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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050409/the-effect-of-space-allowance-and-cage-size-on-laying-hens-housed-in-furnished-cages-part-ii-behavior-at-the-feeder
#1
T M Widowski, L J Caston, T M Casey-Trott, M E Hunniford
Standards for feeder (a.k.a. feed trough) space allowance (SA) are based primarily on studies in conventional cages where laying hens tend to eat simultaneously, limiting feeder space. Large furnished cages (FC) offer more total space and opportunities to perform a greater variety of behaviors, which may affect feeding behavior and feeder space requirements. Our objective was to determine the effects of floor/feeder SA on behavior at the feeder. LSL-Lite hens were housed in FC equipped with a nest, perches, and a scratch mat...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050218/braf-mek-inhibitors-promote-cd47-expression-that-is-reversible-by-erk-inhibition-in-melanoma
#2
Fen Liu, Chen Chen Jiang, Xu Guang Yan, Hsin-Yi Tseng, Chun Yan Wang, Yuan Yuan Zhang, Hamed Yari, Ting La, Margaret Farrelly, Su Tang Guo, Rick F Thorne, Lei Jin, Qi Wang, Xu Dong Zhang
The expression of CD47 on the cancer cell surface transmits "don't eat me" signalling that not only inhibits phagocytosis of cancer cells by phagocytes but also impairs anti-cancer T cell responses. Here we report that oncogenic activation of ERK plays an important role in transcriptional activation of CD47 through nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) in melanoma cells. Treatment with BRAF/MEK inhibitors upregulated CD47 in cultured melanoma cells and fresh melanoma isolates. Similarly, melanoma cells selected for resistance to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib expressed higher levels of CD47...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049935/intranasal-oxytocin-in-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-randomized-controlled-trial-during-re-feeding
#3
Janice Russell, Sarah Maguire, Glenn E Hunt, Alice Kesby, Anastasia Suraev, Jordyn Stuart, Jessica Booth, Iain S McGregor
BACKGROUND: Nutritional rehabilitation in anorexia nervosa (AN) is impeded by fear of food, eating and change leading to treatment resistance. Oxytocin (OT) exerts prosocial effects and modulates trust, fear, anxiety and neuroplasticity. The current placebo-controlled RCT examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) in AN. The aim was to ascertain whether repeated doses of IN-OT enhance treatment outcomes in AN. METHODS: AN patients self-administered 36 IU IN-OT or placebo daily for 4-6 weeks during hospital treatment...
October 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049859/-let-them-eat-strawberries-dietary-restrictions-for-children-with-cancer
#4
Bob Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049248/item-response-theory-based-validation-of-a-short-form-of-the-eating-behavior-scale-for-japanese-adults
#5
Jun Tayama, Sayaka Ogawa, Atsushi Takeoka, Masakazu Kobayashi, Susumu Shirabe
Obesity has become a serious social problem in industrialized countries in recent years. Clinically, although the evaluation of dietary behavior abnormalities is as important as any method of risk assessment for obesity, almost all the existing scales with many items may have numerous practical clinical difficulties. In this study, we aimed to prepare a short questionnaire to assess the dietary behavior abnormalities related to obesity. A total of 1032 individuals aged 20 to 59 years participated in the present study...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049045/nutrition-physical-activity-and-lifestyle-factors-in-prostate-cancer-prevention
#6
Eric Ballon-Landa, John Kellogg Parsons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current evidence for prostate cancer prevention with nutrition, physical activity, and lifestyle interventions and identify future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple preclinical and observational studies have observed that diet, exercise, and lifestyle interventions may play a role in mitigating disease progression, mortality, and overall disease burden for high-grade and fatal prostate cancer. Increased vegetable and fruit intakes, decreased red meat and saturated fat intakes, and increased exercise are potentially associated with decreased risk of incident disease and increased progression-free, prostate cancer-specific, and overall survival...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048878/atrp-fabricated-and-short-chain-polyethyleneimine-grafted-redox-sensitive-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-co-delivery-of-anticancer-drug-and-sirna-in-cancer-therapy
#7
Chetan Nehate, Aji Alex Moothedathu Raynold, Veena Koul
To overcome the limitations of conventional chemotherapy, nanoparticle mediated combinatorial delivery of siRNA and drug represents a new approach to overcome its associated side effects. Designing safe and efficient vehicles for their co-delivery has emerged as a potential challenge in the clinical translation of these formulations. Herein, we have demonstrated a novel "two in one" polyplex nanosystem developed from redox sensitive, short chain polyethyleneimine modified poly[(poly(ethylene)glycol methacrylate]-s-s-polycaprolactone copolymer synthesised by ATRP, which can deliver doxorubicin and polo like kinase I siRNA, simultaneously for enhanced chemotherapeutic effect...
October 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048569/impulse-control-in-negative-mood-states-emotional-eating-and-food-addiction-are-associated-with-lower-quality-of-life-in-adolescents-with-severe-obesity
#8
Meredith H Rose, Evan P Nadler, Eleanor R Mackey
Objectives: Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome to evaluate in adolescents with severe obesity, yet intrapersonal predictors of QoL are understudied. The current study assessed whether difficulty with impulse control when experiencing a negative mood (negative urgency) is associated with poorer QoL, mediated by more emotional eating and food addiction. Method: Participants consisted of 69 primarily female (71%), minority (76%) adolescents aged 13-21 (M age = 16...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048479/the-occurrence-and-covariation-of-binge-eating-and-compensatory-behaviors-across-early-to-mid-adolescence
#9
Heather A Davis, Anna Marie L Ortiz, Gregory T Smith
The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and covariation of four eating disorder behaviors across the elementary, middle, and high school years. In a sample of 1,906 youth measured over 5 years at nine time points, from the past year of elementary school through the second year of high school, binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting), compensatory exercise, and fasting behavior were assessed by self-report. Over the 5-year period, rates of binge eating and purging increased but rates of compensatory exercise and fasting decreased...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048455/improving-knowledge-and-behaviors-on-diet-and-physical-activity-in-children-results-of-a-pilot-randomized-field-trial
#10
G La Torre, A Mannocci, R Saulle, A Sinopoli, V D'Egidio, C Sestili, R Manfuso, D Masala
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge of healthy eating, to encourage change in nutritional behavior in accordance with the Mediterranean diet and to promote physical activity in children aged 7 to 9 years and their parents in a school setting through the use of cards and board games of the project Giochiamo (Let us play). METHODS: This experimental randomized field trial enrolled children in a school setting. The trial consisted of two phases...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048300/intensive-family-exposure-based-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Marina Iniesta Sepúlveda, Joshua M Nadeau, Megan K Whelan, Christina M Oiler, Amaya Ramos, Bradley C Riemann, Eric A Storch
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa exhibits high comorbidity rates and shared features with anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Anxiety-based etiological models have proposed that fear of eating-related stimuli is the central mechanism around which avoidance of food and food-related rituals are performed. Building on this approach, exposure-based interventions have demonstrated promising results. Limited evidence in adolescents encourages the evaluation of exposure approaches in this population...
November 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048239/community-priorities-for-healthy-eating-in-older-adults
#12
Qianzhi Jiang, Nancy L Cohen, Melissa Ventura Marra, Kathleen Woolf, Judith Gilbride, Sarah L Francis
Community planners such as policymakers and health care and nutrition service providers can create an "age-friendly" environment to support healthy eating in older residents by addressing the highest priorities that enable older adults to improve their dietary intake through different food-related community settings. To identify and prioritize these factors that facilitate behavioral change (enablers) and behavioral settings important for older adult nutrition based on the social ecological model, nutrition and aging professionals (n = 30) from two rural (West Virginia, Iowa) and two urban (Massachusetts, New York) city/county regions (communities) participated in an online or live focus group discussion and completed an analytic hierarchy process survey online...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048213/structural-modeling-the-relationship-of-food-addiction-and-eating-attitudes-of-young-adults-with-emotional-appetite-and-self-esteem
#13
Nevin Sanlier, Furkan Baser, Hande Mortas, Semra Navruz Varli, M Sedanur Macit, Tugba Tatar
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among food addiction, eating attitudes, emotional appetite, and self-esteem of young adults aged 18-30 years by using a structural model. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,058 volunteers (male = 307, female = 751). The hypothesis that self-esteem of young adults influences their eating attitudes was supported in the study (β = -0.081, p < .05). Another hypothesis was also supported, so self-esteem had a positive effect on food addiction (β = 0...
October 19, 2017: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047075/body-image-media-and-eating-disorders-a-10-year-update
#14
Jennifer Derenne, Eugene Beresin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046667/nanopore-long-read-guided-complete-genome-assembly-of-hydrogenophaga-intermedia-and-genomic-insights-into-4-aminobenzenesulfonate-p-aminobenzoic-acid-and-hydrogen-metabolism-in-the-genus-hydrogenophaga
#15
Han M Gan, Yin P Lee, Christopher M Austin
We improved upon the previously reported draft genome of Hydrogenophaga intermedia strain PBC, a 4-aminobenzenesulfonate-degrading bacterium, by supplementing the assembly with Nanopore long reads which enabled the reconstruction of the genome as a single contig. From the complete genome, major genes responsible for the catabolism of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate in strain PBC are clustered in two distinct genomic regions. Although the catabolic genes for 4-sulfocatechol, the deaminated product of 4-aminobenzenesulfonate, are only found in H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046571/induced-defences-in-plants-reduce-herbivory-by-increasing-cannibalism
#16
John Orrock, Brian Connolly, Anthony Kitchen
Plants are attacked by myriad herbivores, and many plants exhibit anti-herbivore defences. We tested the hypothesis that induced defences benefit tomato plants by encouraging insects to eat other members of their species. We found that defences that promote cannibalism benefit tomatoes in two ways: cannibalism directly reduces herbivore abundance, and cannibals eat significantly less plant material. This previously unknown means of defence may alter plant-herbivore dynamics, plant evolution and pathogen transmission...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046305/neuromodulation-directed-at-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-subjects-with-obesity-reduces-snack-food-intake-and-hunger-in-a-randomized-trial
#17
Sascha Heinitz, Martin Reinhardt, Paolo Piaggi, Christopher M Weise, Enrique Diaz, Emma J Stinson, Colleen Venti, Susanne B Votruba, Eric M Wassermann, Miguel Alonso-Alonso, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity.Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046265/using-the-internet-to-train-therapists-randomized-comparison-of-two-scalable-methods
#18
Zafra Cooper, Suzanne Bailey-Straebler, Katy E Morgan, Marianne E O'Connor, Caroline Caddy, Layla Hamadi, Christopher G Fairburn
BACKGROUND: One of the major barriers to the dissemination and implementation of psychological treatments is the scarcity of suitably trained therapists. The currently accepted method of training is not scalable. Recently, a scalable form of training, Web-centered training, has been shown to have promise. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our research was to conduct a randomized comparison of the relative effects of independent and supported Web-centered training on therapist competence and investigate the persistence of the effects...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046154/neural-network-alterations-across-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-fmri-studies
#19
Trevor Steward, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided insight on how neural abnormalities are related to the symptomatology of the eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). More specifically, an increasingly growing number of brain imaging studies has shed light on how functionally connected brain networks contribute not only to disturbed eating behavior, but also to transdiagnostic alterations in body/interoceptive perception, reward processing and executive functions...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045451/getting-to-the-heart-of-the-matter-does-aberrant-interoceptive-processing-contribute-towards-emotional-eating
#20
Hayley A Young, Claire Williams, Aimee E Pink, Gary Freegard, Amy Owens, David Benton
According to estimates from Public Health England, by 2034 70% of adults are expected to be overweight or obese, therefore understanding the underpinning aetiology is a priority. Eating in response to negative affect contributes towards obesity, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Evidence that visceral afferent signals contribute towards the experience of emotion is accumulating rapidly, with the emergence of new influential models of 'active inference'. No longer viewed as a 'bottom up' process, new interoceptive facets based on 'top down' predictions have been proposed, although at present it is unclear which aspects of interoception contribute to aberrant eating behaviour and obesity...
2017: PloS One
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