Read by QxMD icon Read

GITR Ligand

Deborah A Knee, Becker Hewes, Jennifer L Brogdon
Over the past decade, our understanding of cancer immunotherapy has evolved from assessing peripheral responses in the blood to monitoring changes in the tumour microenvironment. Both preclinical and clinical experience has taught us that modulation of the tumour microenvironment has significant implications to generating robust antitumour immunity. Clinical benefit has been well documented to correlate with a tumour microenvironment that contains a dense infiltration of CD8(+)CD45RO(+) T effectors and a high ratio of CD8(+) T cells to FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
November 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Tomoya Hirota, Hiroto Tsuboi, Mana Iizuka-Koga, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Hiromitsu Asashima, Masahiro Yokosawa, Yuya Kondo, Masaru Ohta, Yuhya Wakasa, Isao Matsumoto, Fumio Takaiwa, Takayuki Sumida
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of transgenic rice seeds expressing the altered peptide ligand (APL) of human glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (hGPI325-339) in mice model of GPI induced arthritis (GIA). METHODS: We generated transgenic rice expressing T-cell epitope of hGPI325-339 and APL12 and contained in the seed endosperm. The transgenic rice seeds were orally administered prophylactically before the induction of GIA. The severity of arthritis and titers of serum anti-GPI antibodies were evaluated...
August 19, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Joerg U Schmohl, Tina Nuebling, Julia Wild, Tanja Kroell, Lothar Kanz, Helmut R Salih, Helga Schmetzer
Costimulatory ligands (COLs) and their receptors (COR) regulate immune reactions and cellular survival and might be relevant in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study evaluated the clinical relevance of 4-1BBL, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) and ligand (GITRL), CD80, and CD86 in case of expression on AML blasts. 98 patients were evaluated at initial diagnosis. Immunophenotypically evaluated specific fluorescence index (SFI) levels of COR and COL on blasts were correlated with morphological, cytogenetic, and several prognostic parameters...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Jie Ma, Dingqi Feng, Yancai Wei, Jie Tian, Xinyi Tang, Ke Rui, Liwei Lu, Huaxi Xu, Shengjun Wang
Recent studies have shown that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but the role of GITRL/GITR signaling in modulating CD4(+) follicular helper T (Tfh) cell response during autoimmune arthritis remains largely unclear. We showed that splenic Tfh cells from mice with collagen-induced arthritis expressed higher levels of GITR compared with non-Tfh cells. In vitro, GITRL treatment markedly enhanced the percentage and number of Tfh cells...
June 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Dominika J Nowakowska, Stephan Kissler
PTPN22 gene variation associates with multiple autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Loss of function studies have demonstrated that PTPN22 impinges on the homeostatic behavior of regulatory T (Treg) cells, a lineage critical for immune tolerance. The frequency and absolute number of Treg cells is increased in Ptpn22-deficient mice, but the mechanism driving this increase is unknown. In this study, we show that Ptpn22 knockdown (KD) promoted the expansion of the Treg cell compartment by upregulating the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR) and increasing GITR signaling...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yanyi Yao, Jieping Song, Weipeng Wang, Nian Liu
Adaptation of the maternal immune response to accommodate the semiallogeneic fetus is necessary for pregnancy success. However, the mechanisms by which the fetus avoids rejection despite expression of paternal alloantigens remain incompletely understood. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are pivotal for maintaining immune homeostasis, preventing autoimmune disease and fetus rejection. In this study, we found that maternal decidual vascular endothelial cells (DVECs) sustained Foxp3 expression in resting Treg cells in vitro...
May 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Xinyi Tang, Jie Tian, Jie Ma, Jiemin Wang, Chen Qi, Ke Rui, Yungang Wang, Huaxi Xu, Liwei Lu, Shengjun Wang
The glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR) and its ligand play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis by enhancing the Th17 cell response, but their molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. This study aims to define the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in GITRL-induced Th17 cells in autoimmune arthritis. We found that the p38 phosphorylation was enhanced by GITRL in activated CD4+T cells, and the p38 inhibitor restrained the GITRL-induced Th17 cell expansion in a dose-dependent manner...
February 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Wei-Jun Chen, Xiao-Fan Hu, Min Yan, Wen-Yong Zhang, Xiao-Bo Mao, Yan-Wen Shu
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammation characterized by massive infiltration of inflammatory cells in arterial wall plaques. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), a co-stimulatory molecule, plays a vital role in regulating immune responses. We investigated the role and mechanisms of PD-L1 expressed on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-impaired human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in promoting activation and cytokine production of CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
January 2016: Atherosclerosis
Alexander Pedroza-Gonzalez, Guoying Zhou, Simar Pal Singh, Patrick Pc Boor, Qiuwei Pan, Dirk Grunhagen, Jeroen de Jonge, Tc Khe Tran, Cornelis Verhoef, Jan Nm IJzermans, Harry LA Janssen, Katharina Biermann, Jaap Kwekkeboom, Dave Sprengers
In liver cancer tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Ti-Treg) are potent suppressors of tumor-specific T-cell responses and express high levels of the Treg-associated molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR). In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of GITR-ligation, CTLA-4-blockade and a combination of both treatments to alleviate immunosuppression mediated by Ti-Treg. Using ex vivo isolated cells from individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastases from colorectal cancer (LM-CRC) we show that treatment with a soluble form of the natural ligand of GITR (GITRL), or with blocking antibodies to CTLA-4, reduces the suppression mediated by human liver tumor-infiltrating CD4(+)Foxp3+ Treg, thereby restoring proliferation and cytokine production by effector T cells...
December 2015: Oncoimmunology
Young H Kim, Su M Shin, Beom K Choi, Ho S Oh, Chang H Kim, Seung J Lee, Kwang H Kim, Don G Lee, Sang H Park, Byoung S Kwon
The glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR, TNFRSF18, CD357) is expressed on effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Previous studies demonstrated that GITR triggering by anti-GITR mAb enhanced T and B cell-mediated immune responses. GITR-deficient T cells, however, also proliferate more than normal T cells, and this effect is unexplained. Because the activities of mAbs are controlled by their Fc regions, the true effect of GITR signaling needs to be determined by examining its interaction with authentic ligand...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jonathan Rios-Doria, Nicholas Durham, Leslie Wetzel, Raymond Rothstein, Jon Chesebrough, Nicholas Holoweckyj, Wei Zhao, Ching Ching Leow, Robert Hollingsworth
Based on the previously described roles of doxorubicin in immunogenic cell death, both doxorubicin and liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) were evaluated for their ability to boost the antitumor response of different cancer immunotherapies including checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-L1, PD-1, and CTLA-4 mAbs) and TNF receptor agonists (OX40 and GITR ligand fusion proteins) in syngeneic mouse models. In a preventative CT26 mouse tumor model, both doxorubicin and Doxil synergized with anti-PD-1 and CTLA-4 mAbs. Doxil was active when CT26 tumors were grown in immunocompetent mice but not immunocompromised mice, demonstrating that Doxil activity is increased in the presence of a functional immune system...
August 2015: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Miguel F Sanmamed, Fernando Pastor, Alfonso Rodriguez, Jose Luis Perez-Gracia, Maria E Rodriguez-Ruiz, Maria Jure-Kunkel, Ignacio Melero
T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes are considered the main effector players in the immune response against tumors. Full activation of T and NK lymphocytes requires the coordinated participation of several surface receptors that meet their cognate ligands through structured transient cell-to-cell interactions known as immune synapses. In the case of T cells, the main route of stimulation is driven by antigens as recognized in the form of short polypeptides associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen-presenting molecules...
August 2015: Seminars in Oncology
Bidisha Paul Chowdhury, Shibali Das, Saikat Majumder, Kuntal Halder, Sweta Ghosh, Satabdi Biswas, Syamdas Bandyopadhyay, Subrata Majumdar
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by a protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, is still a threat to mankind due to treatment failure, drug resistance and coinfection with HIV. The limitations of first-line drugs have led to the development of new strategies to combat this dreaded disease. Recently, we have shown the immunomodulatory property of Ara-LAM, a TLR2 ligand, against leishmanial pathogenesis. In this study, we have extended our study to the effect of Ara-LAM on regulatory T cells in a murine model of VL...
November 2015: Pathogens and Disease
Pei Shen, Zhaoliang Su, Ting Wang, Yanfang Liu, Yang Zhao, Qingzhen Han, Huaxi Xu, Shengjun Wang
Glucocorticoid‑induced tumor necrosis factor receptor related protein (GITR) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The present study attempted to obtain the mouse GITR‑Fc fusion protein and investigate its function on the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and on the expression of mGITR ligand (mGITRL) on dendritic cells. The sequences of the mouse (m)GITR gene and mouse immunoglobulin G Fc (mIgGFc) were amplified from mouse spleen cells and introduced into a pET‑32a(+) vector. Following the induction, purification and validation of the mGITR‑Fc fusion protein, the mGITR‑Fc fusion protein was used to analyze its function on the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and on the expression of mGITR on dendritic cells...
September 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yuka Kobayashi, Norikazu Kiguchi, Yohji Fukazawa, Fumihiro Saika, Takehiko Maeda, Shiroh Kishioka
Peripheral neuroinflammation caused by activated immune cells can provoke neuropathic pain. Herein, we investigate the actions of macrophages and T cells through glucocorticoid-induced tumor neurosis factor receptor ligand (GITRL) and its receptor (GITR) in neuropathic pain. After partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) in enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) chimeric mice generated by the transplantation of eGFP(+) bone marrow cells, eGFP(+) macrophages, and T cells markedly migrated to the injured site after PSL...
May 15, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jing Yuan, Xinyi Tang, Kai Yin, Jie Tian, Ke Rui, Jie Ma, Chaoming Mao, Jianguo Chen, Liwei Lu, Huaxi Xu, Shengjun Wang
VP1 protein is the immunodominant capsid protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71) which is responsible for large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. It has been reported that glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) and its ligand (GITRL) are involved in modulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, a DNA vaccine vector encoding EV71 VP1 gene and mGITRL gene (pIRES/VP1/mGITRL) was constructed. And female Balb/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine...
May 2015: Immunologic Research
Derek L Clouthier, Angela C Zhou, Tania H Watts
The costimulatory TNFR family member GITR can provide important survival signals for CD8 T cells. However, little is known about the regulation of this pathway during a chronic infection. In this study, we show that GITR ligand (GITRL) is maximally induced on APCs at day 2 post-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) clone 13 infection, but is downregulated to below baseline levels by day 8 postinfection (p.i.), and remains so at the chronic stage of infection. At its peak, GITRL expression is highest on macrophages, with lower expression on conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Shravan Madireddi, So-Young Eun, Seung-Woo Lee, Ivana Nemčovičová, Amit Kumar Mehta, Dirk M Zajonc, Nozomu Nishi, Toshiro Niki, Mitsuomi Hirashima, Michael Croft
Biologics to TNF family receptors are prime candidates for therapy of immune disease. Whereas recent studies have highlighted a requirement for Fcγ receptors in enabling the activity of CD40, TRAILR, and GITR when engaged by antibodies, other TNFR molecules may be controlled by additional mechanisms. Antibodies to 4-1BB (CD137) are currently in clinical trials and can both augment immunity in cancer and promote regulatory T cells that inhibit autoimmune disease. We found that the action of agonist anti-4-1BB in suppressing autoimmune and allergic inflammation was completely dependent on Galectin-9 (Gal-9)...
June 30, 2014: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Achire N Mbanwi, Tania H Watts
Members of the TNFR family can play prominent roles in controlling the magnitude, duration and phenotype of the immune response to viruses. The importance of particular TNFRs in different viral infections and whether they contribute to viral control or pathology is dependent on the virus and the severity of the infection. TNFRs and their ligands are widely and differentially expressed on both adaptive and innate immune cell types. The cell types through which TNFRs exert their effects, the unique signals provided by each member of the family, and how these signals are ultimately integrated during an anti-viral immune response remain to be fully elucidated...
June 2014: Seminars in Immunology
Shawn A Mahmud, Luke S Manlove, Heather M Schmitz, Yan Xing, Yanyan Wang, David L Owen, Jason M Schenkel, Jonathan S Boomer, Jonathan M Green, Hideo Yagita, Hongbo Chi, Kristin A Hogquist, Michael A Farrar
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) express members of the tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), but the role of those receptors in the thymic development of Treg cells is undefined. We found here that Treg cell progenitors had high expression of the TNFRSF members GITR, OX40 and TNFR2. Expression of those receptors correlated directly with the signal strength of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and required the coreceptor CD28 and the kinase TAK1. The neutralization of ligands that are members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) diminished the development of Treg cells...
May 2014: Nature Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"