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Pathology reviews

Y Berlin-Broner, M Febbraio, L Levin
A systematic review was conducted to assess the association between apical periodontitis (AP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies published from the earliest date available until September 2015 were retrieved from the Medline, PubMed and Embase databases. The included studies reported the results from observational studies and assessed the link between AP and CVD as confirmed by one of the following criteria: diagnosed coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality caused by cardiac pathology...
October 21, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Sanjay Prakash, Chaturbhuj Rathore
The differential diagnosis of strictly unilateral hemicranial pain includes a large number of primary and secondary headaches and cranial neuropathies. It may arise from both intracranial and extracranial structures such as cranium, neck, vessels, eyes, ears, nose, sinuses, teeth, mouth, and the other facial or cervical structure. Available data suggest that about two-third patients with side-locked headache visiting neurology or headache clinics have primary headaches. Other one-third will have either secondary headaches or neuralgias...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Akihiro Tsuchimoto, Toshiaki Nakano, Shoko Hasegawa, Kosuke Masutani, Yuta Matsukuma, Masahiro Eriguchi, Masaharu Nagata, Takehiro Nishiki, Hidehisa Kitada, Masao Tanaka, Takanari Kitazono, Kazuhiko Tsuruya
BACKGROUND: Lymphangiogenesis occurs in diseased native kidneys and kidney allografts, and correlates with histological injury; however, the clinical significance of lymphatic vessels in kidney allografts is unclear. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed 63 kidney transplant patients who underwent protocol biopsies. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin, and were classified according to their location as perivascular or interstitial lymphatic vessels...
October 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
Rodrigo Antonio Rocha da Cruz Adry, Lucas Crociati Meguins, Sebastião Carlos da Silva Júnior, Carlos Umberto Pereira, Gerardo Maria de Araújo Filho, Lúcia Helena Neves Marques
BACKGROUND: Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common disease found in an epilepsy surgery series. Early age of onset, a history of febrile convulsions, epileptiform discharges on EEG, duration of epilepsy, number of generalized seizures and severity of psychiatric disorders are possible prognostic factors in patients with MTS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review the clinical, semiotic, psychological, electrophysiological and neuroradiological researches and relate their findings to the prognosis of patients with MTS who underwent anteromedial temporal lobectomy (ATL)...
October 21, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Wilfried Dinh, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Mihai Gheorghiade, Adriaan A Voors, Michael van der Laan, Hani N Sabbah
Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels...
October 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Qihong Ni, Haolu Wang, Yunhe Zhang, Lijun Qian, Jiachang Chi, Xiaowen Liang, Tao Chen, Jian Wang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) assessment of resectability in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and to identify the factors associated with unresectability and accurate evaluation of resectability. METHODS: From January 2007 to June 2015, a total of 77 consecutive patients were included. All patients had preoperative MDCT (with MPR and MinIP) and surgical treatment, and were pathologically proven with hilar cholangiocarcinoma...
October 21, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
James P Solomon, Brett M Lowenthal, A Karim Kader, J Kellogg Parsons, Thomas W Flaig, Arlene O Siefker-Radtke, Lars Dyrskjøt, Donna E Hansel
Urothelial carcinoma can exhibit a wide variety of histopathological phenotypes or variant morphologies, classifications of which have recently been revised in the 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. Many of these variants not only present diagnostic challenges, but also have clinical implications that affect patient prognosis and treatment strategies. This review will discuss these variant morphologies and their relationship to current understanding of the underlying biology of urothelial carcinoma and molecular classification paradigms...
October 18, 2016: Urology
Tianfang Jiang, Qian Sun, Shengdi Chen
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the overproduction and incorporation of free radicals and the dynamic ability of a biosystem to detoxify reactive intermediates. Free radicals produced by oxidative stress are one of the common features in several experimental models of diseases. Free radicals affect both the structure and function of neural cells, and contribute to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise mechanisms that result in the degeneration of neurons and the relevant pathological changes remain unclear, the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is associated with several proteins (such as α-synuclein, DJ-1, Amyloid β and tau protein) and some signaling pathways (such as extracellular regulated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) that are tightly associated with the neural damage...
October 18, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
Alan P Brown, Philip Drew, Brian Knight, Philippe Marc, Sean Troth, Kuno Wuersch, Joyce Zandee
Histopathology data comprise a critical component of pharmaceutical toxicology studies and are typically presented as finding incidence counts and severity scores per organ, tabulated on multiple pages which can be challenging for review and aggregation of results. However, the SEND (Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data) standard provides a means for collecting and managing histopathology data in a uniform fashion which can allow informatics systems to archive, display and analyze data in novel ways. Various software applications have become available to convert histopathology data into graphical displays for analyses...
October 18, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
A Kanashiro, J M Gaya, J Palou, L Gausa, H Villavicencio
OBJECTIVES: To review our experience in robot-assisted radical cystectomy, assessing the complications and oncological and functional results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2007 to 2014, we performed 67 robot-assisted radical cystectomies combined with lymphadenectomy in 61 cases. The operations were performed on 37 patients due to muscle-invasive tumours and on 30 due to high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumours. Urinary diversion was conducted extracorporeally, using a Studer neobladder in 47 cases...
October 18, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Byeong Geon Jeon
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess predictive factors for negative appendectomy and to evaluate the outcomes of negative appendectomy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 4,878 patients who underwent appendectomy at our institution from January 2008 to December 2014 was performed. RESULTS: Younger age (≤15 years), normal white blood cell count, appendix diameter of less than 6 mm on computed tomography (CT), and CT grade less than 3 were found to be independent predictive factors for negative appendectomy...
July 28, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Daisuke Maki, Taisuke Mori, Masanori Teshima, Kenya Kobayashi, Fumihiko Matsumoto, Akihiro Sakai, Kenji Okami, Seiichi Yoshimoto
Chondrosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor occurring in the trunk and long bones. We present an extremely rare case of chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone with clinical and pathological correlation and a literature review. We searched all cases of the hyoid chondrosarcoma in PubMed (MEDLINE) between 1990 and 2015. Eighteen cases were analyzed, including the present case. Most of them were low grade type. In 12 cases where intraoperative findings were recorded, no adhesion to the surrounding tissue was observed. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone is usually low grade type, and there may be no invasion to the adjacent structures even if invasion is suspected by imaging findings...
October 18, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Marko Popovic, Varun Chaudhary, Bryon R McKay, Prima Moinul, Mohammad Mohaghagh, Anne Beattie, Mark Fava, Dalia Eino, Keith Mann, Lawrence Kobetz, Joshua Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of agreement between physicians and patients in reporting ocular history and to determine whether there are any predictive factors for physician-patient consensus. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. PARTICIPANTS: Between June and September 2014, adult patients undergoing cataract surgery were recruited for the study. METHODS: Before surgery, patient demographics and self-reported ocular history were extracted from a prospectively collected database...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Michael Y Woo, Nathan Hecht, Bernard Hurley, David Stitt, Venkatesh Thiruganasambandamoorthy
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the test characteristics of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) for the diagnosis of retinal tear (RT), retinal detachment (RD), posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), and vitreous hemorrhage (VH). DESIGN: A prospective observation study on a convenience sample of patients presenting to a tertiary care emergency general ophthalmology clinic was performed. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with acute flashes/floaters or new visual field defects were included (n = 62)...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Qian Cai, Prasad Tammineni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain deposition of amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles along with steady cognitive decline. Synaptic damage, an early pathological event, correlates strongly with cognitive deficits and memory loss. Mitochondria are essential organelles for synaptic function. Neurons utilize specialized mechanisms to drive mitochondrial trafficking to synapses in which mitochondria buffer Ca2+ and serve as local energy sources by supplying ATP to sustain neurotransmitter release...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Robert M Starke, Justin M Cappuzzo, Nicholas J Erickson, Jonathan H Sherman
OBJECTIVE Cystic lesions of the pineal gland are most often uncomplicated benign lesions with typical MRI characteristics. The authors aimed to study pineal lesion characteristics on MRI to better distinguish benign pineal cysts from other pineal region malignancies as well as to determine which characteristics were predictive of the latter malignancies. They also aimed to study risk factors predictive of hydrocephalus or malignancy in patients harboring these lesions. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of a prospectively compiled database documenting the outcomes of patients with suspected pineal cysts on MRI who had presented in the period from 1998 to 2004...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Christine M Freeman, Jeffrey L Curtis
Hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include innate inflammation and remodeling of small airways that begin in early disease and the development of lung lymphoid follicles (LLF), indicative of adaptive immunity, in more spirometrically-severe stages. Common to these processes in all stages is orchestration by dendritic cells (DC). Recently improved understanding of the analogous lung DC subsets in humans and mice has allowed for better integration and interpretation of the experimental and clinical pathological literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Nikisha Mehta, Zoe Marshman
BackgroundThis systematic appraisal was conducted to determine if the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal (EBDJ) acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge for practitioners across all disciplines within dentistry.ObjectivesThe main objectives were to determine i) the year the articles were published and included in the EBDJ; ii) if the articles published covered all fields equally within dentistry; iii) the type of study design of the articles reported in the journal and; iv) the level of expertise of the writers of the commentaries...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Martin de Santibañes, Luis Boccalatte, Eduardo de Santibañes
Recently, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) emerged as a novel surgical strategy to induce a rapid and large hypertrophy of the future liver remnant (FLR). We conducted a computerized search using PubMed and Google Scholar for reports published between March 2012 and July 2016 using mesh headings and key words relating to the ALPPS surgical procedure. The promising results obtained up to date are difficult to interpret due to the heterogeneous group of patients with different underlying pathologies and different chemotherapy schemes...
October 20, 2016: Updates in Surgery
Ajaratu Keshinro, Ioannis Hatzaras, Kenneth Rifkind, Shubhada Dhage, Kathie-Ann Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Cancer screening is a key component of primary care, and access to regular screening mammography (SMG) is highly dependent on recommendation and referral by a primary care provider (PCP). Women with no health insurance or who are underinsured often lack access to a regular PCP and thus access to routine screening. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 173 surgical patients diagnosed between January 2012 and December 2013. The main outcome variables were PCP status, method of cancer detection, and breast cancer stage at diagnosis...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
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