, Darrel W Hughes, Mark T Muir, Elizabeth M VanWert, Conrado D Gamboa, John G Myers
BACKGROUND: Crotaline envenomation clinical manifestations vary considerably among patients. Current recommendations for treatment with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab require assessment of envenomation control. Determining control of envenomation, particularly when patients are evaluated by different providers in separate clinical settings, can be difficult. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a difference in total vials of Crotalidae antivenin therapy exists between pre-protocol and post-Snakebite Severity Score (SSS) protocol...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095780/a-stinging-suspicion-something-was-just-not-right-methamphetamine-toxicity-in-infant-mimics-scorpion-envenomation
#14
Holly E Pariury, Aimee M Steiniger, Merlin C Lowe
The sting from Centuroides sculpturatus, commonly known as the bark scorpion, is a serious medical problem and can be potentially fatal to young children. Centuroides sculpturatus envenomation can cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, often including autonomic dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, and somatic motor abnormalities. We discuss a 6-month-old male infant who presented with signs and symptoms consistent with bark scorpion envenomation, later found to be secondary to methamphetamine toxicity. Emergency pediatricians should be aware of the strong similarities between scorpion envenomation and methamphetamine toxicity in pediatric patients residing in or having visited the southwestern region of the United States...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082854/acute-myocardial-infarction-associated-with-thrombotic-microangiopathy-following-a-hump-nosed-viper-bite-a-case-report
#15
Nipun Lakshitha de Silva, Lalindra Gooneratne, Eranga Wijewickrama
BACKGROUND: Hump-nosed viper bite is the commonest cause of venomous snakebite in Sri Lanka. Despite initially being considered a moderately venomous snake more recent reports have revealed that it could cause significant systemic envenoming leading to coagulopathy and acute kidney injury. However, myocardial infarction was not reported except for a single case, which occurred immediately after the snakebite. CASE PRESENTATION: A 50-year-old previously healthy Sri Lankan woman had a hump-nosed viper bite with no evidence of systemic envenoming during initial hospital stay...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080763/delineation-of-an-endemic-tick-paralysis-zone-in-southeastern-australia
#16
Zoe Whitfield, Mark Kelman, Michael P Ward
Tick paralysis has a major impact on pet dog and cat populations in southeastern Australia. It results from envenomation by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus ticks, the role of Ixodes cornuatus in the epidemiology of this disease in Australia being unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the geographical distribution of tick paralysis cases in southeastern Australia using data from a national disease surveillance system and to compare characteristics of "endemic" cases with those reported outside this endemic zone ("sporadic" cases)...
November 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079184/scorpion-envenoming-in-morona-santiago-amazonian-ecuador-molecular-phylogenetics-confirms-involvement-of-the-tityus-obscurus-group
#17
Juan P Román, Fernanda García, Doris Medina, Manolo Vásquez, José García, Matthew R Graham, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Pedro P de Oliveira Pardal, Edna A Y Ishikawa, Adolfo Borges
Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported...
October 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076991/single-chain-antibody-fragment-against-venom-from-the-snake-daboia-russelii-formosensis
#18
Chi-Hsin Lee, Yu-Ching Lee, Yueh-Lun Lee, Sy-Jye Leu, Liang-Tzung Lin, Chi-Ching Chen, Jen-Ron Chiang, Pharaoh Fellow Mwale, Bor-Yu Tsai, Ching-Sheng Hung, Yi-Yuan Yang
Russell's vipers containing hemotoxic and neurotoxic venom commonly cause snake envenomation. Horse-derived antivenom is a specific antidote, but its production is expensive and has side effects. Developing a cost-effective and more tolerable therapeutic strategy is favorable. In this study, using glutaraldehyde-attenuated Daboia russelii formosensis (DRF) venom proteins to immunize chickens, polyclonal yolk-immunoglobulin (IgY) antibodies were generated and showed a specific binding affinity. Phage display technology was used to generate two antibody libraries of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) containing 3...
October 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072602/isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-an-acidic-myotoxic-phospholipase-a%C3%A2-from-colombian-bothrops-asper-venom
#19
Silvia Posada Arias, Paola Rey-Suárez, Andrés Pereáñez J, Cristian Acosta, Mauricio Rojas, Lucilene Delazari Dos Santos, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Vitelbina Núñez
Myotoxic phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂) are responsible for many clinical manifestations in envenomation by Bothrops snakes. A new myotoxic acidic Asp49 PLA₂ (BaCol PLA₂) was isolated from Colombian Bothrops asper venom using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). BaCol PLA₂ had a molecular mass of 14,180.69 Da (by mass spectrometry) and an isoelectric point of 4.4. The complete amino acid sequence was obtained by cDNA cloning (GenBank accession No. MF319968) and revealed a mature product of 124 amino acids with Asp at position 49...
October 26, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071226/pharmacological-properties-of-vochysia-haenkeana-vochysiaceae-extract-to-neutralize-the-neuromuscular-blockade-induced-by-bothropstoxin-i-lys49-phospholipase-a2-myotoxin
#20
Carolina Harder, Akila Lara de Oliveira, Andreia Borges Scriboni, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra, Raphael Schezaro-Ramos, Márcio Galdino Dos Santos, Karina Cogo-Müller, Regina Yuri Hashimoto Miura, Rafael Stuani Floriano, Sandro Rostelato-Ferreira, Yoko Oshima-Franco
Purpose: Bothrops snakes are responsible for more than 70 % of snakebites every year in Brazil and their venoms cause severe local and systemic damages. The pharmacological properties of medicinal plants have been widely investigated in order to discover new alternative treatments for different classes of diseases including neglected tropical diseases as envenomation by snakebites. In this work, we have investigated the ability of Vochysia haenkeana stem barks extract (VhE) to neutralize the neuromuscular effects caused by Bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), the major phospholipase A2 (PLA2) myotoxin from B...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
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