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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245042/is-the-diagnostic-threshold-for-bulimia-nervosa-clinically-meaningful
#1
Danielle A N Chapa, Brittany K Bohrer, Kelsie T Forbush
The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment...
December 8, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245020/killing-two-birds-with-one-stone-association-between-tobacco-and-alcohol-consumption
#2
REVIEW
A M Reis, C Quintal, Ó Lourenço
OBJECTIVES: Tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption are addictive behaviours, listed among the 10 leading risk factors that cause death and disability in the world, and health consequences are greater if their consumption is combined. There is sparse empirical evidence on the variables that influence the simultaneous consumption of tobacco and alcohol. This study aims to identify the variables that influence the joint decision to consume alcohol and tobacco, and that encourage drinkers to smoke...
December 12, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244231/differences-in-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-currently-ill-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#3
Andrea Phillipou, Susan Lee Rossell, Caroline Gurvich, David Jonathan Castle, Larry Allen Abel, Richard Grant Nibbs, Matthew Edward Hughes
Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243523/causes-and-consequences-of-uncertainty-about-illness-risk-perceptions
#4
Heather Orom, Caitlin Biddle, Erika A Waters, Marc T Kiviniemi, Amanda N Sosnowski, Jennifer L Hay
We identified determinants of uncertainty about perceived risk judgments and demonstrated that uncertainty is associated with lower engagement in risk-reducing behavior. We found that people likely have metacognitive awareness of when their judgments are overly pessimistic, resulting in uncertainty and that question context (more constraints) and people's time orientation (future orientation) are associated with lower uncertainty. Uncertainty about conditioned risk judgments was associated with lower engagement in exercising and eating a healthy diet in order to reduce risk for heart disease...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243156/comfort-eating-and-all-cause-mortality-in-the-us-health-and-retirement-study
#5
Jenna R Cummings, Ashley E Mason, Eli Puterman, A Janet Tomiyama
PURPOSE: Comfort eating is a prevalent behavior. Prior research shows that comfort eating is associated with reduced stress responses and increased metabolic risk across adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood. The purpose of the current research was to test if comfort eating prospectively predicted all-cause mortality in older adulthood. METHOD: The US Health and Retirement Study is an ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal study of older adults...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243104/skepticism-regarding-vaccine-and-gluten-free-food-safety-among-patients-with-celiac-disease-and-non-celiac-gluten-sensitivity
#6
Loren G Rabinowitz, Haley M Zylberberg, Alan Levinovitz, Melissa S Stockwell, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND: There has been a marked increase in the adoption of the gluten-free (GF) diet. AIMS: To query individuals with celiac disease (CD) and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) on their beliefs toward the health effects of gluten, and safety of vaccines and GF food products. METHODS: We distributed a Web-based survey to individuals with CD and NCGS on a CD center e-mail list. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to compare responses of respondents with CD and NCGS...
December 14, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243013/exercise-performance-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-and-its-related-cardiac-function
#7
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Mitra Moshref, Hamid Amoozgar, Seyed Ali Malek Hoseini, Saman Nikeghbalian
The aim of this study was to evaluate an exercise test in pediatric liver transplant recipients and its relation to their cardiac function. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 58 children who had successfully undergone orthotopic liver transplantation at least 6 months prior to the study, with the same age and gender-matched control group. M-mode, Doppler, tissue Doppler echocardiography and an exercise test were performed for all the participants. The VO2 values and METS in patients were less than the control (P = 0...
December 14, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242985/increasing-risk-of-psychiatric-morbidity-after-childhood-onset-type-1-diabetes-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Daniel Dybdal, Janne S Tolstrup, Stine M Sildorf, Kirsten A Boisen, Jannet Svensson, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Grete K Teilmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric morbidity following childhood onset of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a matched, population-based cohort study based on Danish national registers, we identified children and adolescents who had been diagnosed as an in- or outpatient with type 1 diabetes before the age of 18, and afterwards diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (n = 5084). Control individuals were matched according to sex and date of birth (n = 35,588)...
December 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242823/processing-of-natural-echolocation-sequences-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-seba-s-fruit-eating-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#9
M Jerome Beetz, Sebastian Kordes, Francisco García-Rosales, Manfred Kössl, Julio C Hechavarría
For the purpose of orientation, echolocating bats emit highly repetitive and spatially directed sonar calls. Echoes arising from call reflections are used to create an acoustic image of the environment. The inferior colliculus (IC) represents an important auditory stage for initial processing of echolocation signals. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) how does the temporal context of an echolocation sequence mimicking an approach flight of an animal affect neuronal processing of distance information to echo delays? (2) how does the IC process complex echolocation sequences containing echo information from multiple objects (multiobject sequence)? Here, we conducted neurophysiological recordings from the IC of ketamine-anaesthetized bats of the species Carollia perspicillata and compared the results from the IC with the ones from the auditory cortex (AC)...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242527/correlates-of-overall-and-central-obesity-in-adults-from-seven-european-countries-findings-from-the-food4me-study
#10
Carlos Celis-Morales, Katherine M Livingstone, Alexander Affleck, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Rodrigo San-Cristobal, J Alfredo Martinez, Cyril F M Marsaux, Wim H M Saris, Clare B O'Donovan, Hannah Forster, Clara Woolhead, Eileen R Gibney, Marianne C Walsh, Lorraine Brennan, Mike Gibney, George Moschonis, Christina-Paulina Lambrinou, Christina Mavrogianni, Yannis Manios, Anna L Macready, Rosalind Fallaize, Julie A Lovegrove, Silvia Kolossa, Hannelore Daniel, Iwona Traczyk, Christian A Drevon, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of obesity in adults and investigate to what extent these predictors are independent of other major confounding factors. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data collected at baseline from 1441 participants from the Food4Me study conducted in seven European countries were included in this study. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Accelerometers were used to assess physical activity levels (PA), whereas participants self-reported their body weight, height and waist circumference via the internet...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242139/mothers-of-obese-children-use-more-direct-imperatives-to-restrict-eating
#11
Megan H Pesch, Alison L Miller, Danielle P Appugliese, Katherine L Rosenblum, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of mother and child characteristics with use of direct imperatives to restrict eating. METHODS: A total of 237 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 70.9 months) participated in a video-recorded, laboratory-standardized eating protocol with 2 large portions of cupcakes. Videos were reliably coded for counts of maternal direct imperatives to restrict children's eating. Anthropometrics were measured. Regression models tested the association of participant characteristics with counts of direct imperatives...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242138/a-high-prevalence-of-food-insecurity-among-university-students-in-appalachia-reflects-a-need-for-educational-interventions-and-policy-advocacy
#12
Laura Helena McArthur, Lanae Ball, Ariel C Danek, Donald Holbert
OBJECTIVES: To measure prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among college students in Appalachia, compare food-insecure and food-secure students on correlates, and identify predictor variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, online questionnaire. SETTING: University in Appalachia. PARTICIPANTS: Nonprobability, random sample of 1,093 students (317 male [30.1%]; 723 females [68.4%]). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food insecurity, coping strategies, money expenditure, academic progress, and demographics...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242108/a-multi-level-intervention-in-worksites-to-increase-fruit-and-vegetable-access-and-intake-rationale-design-and-methods-of-the-good-to-go-cluster-randomized-trial
#13
Patricia M Risica, Gemma Gorham, Laura Dionne, William Nardi, Doug Ng, Reese Middler, Jennifer Mello, Rahmet Akpolat, Katelyn Gettens, Kim M Gans
BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is an important contributor to chronic disease prevention. However, most Americans do not eat adequate amounts. The worksite is an advantageous setting to reach large, diverse segments of the population with interventions to increase F&V intake, but research gaps exist. No studies have evaluated the implementation of mobile F&V markets at worksites nor compared the effectiveness of such markets with or without nutrition education. METHODS: This paper describes the protocol for Good to Go (GTG), a cluster randomized trial to evaluate F&V intake change in employees from worksites randomized into three experimental arms: discount, fresh F&V markets (Access Only arm); markets plus educational components including campaigns, cooking demonstrations, videos, newsletters, and a web site (Access Plus arm); and an attention placebo comparison intervention on physical activity and stress reduction (Comparison)...
December 11, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241987/boys-biceps-and-bradycardia-the-hidden-dangers-of-muscularity-oriented-disordered-eating
#14
Stuart B Murray, Erin C Accurso, Scott Griffiths, Jason M Nagata
The recognition of eating disorders (EDs) in males represents an ongoing challenge for physicians. This challenge is particularly complex in the case of EDs that are oriented toward muscularity, as opposed to thinness, which current diagnostic criteria do not accommodate. Nevertheless, EDs in males, and muscularity-oriented disordered eating (MODE) in particular, are increasingly prevalent and are likely to be encountered in clinical practice. We report the case of a 16-year-old male who presented with medical instability, requiring hospitalization, in the context of MODE...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241946/youth-with-psychogenic-non-syncopal-collapse-have-more-somatic-and-psychiatric-symptoms-and-lower-perceptions-of-peer-relationships-than-youth-with-syncope
#15
Geoffrey L Heyer
BACKGROUND: Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. METHODS: Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240304/weight-status-diet-quality-perceived-stress-and-functional-health-of-caregivers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Xiaoyin Sara Li, Jennifer A Pinto-Martin, Aleda Thompson, Jesse Chittams, Tanja V E Kral
PURPOSE: Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be highly demanding and can put significant strain on caregivers. To date, little is known about the extent to which caregivers of children with ASD experience increased levels of stress which may adversely affect health outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to compare caregivers of children with ASD and caregivers of typically developing children (TDC) in weight status, diet quality, perceived stress related to the parenting role, and functional health and well-being...
December 14, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239739/endophenotypes-a-conceptual-link-between-anorexia-nervosa-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Z C Zhou, D B McAdam, D R Donnelly
The paper, by translating the concept and the two models of endophenotype (EP), strengthens the hypothesis that there exists a linkage between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the paper synthesizes empirical research that supported the idea that individuals with AN and individuals with ASD share similarities with respect to their neurocognitive EPs and temperament EPs. The paper then introduces an innovative structure to emphasize the subtle difference between neurocognitive EPs and temperament EPs in relation to AN and ASD...
November 24, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239147/crowdsourced-asparagus-urinary-odor-population-kinetics
#18
Anuradha Ramamoorthy, Brian M Sadler, J G Coen van Hasselt, Jeroen Elassaiss-Schaap, Sreeneeranj Kasichayanula, Alena Y Edwards, Piet H van der Graaf, Lei Zhang, John A Wagner
The consumption of asparagus is associated with the production of malodorous urine with considerable interindividual variability (IIV). To characterize the urinary odor kinetics after consumption of asparagus spears, we conducted a study with consenting attendees from two American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) meetings. Subjects were randomized to eat a specific number of asparagus spears, and then asked to report their urinary odor perception. Eighty-seven subjects were included in the final analysis...
December 14, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239138/greater-reward-related-neuronal-response-to-hedonic-foods-in-women-compared-with-men
#19
Kristina T Legget, Marc-Andre Cornier, Daniel H Bessesen, Brianne Mohl, Elizabeth A Thomas, Jason R Tregellas
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to identify how sex influences neurobiological responses to food cues, particularly those related to hedonic eating, and how this relates to obesity propensity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Adult men and women who were either obesity resistant (OR) or obesity prone (OP) underwent fMRI while viewing visual food cues (hedonic foods, neutral foods, and nonfood objects) in both fasted and fed states...
December 13, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238578/bone-eating-kidney-disease
#20
Abhilash Koratala, Muhannad Leghrouz, Amir Kazory
In the current era of early detection of chronic kidney disease and efficient therapeutic options for management of its complications, skeletal manifestations of renal hyperparathyroidism are increasingly rare. A 31-year-old female patient presented for evaluation of severe pain in the left forearm, right hand, right knee, right hip, and lower back following a fall sustained 3 days prior to presentation. She had a history of end-stage renal disease and received maintenance hemodialysis. Review of the medical records revealed that she had poor compliance with her diet, medications, and dialysis treatments...
2017: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
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