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Pathology reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145620/head-and-neck-cancer-in-hong-kong
#1
Wai Tong Ng, Edwin C Y Wong, Victor H F Lee, Jimmy Y W Chan, Anne W M Lee
Head and neck cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Hong Kong. HNC is well-known for its heterogeneity in epidemiology, clinical behavior, clinic-pathological features and patient characteristics. Treatment strategies for this heterogeneous disease vary greatly in different parts of the world, depending on availability of resources, local expertise and experience. Extensive research in head and neck cancer, particularly nasopharyngeal carcinoma, has been conducted in Hong Kong in the past few decades...
November 14, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145346/role-of-delayed-time-point-imaging-during-abdominal-and-pelvic-cancer-screening-using-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-general-population
#2
Shotaro Naganawa, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Koichiro Yasaka, Eriko Maeda, Naoto Hayashi, Osamu Abe
Although delayed-time-point imaging is expected to improve the results of [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), how examinees will benefit from dual-time-point imaging versus initial-time-point imaging alone, remains unclear. This study investigated the role of delayed-time-point imaging in improving the results of abdominal and pelvic cancer screening using FDG-PET/CT.This retrospective review included 3131 screening results (average subject age: 55.5 years, range: 40-88 years)...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145311/pulmonary-hypertension-as-a-manifestation-of-mitochondrial-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Shan Xu, Xiaoling Xu, Jisong Zhang, Kejing Ying, Yuquan Shao, Ruifeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases are a group of multisystem heterogeneous diseases caused by pathologic dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A wide range of clinical expression has been described. However, pulmonary hypertension has rarely been described in association with mitochondrial disease until the past decade, and there is no currently recognized treatment for the pulmonary hypertension complicated with mitochondrial disorder. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with shortness of breath and exercise limitation after a cold, and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was confirmed by right heart catheter...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145295/extrarenal-teratoma-with-nephroblastoma-in-the-retroperitoneum-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Yanan Li, Chuanfen Lei, Bo Xiang, Fuyu Li, Chuan Wang, Qi Wang, Siyuan Chen, Yi Ji
RATIONALE: Teratoma with nephroblastoma is a rare disease. The most common site at which teratoma with nephroblastoma occurs is the kidney. The mechanisms underlying the development of teratoma with nephroblastoma have not been fully elucidated. PATIENT CONCERNS: In the current report, we describe the clinical characteristics of a 3-year-old girl with a complaint of a painless abdominal mass in the upper right side of the body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a cystic-solid mass with a clear boundary...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145240/gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-gist-with-liver-metastases-an-18-year-experience-from-the-gist-cooperation-group-in-north-china
#5
Yi-Nan Shi, Yong Li, Li-Ping Wang, Zhen-Hua Wang, Xiao-Bo Liang, Han Liang, Li Zhang, Bin Li, Li-Qiao Fan, Qun Zhao, Zhi-Xue Ma, Xue-Feng Zhao, Zhi-Dong Zhang, Yu Liu, Bi-Bo Tan, Dong Wang, Li-Li Wang, Ying-Jie Hao, Nan Jia
Approximately 40% to 50% of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients will have recurrence or metastases after resection of the primary lesion, and the most common affected sites will be liver and peritoneum. Imatinib has been considered as the first-line therapy of metastatic GIST. Surgery for metastases is proposed when possible. Furthermore, there are controversies concerning hepatic resection and systemic tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The therapeutic conditions and long-term outcome of GIST patients with liver metastases in northern China remain unknown...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145181/pali-and-echo-phenomena-symptoms-of-persistence-and-perseveration
#6
Eloi Magnin, Elisabeth Medeiros de Bustos, Thierry Moulin
Some neurological or psychiatric positive, productive symptoms are an abnormal persistence of a sensorial feeling or abnormal repetition of a motor, behavioral or cognitive process corresponding to a perseverative symptom. Palinopsia, palinacousis, and related sensorial symptoms have been described. Verbal and motor symptoms include echolalia, palilalia, echopraxia, and motor perseveration. Cognitive disorders induce perseverative behavior, perseverative thinking, including palipsychism, flashbulb memories, and reduplicative paramnesia (also known as "palimnesia") and many related perseverative symptoms...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144948/re-the-world-health-organization-2016-classification-of-testicular-germ-cell-tumours-a-review-and-update-from-the-international-society-of-urological-pathology-testis-consultation-panel
#7
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144836/autophagy-and-inflammation
#8
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Seungmin Hwang, Ken Cadwell
The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Among the newly emerging processes we describe are LC3-associated phagocytosis and targeting by autophagy proteins, both of which require many of the same proteins that mediate conventional autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144441/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeted-by-analgesic-venom-peptides
#9
REVIEW
James T Daniel, Richard J Clark
Chronic pain is a complex and debilitating condition associated with a large personal and socioeconomic burden. Current pharmacological approaches to treating chronic pain such as opioids, antidepressants and anticonvulsants exhibit limited efficacy in many patients and are associated with dose-limiting side effects that hinder their clinical use. Therefore, improved strategies for the pharmacological treatment of pathological pain are urgently needed. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are ubiquitously expressed on the surface of cells and act to transduce extracellular signals and regulate physiological processes...
November 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144217/mechanisms-of-naturally-acquired-immunity-to-p-falciparum-and-approaches-to-identify-merozoite-antigen-targets
#10
Julie Healer, Chris Y Chiu, Diana S Hansen
Malaria is one the most serious infectious diseases with over 200 million clinical cases annually. Most cases of the severe disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The blood stage of Plasmodium parasite is entirely responsible for malaria-associated pathology. The population most susceptible to severe malaria are children under the age of 5, with low levels of immunity. It is only after many years of repeated exposure that individuals living in endemic areas develop clinical immunity. This form of protection prevents clinical episodes by substantially reducing parasite burden...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144099/primary-cutaneous-b-cell-lymphoma-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#11
Vieri Grandi, Silvia Alberti Violetti, Roberta LA Selva, Stefano Cicchelli, Chiara Delfino, Paolo Fava, Maria T Fierro, Alessandro Pileri, Nicola Pimpinelli, Pietro Quaglino, Emilio Berti
Primary Cutaneous B-cell Lymphomas comprehend a group of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by being monoclonal proliferations of B-cell primarily involving the skin. Despite being recognized as autonomous and distinct clinico-pathologic entities since the late 80s, their classification is still an ongoing matter of debate. At the moment, WHO classification recognizes three disorders: primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type...
November 16, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143779/regenerative-therapies-in-dry-eye-disease-from-growth-factors-to-cell-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Antonio J Villatoro, Viviana Fernández, Silvia Claros, Cristina Alcoholado, Manuel Cifuentes, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, José A Andrades, José Becerra
Dry eye syndrome is a complex and insidious pathology with a high level of prevalence among the human population and with a consequently high impact on quality of life and economic cost. Currently, its treatment is symptomatic, mainly based on the control of lubrication and inflammation, with significant limitations. Therefore, the latest research is focused on the development of new biological strategies, with the aim of regenerating affected tissues, or at least restricting the progression of the disease, reducing scar tissue, and maintaining corneal transparency...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143657/clinical-benefits-of-incorporating-doxycycline-into-a-canine-heartworm-treatment-protocol
#13
C Thomas Nelson, Elizabeth S Myrick, Thomas A Nelson
BACKGROUND: The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143561/beyond-lip-service-towards-human-rights-driven-our-speech-language-pathology-guidelines-for-south-african-speech-language-pathologists
#14
Michelle Pascoe, Daleen Klop, Thandeka Mdlalo, Mikateko Ndhambi
Developed with a strong awareness of past injustices, South Africa's progressive constitution emphasises a full spectrum of human rights. While the constitution celebrates many languages and cultures, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) face challenges in translating these values into practice with a diverse clientele. Similarly, Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights focuses on freedom of expression in one's language of choice, but is often perceived as a "Cinderella" right (i.e. one that is frequently neglected)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143491/fine-needle-aspiration-evaluation-of-pancreatic-lymphoma-a-retrospective-study-of-25-cases-in-a-single-institution
#15
Jiehao Zhou, Howard Wu, Jingmei Lin, Xiaoyan Wang, Shanxiang Zhang, Harvey Cramer, Shaoxiong Chen
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of pancreatic lymphoma is crucial for clinical management. We evaluate the role of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in the diagnosis of pancreatic lymphoma with the aid of flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry on the cell block. METHODS: Cases of pancreatic lymphoma were collected by searching our pathology laboratory information system over a period of 16 years. The clinical findings, cytologic features, and immunophenotypic results were reviewed...
November 16, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143359/indolent-t-lymphoblastic-proliferation-concomitant-to-acinic-cell-carcinoma-mimicking-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Hajime Yasuda, Miyuki Tsutsui, Yasunori Ota, Masaru Tanaka, Norio Komatsu
Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP) is a non-clonal benign condition showing extrathymic proliferation of T-lymphoblasts positive for CD3, CD4, CD8, and TdT. Isolated iT-LBP has been observed, but the majority of iT-LBP have been seen in conjunction with other disorders including Castleman disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, follicular dendritic cell tumors, angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, myasthenia gravis, and acinic cell carcinoma (ACC). The clinical course of iT-LBP is indolent, and no therapy is usually required...
November 15, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143253/ruling-out-clinically-significant-prostate-cancer-with-negative-multi-parametric-mri
#17
Julie Y An, Abhinav Sidana, Sarah A Holzman, Joseph A Baiocco, Sherif Mehralivand, Peter L Choyke, Bradford J Wood, Baris Turkbey, Peter A Pinto
PURPOSE: To evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of a negative prostate multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in ruling out clinically significant prostate upon 12-core systematic biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 114 men evaluated at our institution who underwent systematic 12-core biopsy within 1 year of a negative prostate mpMRI. Clinicopathologic features were evaluated and NPV was calculated for detection of clinically significant (Gleason ≥ 7) cancer...
November 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143176/the-treatment-landscape-and-new-opportunities-of-molecular-targeted-therapies-in-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#18
REVIEW
Fabiola Amair-Pinedo, Ignacio Matos, Tamara Saurí, Jorge Hernando, Jaume Capdevila
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that originate from neuroendocrine stem cells and express both neural and endocrine markers. They are found in almost every organ, and while NENs are mostly associated with slow growth, complications due to the uncontrolled secretion of active peptides, and metastatic disease, may significantly impair the quality of life and can ultimately lead to the death of affected individuals. Expanding knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic landscapes of NENs has led to a better understanding of their molecular pathology and consequently increased treatment options for patients...
November 15, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143154/deciphering-the-molecular-events-during-arsenic-induced-transcription-signal-cascade-activation-in-cellular-milieu
#19
REVIEW
Harishkumar Madhyastha, Radha Madhyastha, Yuichi Nakajima, Masugi Maruyama
Anthropogenic sources of arsenic poses and creates unintentional toxico-pathological concerns to humans in many parts of the world. The understanding of toxicity of this metalloid, which shares properties of both metal and non-metal is principally structured on speciation types and holy grail of toxicity prevention. Visible symptoms of arsenic toxicity include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. In this review, we focused on the dermal cell stress caused by trivalent arsenic trioxide and pentavalent arsanilic acid...
November 15, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143113/percutaneous-ct-guided-sacroiliac-joint-sampling-for-infection-aspiration-biopsy-and-technique
#20
David Knipp, F Joseph Simeone, Sandra B Nelson, Ambrose J Huang, Connie Y Chang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate methods of CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling in patients with suspected infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All CT-guided sacroiliac joint sampling procedures for suspected infection were reviewed for sampling type (aspiration, lavage aspiration, biopsy), microbiology results, and clinical and imaging follow-up. The primary gold standard was anatomic pathology. If pathology was not available, then positive blood culture with the same organism as SIJ sampling, imaging and clinical follow-up, or clinical follow-up only were used...
November 15, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
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