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Pathology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792855/the-versatile-hippo-pathway-in-oral-maxillofacial-development-and-bone-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
Lin Xiang, Hui Yu, Xinyuan Zhang, Bin Wang, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Rui Ye, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
The Hipposignaling pathway is implicated in key aspects of cell proliferation, control of organ size, stem cell functions and tumor suppression. Its functions are primarily mediated either through direct effects on transcription factors to influence target gene expression or through crosstalk with other signaling pathways that regulate multiple physiological activities. Studies are revealing Hippo pathway involvement in diverse functions including renewal of intestinal epithelium, promotion of myocardial cell proliferation, cancer suppression, etc...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792263/an-update-on-the-use-of-immunohistochemistry-and-molecular-pathology-in-the-diagnosis-of-pre-invasive-and-malignant-lesions-in-gynecological-oncology
#2
REVIEW
Emmanouil Kalampokas, Fiona Payne, Mahalakshmi Gurumurthy
OBJECTIVE: One of the most common challenges in everyday clinical practice of gynecological oncology is to identify the type and the primary origin of a tumor. This is a crucial step in the management, treatment, prognosis, and survival of patients suffering from a gynecological malignancy. Immunohistochemistry has been widely adopted over the last three decades in pathology laboratories all over the world. Recent advances in our understanding of the differentiation of gynecological tumors based on immunohistochemical expression have resulted in use of immunohistochemistry as a major diagnostic tool in gynecology, for precise tumor classification...
May 21, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792126/neuropathological-profile-of-the-pentylenetetrazol-ptz-kindling-model
#3
E Samokhina, Alexander Samokhin
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease characterized by spontaneous episodes of abnormal, simultaneous firing of a neuronal population and disturbances of consciousness (so-called seizures) of unknown cause. Antiepileptic drugs are only symptomatic treatment, and there is a strong demand for the search of an alternative treatment of epilepsy. For this purpose, animal models of epilepsy are an important prerequisite. There are various animal models with chronic brain dysfunctions thought to reflect the processes underlying human epilepsy...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791960/ultrasound-of-the-brachial-plexus
#4
James F Griffith
Examination of the brachial plexus with ultrasound is efficient because it allows many parts of the brachial plexus as well as the surrounding soft tissues to be assessed with high spatial resolution. The key to performing good ultrasound of the brachial plexus is being familiar with the anatomy and the common variants. That makes it possible to concentrate solely on the ultrasound appearances free of simultaneously wondering about the anatomy. Ultrasound of the brachial plexus is particularly good for assessing nerve sheath tumor, perineural fibrosis, metastases, some inflammatory neuropathies, neuralgic amyotrophy, and posttraumatic sequalae...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791955/muscle-tendon-enthesis-unit
#5
Anthony S Tadros, Brady K Huang, Mini N Pathria
Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791926/meniscus-repair-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-treatment-approaches-meniscal-healing-and-outcomes
#6
Márcio Balbinotti Ferrari, Colin P Murphy, João Luiz Ellera Gomes
Although the consequences of traumatic meniscus tears and the importance of meniscal repair are well-established in adults, the same cannot be said for the young population. Better evidence regarding the outcomes following traumatic meniscal tears in children would improve our understanding of this increasing pathology and help define important factors in deciding the best treatment option. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE Ovid, and MEDLINE PubMed databases...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791712/surgical-management-after-hysteroscopic-sterilization-minimally-invasive-approach-incorporating-intraoperative-fluoroscopy-for-symptomatic-patients-with-2-essure%C3%A2-devices
#7
E Scott Sills, Natalie S Rickers, Xiang Li
OBJECTIVE: To describe a non-hysterectomy surgical technique for symptomatic patients with >2 Essure® (Bayer Healthcare, Whippany, New Jersey) devices. DESIGN: Patients (n=4) presented with sharp pelvic pain, irregular vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, weight gain, hair loss, fatigue, and/or diffuse skin rash, all of which were absent before undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization (HS). Hysterosalpingogram obtained before surgical excision of contraceptive tubal implants confirmed more than two Essure® devices in all patients...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791269/the-cystic-dilation-of-ventriculus-terminalis-with-neurological-symptoms-three-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#8
Iraj Lotfinia, Ata Mahdkhah
CONTEXT: The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a very small ependymal-lined residual lumen in the conus medullaris. It is normally present in all subjects during fetal development. VT in adults appears as an unusual pathology with an uncertain pathogenesis. FINDINGS: In this paper, we described three case reports of symptomatic fifth ventricle cystic dilations. All of them were female and their mean age was 59 years. We treated them surgically and all three patients were improved based on clinical and imaging assessments...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791030/antiepileptic-drugs-as-prophylaxis-for-postcraniotomy-seizures
#9
REVIEW
Janette Greenhalgh, Jennifer Weston, Yenal Dundar, Sarah J Nevitt, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in Issue 3, 2015.The incidence of seizures following supratentorial craniotomy for non-traumatic pathology has been estimated to be between 15% to 20%; however, the risk of experiencing a seizure appears to vary from 3% to 92% over a five-year period. Postoperative seizures can precipitate the development of epilepsy; seizures are most likely to occur within the first month of cranial surgery. The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) administered pre- or postoperatively to prevent seizures following cranial surgery has been investigated in a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
May 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790787/colorectal-liver-metastases-a-pathologist-s-guide-to-creating-an-informative-report-and-improving-patient-care
#10
Mariana Moreno Prats, Eizaburo Sasatomi, Heather L Stevenson
CONTEXT: - In this era of minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, pathologists are at the forefront of analyzing specimens and are expected to make more specific diagnoses, providing additional information from the material they receive. OBJECTIVE: - To familiarize pathologists with the essential components of surgical pathology reports for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) resections. DATA SOURCES: - Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and the liver is the most frequent site of metastases...
May 23, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790722/minimally-invasive-endoscopic-assisted-approaches-to-the-posterior-fossa
#11
Alexander Yang, Zach Folzenlogen, A Samy Youssef
Modern surgical approaches are becoming more minimalistic, associated with the term 'minimally invasive'. The endoscope provides a more panoramic anatomical view in addition to the ability to access narrow deep corners with decent illumination and clear visualization. Endoscopic assisted microsurgery through a tailored small craniotomy is the foundation of keyhole surgery. The endoscope can be advanced deeper into the field, thus enhancing an exposure and allowing bimanual dissection, thus prompting smaller craniotomies and tailored key exposures...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790306/the-role-of-novel-prognostic-markers-prox1-and-foxc2-in-carcinogenesis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Neha S Agnihotri, Madhusudan Astekar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck regions and accounts for more than 90% of cancers in the oral cavity. The angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition are known to be pivotal for tumor progression and metastasis. In the last decade, much data has been generated concerning the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and its significance in pathological conditions. The main angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors have been identified as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), forkhead box (FOX) C2 while vascular endothelial growth factor C/D (VEGF-C/D), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), LYVE-1, podoplanin, Tie/Angioprotein (Ang) 2 and EphrinB2 respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790248/diagnosis-and-management-of-conductive-hearing-loss-in-children-with-trisomy-21
#13
Robbie Stewart, Donna Gallagher, Peter Leyden
AIM: The objective of this study is to review the prevalence and degree of hearing loss in children with trisomy 21, their response to intervention and the presence of concomitant pathologies. The project will also highlight the experiences of the children from their parents' and guardians' perspective and the link between perceived service quality and an objective improvement in their hearing after rehabilitation. METHODS: All patients with trisomy 21 who were referred to district general otolaryngology outpatient clinics between 2014 and 2016 were included...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790104/beneficial-effects-of-antioxidant-furfuryl-palmitate-in-non-pharmacologic-treatments-prescription-emollient-devices-peds-for-atopic-dermatitis-and-related-skin-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Daniele Pigatto, Marco Diani
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease; it requires long-term treatments focused on symptomatic relief. Current first-line treatments include moisturizers and topical corticosteroids. Recently, topical antioxidants have been added to moisturizer formulations to alleviate mild-to-moderate AD. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of furfuryl palmitate, a new antioxidant molecule, and furfuryl derivatives. METHODS: A PubMed/Google Scholar search was conducted using the term "furfuryl palmitate" (and its derivatives, including AR-GG27® ) combined with "skin," "atopic dermatitis," and "atopic eczema...
May 22, 2018: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789993/the-role-of-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt-in-diseases-of-the-salivary-glands
#15
REVIEW
Margherita Sisto, Sabrina Lisi, Domenico Ribatti
The link between inflammatory microenvironment and cancer emerged in the last years as a decisive factor in the induction of the pathological epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The EMT induces changes of cell states converting the epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells when this program is fully executed and EMT has emerged as a central driver of tumor malignancy. Cellular pathways activated by chronic inflammation brought about by chronic infections, by immune-mediated diseases, or by dysregulated wound healing at sites of repetitive tissue injury, constitute risk factors or initial cell transformation and for cancer progression...
May 23, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789907/can-quantitative-iodine-parameters-on-dect-replace-perfusion-ct-parameters-in-colorectal-cancers
#16
Hyo-Jin Kang, Se Hyung Kim, Jae Seok Bae, Sun Kyung Jeon, Joon Koo Han
OBJECTIVES: To determine the correlation between iodine concentrations derived from dual-energy CT (DECT) and perfusion CT (PCT) parameters in patients with pathologically proven colorectal cancers (CRC) and to evaluate their reproducibility and respective radiation exposures. METHODS: Institutional review board approval and written informed consents were obtained for this study. Forty-one patients with CRCs who underwent same-day DECT and PCT were prospectively enrolled...
May 22, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789787/physiological-and-pathological-function-of-serine-arginine-rich-splicing-factor-4-and-related-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Wanyan Tan, Wei Wang, Qingfeng Ma
Serine/arginine-rich splicing factors (SRSFs) have one or two RNA recognition motifs in the N terminal and a serine/arginine-enriched domain in the C terminal. SRSFs are essential components of spliceosomes and are involved in alternative splicing, spliceosome assembly, mRNA export, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The maintenance of cellular and tissue homeostasis relies on accurate alternative splicing, and various patterns of abnormal alternative splicing can cause different diseases. SRSF4 is associated with many physiological and pathological processes and has applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of specific diseases...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789648/dalm-rest-in-peace-a-pathologist-s-perspective-on-dysplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-post-dalm-era
#18
REVIEW
Kenrry Chiu, Robert H Riddell, David F Schaeffer
There are few abbreviations in surgical pathology that are associated with as much immediate recognition, frustration, and confusion as DALM (dysplasia-associated lesion or mass). DALM is used to describe endoscopically visible dysplastic lesions in the surveillance of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. However, the diagnosis of DALM has been complicated by the inconsistent criteria and use of terminology for describing dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease, and a tendency to relate DALM with the need for colectomy...
May 22, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789252/a-history-of-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-at-the-national-football-league-combine-results-in-inferior-early-national-football-league-career-participation
#19
Matthew T Provencher, James P Bradley, Jorge Chahla, Anthony Sanchez, Brendin R Beaulieu-Jones, Justin W Arner, Nicholas I Kennedy, George Sanchez, Mitchell I Kennedy, Gilbert Moatshe, Mark E Cinque, Robert F LaPrade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether players with a history of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) before the National Football League (NFL) Combine played or started fewer games and/or participated in fewer eligible snaps compared with NFL Combine participants without a history of knee injury or surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all players who participated in the NFL Combine between 2009 and 2015 and who had a history of an ACLR...
May 19, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789187/a-review-of-lymphedema-for-the-hand-and-upper-extremity-surgeon
#20
REVIEW
Assaf A Zeltzer, Alexander Anzarut, Moustapha Hamdi
Secondary lymphedema of the upper limb is frequently seen in Western countries after cancer treatment (most often breast in women). It is a chronic disease that affects quality of life and functioning. In its extreme form, it may be debilitating. A review is given of the pathology, nonsurgical treatment, and surgical treatment with a protocol.
May 19, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
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