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Pathology review

E Matyja, W Grajkowska, K Stępień, E Naganska
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most frequent primary astroglial tumours affecting children and adolescents. They occur sporadically or in association with a genetically determined syndrome - neurofibromatosis type 1. Classic PA usually manifests as a well-circumscribed, often cystic, slowly growing tumour, which corresponds to WHO grade I. The majority of pilocytic tumours arise along the neuraxis, predominantly in the cerebellum. They are associated with favourable long-term outcome or spontaneous regression, even after incomplete resection...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
C Andres Benatti, Natalie A Afshari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review updates the mechanisms, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of Descemet membrane detachment after cataract surgery, particularly during cataract surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of new imaging techniques like the anterior segment optical coherence tomography and a better comprehension of the clinical and pathological aspects of detachment, has improved the diagnosis and treatment of this complication to the extent that the first algorithms and protocols have been proposed...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Natalya Bildyug
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes, including contraction, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. These processes all involve cell phenotype changes, known to be accompanied by reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Growing evidence indicates a correlation between MMP activity and the dynamics of actin system, suggesting their mutual regulation. Here, data on the influence of MMPs on the actin microfilament system, on the one hand, and the dependence of MMP expression and activation on the organization of actin structures, on the other hand, are reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Carey L Medin, Alan L Rothman
Once obscure, Zika virus (ZIKV) has attracted significant medical and scientific attention in the past year because of large outbreaks associated with the recent introduction of this virus into the Western hemisphere. In particular, the occurrence of severe congenital infections and cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome has placed this virus squarely in the eyes of clinical and anatomic pathologists. This review article provides a basic introduction to ZIKV, its genetics, its structural characteristics, and its biology...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
David A Siegel, Reda Wilson, Edward J Wilkinson, Julia W Gargano, Meg Watson, Brenda Y Hernandez, Marc T Goodman, Charles F Lynch, Elizabeth R Unger, Mona Saraiya
CONTEXT: -Knowing the subtype of vulvar cancer histology is important for estimating human papillomavirus-related cancer etiology. Surveillance of human papillomavirus-related vulvar cancers informs public health decisions related to vaccination against human papillomavirus. OBJECTIVE: -To assess the accuracy of registry classifications of vulvar cancer and determine the histologic classification of cases reported as not otherwise specified. DESIGN: -Pathology specimens were collected from Florida, Iowa, and Hawaii cancer registries...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Alain C Borczuk
CONTEXT: -The use of frozen section in thoracic pathology includes assessment of peripheral lung lesions with lepidic pattern, with greater emphasis on evaluating lung-sparing resections and margin assessment. OBJECTIVE: -To review pitfalls of frozen section in thoracic pathology; in this setting, reduction of false-positive and false-negative diagnosis in lesion identification and margin assessment is critical. DATA SOURCES: -PubMed search of frozen section lung pathology yielded specific references related to the use of frozen section in the identification of lepidic lesions and the clinical recommendation for margin distance...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Juan Feng, Wanli Xing, Lan Xie
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs in eukaryotes, have been recognized as significant regulators of gene expression through post-transcriptional mechanisms. To date, >2000 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome, and they orchestrate a variety of biological and pathological processes. Disruption of miRNA levels correlates with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, a complex multifactorial metabolic disorder affecting >400 million people worldwide. miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus by affecting pancreatic β-cell functions, insulin resistance, or both...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ronit Weisman
All organisms can respond to the availability of nutrients by regulating their metabolism, growth, and cell division. Central to the regulation of growth in response to nutrient availability is the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that is composed of two structurally distinct complexes: TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2). The TOR genes were first identified in yeast as target of rapamycin, a natural product of a soil bacterium, which proved beneficial as an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug and is currently being tested for a handful of other pathological conditions including diabetes, neurodegeneration, and age-related diseases...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Michele M Merten, M Regina Castro, Jun Zhang, Jolanta M Durski, Mabel Ryder
BACKGROUND: Cytologically defined indeterminate thyroid nodules are a diagnostic challenge. Surgical lobectomy remains gold standard for definitive diagnosis, however, 70-85% of nodules are ultimately benign. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the negative predictive value (NPV) of F18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT) in excluding cancer among cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules within our institution using surgical pathology as a gold standard reference and to perform a systematic review of published prospective studies on the NPV of PET/CT in evaluating indeterminate thyroid nodules...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Qingxi Zhang, Wanling Chen, Sheng Tan, Tongxiang Lin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, which is characterized by low level of dopamine expressing in the striatum and deteriorated dopaminergic neurons (DAn) in Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Generation of PD-derived DAn including differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC), human neural stem cell (hNSC), human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) and directly reprogramming provide an ideal tool to model PD, which created the possibilities of mimicking key essential pathological processes charactering single cell changes in vitro...
October 20, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Laura Chahda, Bernice A Mathisen, Lindsay B Carey
PURPOSE: Given minimal studies describing the role and practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in adult palliative care, the aim of this review was to compile a database of research literature, examine the potential research gaps and to consider material that specifically discussed the need for and/or use of procedures and protocols for SLPs working in palliative care that would support the development of SLP palliative care guidelines. METHOD: A scoping review was conducted utilising Arksey and O'Malley's framework with the goal of exploring any key concepts and approaches utilised by SLPs in adult palliative care, plus any literature and/or recommendations regarding SLP practice in adult palliative care settings...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Ailbhe C O'Neill, Sree Harsha Tirumani, Woo S Do, Abhishek R Keraliya, Jason L Hornick, Atul B Shinagare, Nikhil H Ramaiya
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the metastatic patterns and imaging features of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 139 patients with pathologically proven SFT, 49 of whom developed metastases. Electronic medical records and all available images were reviewed to record the pattern and imaging appearances of metastatic disease, and comparisons of thoracic SFTs and extrathoracic SFTs were also performed...
October 20, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Colin Crist
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because, while on one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best studied stem cell dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine based therapies for skeletal muscle...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Rivka Inzelberg, Shira Flash, Eitan Friedman, Esther Azizi
The mechanisms underlying the high prevalence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are unclear, but plausibly involve common pathways. 129Ser-phosphorylated-α-synuclein, a pathological PD hallmark, is abundantly expressed in CMM, but not in normal skin. In inherited PD, PARK genes harbor germline mutations; the same genes are somatically mutated in CMM, or their encoded proteins involved in melanomagenesis. Conversely, genes associated with CMM, affect PD risk. PD/CMM targeted cells share the neural crest origin and melanogenesis capability...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Apeksha Chaturvedi, R A C Dilhani Ranasinghe, Abhishek Chaturvedi, Steven P Meyers
BACKGROUND: Lesions involving the outer cortical surface of the bone occur quite often among children. Broadly, these include benign cortical, juxtacortical and periarticular lesions, dysplasias affecting the cortical bone, regional and diffuse periosteal pathology and malignant tumours. Some of these lesions are unique to the paediatric population; others are more frequently seen among children than adults - yet others have an adult predilection but can occasionally be seen in children...
October 19, 2016: Insights Into Imaging
Giacomo Tirabassi, Gianmaria Salvio, Barbara Altieri, Cristina L Ronchi, Silvia Della Casa, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Giancarlo Balercia
An emerging branch of research is examining the linkage between Vitamin D and nonskeletal disorders, including endocrine diseases. In this regard, a still little studied aspect concerns the involvement of vitamin D in adrenal gland disorders. Adrenal gland disorders, which might be theoretically affected by vitamin D unbalance, include adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, adrenocortical tumors and hyperaldosteronism. In this review, we provide an updated document, which tries to collect and discuss the limited evidence to be found in the literature about the relationship between vitamin D and adrenal disorders...
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Georgios Nikolakis, Constantine A Stratakis, Theodora Kanaki, Andrej Slominski, Christos C Zouboulis
The skin is an important extra-gonadal steroidogenic organ, capable of metabolizing various hormones from their precursors, as well as of synthesizing de novo a broad palette of sex steroids and glucocorticoids from cholesterol. In this manuscript, we review the major steroidogenic properties of human skin and we suggest steroidogenesis' impairment as a cardinal factor for various pathological conditions such as acne, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, and androgenic alopecia.
October 20, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Pedro Romero-Aroca, Marc Baget-Bernaldiz, Alicia Pareja-Rios, Maribel Lopez-Galvez, Raul Navarro-Gil, Raquel Verges
Diabetic macular edema (DME) can cause blindness in diabetic patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy (DR). DM parameters controls (glycemia, arterial tension, and lipids) are the gold standard for preventing DR and DME. Although the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play a role in the development of DME, the pathological processes leading to the onset of this disease are highly complex and the exact sequence in which they occur is still not completely understood. Angiogenesis and inflammation have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Wenzhong Liu, Hao F Zhang
The eye relies on the synergistic cooperation of many different ocular components, including the cornea, crystalline lens, photoreceptors, and retinal neurons, to precisely sense visual information. Complications with a single ocular component can degrade vision and sometimes cause blindness. Immediate treatment and long-term monitoring are paramount to alleviate symptoms, restore vision, and cure ocular diseases. However, successful treatment requires understanding ocular pathological mechanisms, precisely detecting and monitoring the diseases...
September 2016: Photoacoustics
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