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Pathology review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743124/the-role-of-discoidin-domain-receptor-1-in-inflammation-fibrosis-and-renal-disease
#1
Aude Dorison, Jean-Claude Dussaule, Christos Chatziantoniou
Discoidin domain receptors (DDRs) are a family of 2 non-integrin collagen receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, which display a tyrosine kinase activity. They are mainly expressed during embryonic development and their role during adulthood is very limited. DDR1 has been widely studied in several types of cancers, in atherosclerosis and fibrosis, but also in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review focuses on the role of DDR1 in chronic nephropathies and on the effect of its deletion in the pathological processes involved in renal disease progression...
July 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742994/unusual-case-of-a-massive-macroglossia-secondary-to-myxedema-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
James C Melville, Kelsey D Menegotto, Timothy C Woernley, Blake D Maida, Ibrahim Alava
Macroglossia is classified as true macroglossia, which exhibits abnormal histology with clinical findings, and relative macroglossia, in which normal histology does not correlate with pathologic enlargement. This report describes an atypical case of morbidity with massive macroglossia secondary to myxedema; the macroglossia enlarged over a 3-month period before being presented to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston (Houston, TX). Substantial enlargement of the tongue (16 cm long × 10 cm wide) was first attributed to angioedema, which was refractory to the discontinuation of lisinopril and a C1 esterase inhibitor...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742616/twenty-year-systematic-review-of-the-hip-pathology-risk-factors-treatment-and-clinical-outcomes-in-artistic-athletes-dancers-figure-skaters-and-gymnasts
#3
Ioanna Bolia, Hajime Utsunomiya, Renato Locks, Karen Briggs, Marc J Philippon
OBJECTIVE: To identify (1) the predominant level of evidence of the clinical studies regarding the hip pathology, risk factors, treatment, and clinical outcomes in artistic athletes (dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts) (2) the most commonly reported hip pathology, risk factors, treatments, and clinical outcomes in dancers, figure skaters, and gymnasts. METHODS: To conduct this systematic review PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were searched for relevant studies and pertinent data were collected from the eligible articles...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742156/ct-pattern-analysis-of-necrotizing-and-nonnecrotizing-lymph-nodes-in-kikuchi-disease
#4
Eun Jung Shim, Kyung Mi Lee, Eui Jong Kim, Hyug-Gi Kim, Ji Hye Jang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a CT interpretation with imaging pattern analysis differentiates Kikuchi disease (KD) from the two more frequently encountered differential lymph nodes diagnoses of tuberculous lymphadenopathy (TL) and reactive hyperplasia (RH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2012 and July 2015, 20 patients with KD (6 men, 14 women; mean age, 27.80 years), 36 patients with RH (10 men, 26 women; mean age, 33.08 years) and 34 patients with TL (17 men, 17 women; mean age, 39...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741902/corneal-confocal-sub-basal-nerve-plexus-evaluation-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Joanna Kokot, Adam Wylęgała, Bogumił Wowra, Łukasz Wójcik, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Edward Wylęgała
The aim of this study was to review the most recent data about corneal sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) evaluated with the use of corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). For this purpose, an electronic search was conducted based on PubMed and Google Scholar and Web of Science databases from 2008 up to the end of 2016. Ninety-eight articles in English were cited, as well as abstracts in other languages, concerning the morphology and function of corneal SNP in various diseases. Changes in corneal SNP as a result of local treatment were also introduced...
July 25, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741866/a-review-of-available-laser-and-intense-light-source-home-devices-a-dermatologist-s-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Margit Lw Juhász, Melissa K Levin, Ellen S Marmur
BACKGROUND: Home optical devices are becoming an increasingly popular treatment modality sought out by patients for dermatologic pathologies such as acne, hair removal and anti-aging, as these devices are a low-cost and convenient therapy choice. METHODS: An Internet search using PubMed.gov was completed with search terms, "home device dermatology," "home device acne," "home device hair" or "hair removal," and "home device aging." RESULTS: Currently, there are multiple home optical devices available on the market...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741720/alteplase-for-acute-ischemic-stroke-after-heparin-reversal-with-protamine-a-case-report-and-review
#7
Gabriel V Fontaine, Shawn M Smith
BACKGROUND: Few patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are eligible for alteplase, especially those receiving ongoing anticoagulation. We describe the first reported case of a patient receiving full-dose intravenous (IV) alteplase for AIS after heparin reversal with protamine. CASE: A 73-year-old male presented with AIS. He was treated with IV heparin, tirofiban, loading-dose prasugrel, and aspirin prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for placement of a right coronary artery stent...
July 25, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741688/new-insights-into-naevoid-melanomas-a-clinico-pathological-reassessment
#8
Martin G Cook, Daniela Massi, Willeke A M Blokx, Joost Van den Oord, Senada Koljenović, Vincenzo De Giorgi, Eleanor Kissin, Megan Grant, Amit Mandal, Gabriela Gremel, Caroline Gaudy, Amaya Viros, Nathalie Dhomen, Kiarash Khosrotehrani, Richard Marais, Adele C Green, Martin C Mihm
AIMS: Because the term 'naevoid melanoma' has variable clinical and pathologic interpretations, we aimed to clarify the features of melanomas referred to as naevoid. METHODS AND RESULTS: A review was undertaken of 102 melanomas diagnosed histopathologically as naevoid melanomas and ascertained by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group Subcommittee pathologists from their records. We found these could be classified morphologically into 3 groups...
July 25, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741648/american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-infancy-and-childhood
#9
REVIEW
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, Carolina Talhari, María F García Bustos, Tamara Rosales, Wilmer E Villamil-Gomez, Marilianna Marquez, Alexandra M Pérez Alvarez, Alejandra I Tálamo Sánchez, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Infant and young child skin diseases are among the most common features of morbidity throughout the tropics. Because the skin is directly exposed to the environment, it is considerably affected by climatic and local conditions such as vectors and microorganisms, as in the case of leishmaniasis. In America the observed magnitude of cutaneous leishmaniasis in children has led to the study of increased risk of exposure of this group due to the possibility of peri- and intradomiciliary transmission. The present review pretends to make a concrete approach all through the broad and main figures of this parasitic disease, including the clinical, physiopathological, epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects, in order to be used as a practical source of reference for pediatricians leading with tropical cutaneous pathology in the region...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741500/immunity-gone-astray-nets-in-cancer
#10
Jessica Cedervall, Anna-Karin Olsson
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have emerged as significant contributors to cancer-associated pathologies such as metastasis, thrombosis, and organ dysfunction in preclinical models. We review recent discoveries of the involvement of NETs in human cancers and suggest tumor-induced NET formation as an interesting potential therapeutic target in oncology.
November 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741438/bilateral-arteriovenous-shunts-as-a-method-for-evaluating-tissue-engineered-vascular-grafts-in-large-animal-models
#11
Chin Siang Ong, Takuma Fukunishi, Rui Han Liu, Kevin Nelson, Huaitao Zhang, Elizabeth Wieczorek, McKenna Palmieri, Yukie Ueyama, Erin Ferris, Gail E Geist, Bradley L Youngblood, Jed Johnson, Narutoshi Hibino
There remains a need for large animal models to evaluate tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) under arterial pressure to provide preclinical data for future potential human clinical trials. We present a comprehensive method for the interrogation of TEVGs, using an ovine bilateral arteriovenous shunt implantation model. Our results demonstrate that this method can be performed safely without complications, specifically acute heart failure, steal syndrome, and hypoxic brain injury and is a viable experimental paradigm...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741403/comparative-study-between-the-caloric-vestibular-and-the-video-head-impulse-tests-in-unilateral-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#12
Jonathan Andrés Cordero-Yanza, Edna Verónica Arrieta Vázquez, Juan Carlos Hernaiz Leonardo, Jimena Mancera Sánchez, Mario Sabas Hernández Palestina, Nicolás Pérez-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: Compare the caloric vestibular test (CVT) and the video head impulse test (vHIT) in the evaluation of Meniere's disease (MD) and to analyze their diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of CVT and vHIT performed in MD patients at a tertiary care referral center in Spain. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were reviewed. The CVT was abnormal in 67% (n = 59) of patients, while the vHIT was abnormal in 66% (n = 58) of them...
July 25, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741376/rate-of-symptomatic-lymphocele-formation-after-extraperitoneal-vs-transperitoneal-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-and-bilateral-pelvic-lymphadenectomy
#13
David Horovitz, Xiang Lu, Changyong Feng, Edward M Messing, Jean Volny Joseph
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: With the peritoneum acting as a natural surface for lymphatic reabsorption, transperitoneal robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (tRARP) is thought to be associated with a lower incidence of symptomatic lymphocele (SL) compared to its extraperitoneal counterpart (eRARP) when bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection (BPLND) is performed. Herein, we aim to determine if there is a difference in SL formation and characteristics between the two approaches. METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients who underwent eRARP or tRARP and BPLND at a tertiary care academic center from July 1, 2003 to May 31, 2016...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741265/mechanisms-of-type-2-diabetes-risk-loci
#14
REVIEW
Kyle J Gaulton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Deciphering the mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk loci can greatly inform on disease pathology. This review discusses current knowledge of mechanisms through which genetic variants influence T2DM risk and considerations for future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Over 100 T2DM risk loci to date have been identified. Candidate causal variants at risk loci map predominantly to non-coding sequence. Physiological, epigenomic and gene expression data suggest that variants at many known T2DM risk loci affect pancreatic islet regulation, although variants at other loci also affect protein function and regulatory processes in adipose, pre-adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and brain...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741230/new-therapeutic-strategies-for-lewy-body-dementias
#15
REVIEW
Latha Velayudhan, Dominic Ffytche, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
This article reviews current treatment strategies and recent advances for the Lewy body dementias (LBDs). Current available symptom treatment strategies are based on monoaminergic, cholinergic and glutaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Relatively robust evidence exists for cholinesterase inhibitors for cognitive impairment in LBD and in Parkinson's disease for antidepressants, clozapine and recently pimavanserin for psychosis. interpidine (RVT 101) and nelotanserin are currently under investigation. Non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive stimulation, physical exercises and neuromodulation strategies, may be useful in Parkinson's disease but have not yet been tested in dementias...
September 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741114/-fetal-autopsies-relic-or-still-a%C3%A2-gold-standard
#16
J Andruszkow, W Weichert, T Braunschweig, R Knüchel-Clarke, F Erlmeier
BACKGROUND: Fetal autopsy rates are decreasing in Western countries although post-mortem examinations render important information for the parents concerning the cause of abortion and risk of recurrence in future pregnancies. OBJECTIVE: The intention of the presented study was to analyze the development of fetal autopsies in Germany during the last decade and to review accessible information obtained by fetal autopsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reports of fetal autopsies conducted in two German university Institutes of pathology between 2005 and 2014 were evaluated retrospectively...
July 24, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740920/pathologic-response-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-predicts-locoregional-control-in-patients-with-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#17
Victor E Chen, Erin F Gillespie, Kaveh Zakeri, James D Murphy, Catheryn M Yashar, Sharon Lu, John P Einck
PURPOSE: Our goal was to determine the impact of pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) on the subsequent risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the setting of adjuvant radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review of patients with clinical stage I-III breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, local surgery (breast conservation or mastectomy), and adjuvant radiation therapy between 1997 and 2015...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740725/huntington-s-disease-calcium-dyshomeostasis-and-pathology-models
#18
Y A Kolobkova, V A Vigont, A V Shalygin, E V Kaznacheyeva
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and mental impairment. At the molecular level, HD is caused by a mutation in the first exon of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein. The mutation results in an expanded polyglutamine tract at the N-terminus of the huntingtin protein, causing the neurodegenerative pathology. Calcium dyshomeostasis is believed to be one of the main causes of the disease, which underlies the great interest in the problem among experts in molecular physiology...
April 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740684/pediatric-airway-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Konrad Hoetzenecker, Thomas Schweiger, Doris Maria Denk-Linnert, Walter Klepetko
The management of pediatric airway pathology can be challenging and requires a dedicated team, consisting of thoracic surgeons, phoniatricians, logopedics, pediatricians and anesthetists. It necessitates a tailored treatment approach for each individual patient in order to address the minor variances that exist between cases. The majority of pediatric airway problems are a sequela of prematurity and prolonged post-partal intubation/tracheostomy. Surgical repair is often complicated by additional malformation or severe comorbidities...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740673/clinical-and-pathological-aspects-of-microscopic-thymoma-with-myasthenia-gravis-and-review-of-published-reports
#20
Mitsuro Fukuhara, Mitsunori Higuchi, Yuki Owada, Takuya Inoue, Yuzuru Watanabe, Takumi Yamaura, Satoshi Muto, Takeo Hasegawa, Hiroyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Microscopic thymomas, defined as epithelial proliferations smaller than 1 mm in diameter, characteristically occur in patients with myasthenia gravis without macroscopic thymic epithelial tumors. However, some clinical and pathological aspects of this entity are still unclear. METHODS: This retrospective study includes five consecutive patients who had undergone extended thymectomy for myasthenia gravis at our institution from April 2007 to March 2016 and in whom microscopic thymomas were diagnosed by histopathological examination of the resected specimens...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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