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Chronobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669378/night-work-and-the-risk-of-depression
#1
Peter Angerer, Renate Schmook, Irina Elfantel, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Working the night shift interferes with the circadian chronobiological rhythm, causing sleep disturbances, fatigue, and diminished wellbeing, and increases the risk of serious disease. The question whether night work increases the risk of depression has not been adequately studied to date. METHODS: We carried out a systematic, broadly conceived literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PSYNDEX databases and the Medpilot search portal on the topic of nighttime shift work and mental illness...
July 16, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649180/procoagulatory-changes-induced-by-head-up-tilt-test-in-patients-with-syncope-observational-study
#2
Viktor Hamrefors, Artur Fedorowski, Karin Strandberg, Richard Sutton, Nazim Isma
BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypercoagulability is proposed as a mechanism promoting cardiovascular and thromboembolic events after awakening and during prolonged orthostasis. We evaluated early changes in coagulation biomarkers induced by tilt testing among patients investigated for suspected syncope, aiming to test the hypothesis that orthostatic challenge evokes procoagulatory changes to a different degree according to diagnosis. METHODS: One-hundred-and-seventy-eight consecutive patients (age, 51 ± 21 years; 46% men) were analysed...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646790/the-effects-of-individual-biological-rhythm-differences-on-sleep-quality-daytime-sleepiness-and-dissociative-experiences
#3
Yavuz Selvi, Ali Kandeger, Murat Boysan, Nursel Akbaba, Ayca A Sayin, Emine Tekinarslan, Basak O Koc, Omer F Uygur, Vedat Sar
Individuals who differ markedly by sleep chronotype, i.e., morning-type or evening-type also differ on a number of psychological, behavioral, and biological variables. Among several other psychological functions, dissociation may also lead to disruption and alteration of consciousness, which may facilitate dream-like experiences. Our study was aimed at an inquiry into the effects of individual biological rhythm differences on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in conjunction with dissociative experiences...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637048/use-of-light-therapy-by-office-based-physicians
#4
Edda Winkler-Pjrek, Marie Spies, Pia Baldinger-Melich, Lisa Perkmann, Siegfried Kasper, Dietmar Winkler
BACKGROUND: Light therapy (LT) is a non-pharmacological biological treatment that has been used in psychiatry since the 1980s. Previous research has investigated the usage of LT in hospitals. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of use of LT by office-based physicians. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent by mail to 400 randomly selected doctors in Austria. We made sure that the sample was equally representative of general practitioners (GPs) and psychiatrists, public health service doctors and private doctors, physicians in cities and in the country as well as male and female doctors...
2016: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631908/-chronobiological-approach-to-managing-an-exacerbation-of-chronic-recurrent-bacterial-cystite
#5
A V Kuzmenko, V V Kuzmenko, T A Gyaurgiev
AIM: To investigate the effects of complex therapy with and without phototherapy for an exacerbation of chronic recurrent bacterial cystitis in women at the peaks of chronobiological activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 60 patients (mean age 30.1+/-5.5 years) with exacerbations of chronic recurrent bacterial cystitis. Patients in the comparison group (n=30) were managed with standard therapy, in the study group (n=30) standard therapy was used concurrently with phototherapy by low-intensity light radiation carried out at the maximum peaks of chronobiological activity...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631303/photophobia-and-seasonal-variation-of-migraine-in-a-subarctic-population
#6
Svein I Bekkelund, Kai I Müller, Aleksander Wilhelmsen, Karl B Alstadhaug
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between photophobia and seasonal variation of migraine. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, migraineurs consecutively recruited were referred to a specialist center located above the Arctic Circle at 68-71 degrees North during a 2.5-year period. Data were obtained through a structured interview. RESULTS: In total, 302 migraineurs with a mean (±SD) age of 35.5 (±12.6) years were included. Patients who reported seasonal variation of migraine (n = 90; 29...
June 19, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630482/circadian-and-circatidal-clocks-control-the-mechanism-of-semilunar-foraging-behaviour
#7
James F Cheeseman, Rachel M Fewster, Michael M Walker
How animals precisely time behaviour over the lunar cycle is a decades-old mystery. Experiments on diverse species show this behaviour to be endogenous and under clock control but the mechanism has remained elusive. We present new experimental and analytical techniques to test the hypotheses for the semilunar clock and show that the rhythm of foraging behaviour in the intertidal isopod, Scyphax ornatus, can be precisely shifted by manipulating the lengths of the light/dark and tidal cycles. Using light T-cycles (Tcd) the resultant semilunar beat period undergoes shifts from 14...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630025/the-clock-is-ticking-ageing-of-the-circadian-system-from-physiology-to-cell-cycle
#8
REVIEW
Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez
The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24hour rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598202/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-time-dependent-dosing-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamics-of-amlodipine-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-human-subjects
#9
Samira Khodadoustan, Iran Nasri Ashrafi, K Vanaja Satheesh, Chethan Kumar, Shekar Hs, Chikkalingaiah S
In clinical practice, circadian rhythms play a prominent role in pharmacokinetics and cell responses to therapy, hence necessitating in designing a defined protocol for drug administration. Clinical evidence for chronopharmacological behavior of cardiovascular active drugs in human subjects has been limited for amlodipine. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the chronopharmacokinetic and chronopharmacodynamic phenomena of amlodipine and evaluate the effect of time of dosage in hypertensive subjects...
June 9, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569246/inactivation-of-rad52-and-hdf1-dna-repair-genes-leads-to-premature-chronological-aging-and-cellular-instability
#10
Silvia Mercado-Saenz, Beatriz Lopez-Diaz, Francisco Sendra-Portero, Manuel Martinez-Morillo, Miguel J Ruiz-Gomez
The present study aims to investigate the role of radiation sensitive 52 (RAD52) and high-affinity DNA binding factor 1 (HDF1) DNA repair genes on the life span of budding yeasts during chronological aging. Wild type (wt) and rad52, hdf1, and rad52 hdf1 mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were used. Chronological aging and survival assays were studied by clonogenic assay and drop test. DNA damage was analyzed by electrophoresis after phenol extraction. Mutant analysis, colony forming units and the index of respiratory competence were studied by growing on dextrose and glycerol plates as a carbon source...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553258/an-overview-of-monthly-rhythms-and-clocks
#11
REVIEW
Florian Raible, Hiroki Takekata, Kristin Tessmar-Raible
Organisms have evolved to cope with geophysical cycles of different period lengths. In this review, we focus on the adaptations of animals to the lunar cycle, specifically, on the occurrence of biological rhythms with monthly (circalunar) or semi-monthly (circasemilunar) period lengths. Systematic experimental investigation, starting in the early twentieth century, has allowed scientists to distinguish between mythological belief and scientific facts concerning the influence of the lunar cycle on animals. These studies revealed that marine animals of various taxa exhibit circalunar or circasemilunar reproductive rhythms...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525301/mood-the-circadian-system-and-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells
#12
Lorenzo Lazzerini Ospri, Glen Prusky, Samer Hattar
The discovery of a third type of photoreceptors in the mammalian retina, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), has had a revolutionary impact on chronobiology. We can now properly account for numerous nonvision-related functions of light, including its effect on the circadian system. Here, we give an overview of ipRGCs and their function as it relates specifically to mood and biological rhythms. Although circadian disruptions have been traditionally hypothesized to be the mediators of light's effects on mood, here we present an alternative model that dispenses with assumptions of causality between the two phenomena and explains mood regulation by light via another ipRGC-dependent mechanism...
May 17, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509111/synchrony-effect-on-joint-attention
#13
Marco Fabbri, Matteo Frisoni, Monica Martoni, Lorenzo Tonetti, Vincenzo Natale
Research on joint attention has demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to a coactor's attentional relation to jointly attended stimuli. Within a chronobiological approach, a study was conducted to assess whether the presence of joint attention, as measured by the joint Navon effect, was influenced by the synchrony effect. Pairs of participants sitting next to each other were required to respond to the identity letters in a go/no-go Navon task. The joint Navon task was performed by morning, intermediate and evening types (81 pairs) at different times of day (09:00-10:00; 13:00-14:00; 17:00-18:00)...
August 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502410/performance-awareness-predicting-cognitive-performance-during-simulated-shiftwork-using-chronobiological-measures
#14
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher, Joseph B Mulvihill, Melissa A Vander Wood
Physiological tracers of circadian rhythms and a performance awareness index were examined as predictors of cognitive performance during two sleep deprivation conditions common to occupational shiftwork. Study 1: Thirty-three sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated nightshift. Study 2: Thirty-two partially sleep-deprived participants completed a simulated dayshift. A standardized logic test was used to measure cognitive performance. Body temperature and heart rate were measured as chronobiological indices of endogenous circadian rhythms...
September 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499976/daily-modulation-of-the-speed-accuracy-trade-off
#15
Nicolas Gueugneau, Thierry Pozzo, Christian Darlot, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Goal-oriented arm movements are characterized by a balance between speed and accuracy. The relation between speed and accuracy has been formalized by Fitts' law and predicts a linear increase in movement duration with task constraints. Up to now this relation has been investigated on a short-time scale only, that is during a single experimental session, although chronobiological studies report that the motor system is shaped by circadian rhythms. Here, we examine whether the speed-accuracy trade-off could vary during the day...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488756/cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-adults-and-children-a-hypothesis
#16
Sylvain Redon, Cécile Mareau, Eric Guedj, Anne Donnet
OBJECTIVE: To see how patients' clinical descriptions compare to the third classification of International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-III beta). BACKGROUND: CVS is an episodic syndrome associated with migraine. It is a rare disorder of childhood and adulthood. New criteria are proposed in the third classification of International Classification of Headache Disorders. METHODS: This study describes children and adults' CVS characteristics at a French tertiary-care center, according to the ICHD-II and ICHD-III beta criteria...
May 10, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468929/protein-and-energy-intakes-are-skewed-toward-the-evening-among-children-and-adolescents-in-the-united-states-nhanes-2013-2014
#17
Kevin C Mathias, Suzana Almoosawi, Leonidas G Karagounis
Background: Emerging evidence suggests that the timing, amount at individual eating occasions, and distribution of protein and energy intakes throughout the day may affect health.Objective: We examined the timing, amounts, and distribution of protein and energy intakes throughout the day among participants aged 4-18 y in the United States in the context of chronobiology and nutrition.Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 2532 participants aged 4-18 y who completed the first interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall in NHANES 2013-2014...
June 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463712/the-relationship-between-chronotype-and-depressive-symptoms-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Jacky Au, John Reece
BACKGROUND: Expanding our understanding of the factors that influence depression is crucial for prognosis and treatment. In light of increasing evidence of an association between disrupted circadian rhythms and affective symptoms, a meta-analysis was used to examine the relationship between an eveningness chronotype and depression. METHODS: Electronic searches of the PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were conducted in February 2016. Relevant reviews, related journals, and reference lists were manually searched...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461828/from-clinical-considerations-to-theory-blood-pressure-variability-profiles-and-patterns
#19
Cretu Diana E, Japie Cristina, Weiss Emma, Bunea Magda, Frunza Sabina, Daraban Ana Maria, Bartos Daniela, Badila Elisabeta
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure variability (BPV) has recently been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, endothelial dysfunction as well as both CV and non-CV morbidity and mortality. Different BPV indicators have been associated with increased CV risk. METHODS: We included 744 hypertensive patients referred to our clinic for uncontrolled arterial hypertension (HTN) between 2012 and 2014, with a minimum of 40 successful daytime and 8 successful nighttime readings on automatic blood pressure monitoring (ABPM Meditech-05 device, recordings at 15-20 minutes intervals during daytime and 20-30 minutes intervals during nighttime)...
June 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460798/from-the-midnight-sun-to-the-longest-night-sleep-in-antarctica
#20
REVIEW
Nathalie Pattyn, Martine Van Puyvelde, Helio Fernandez-Tellez, Bart Roelands, Olivier Mairesse
Sleep disturbances are the main health complaints from personnel deployed in Antarctica. The current paper presents a systematic review of research findings on sleep disturbances in Antarctica. The available sources were divided in three categories: results based on questionnaire surveys or sleep logs, studies using actigraphy, and data from polysomnography results. Other areas relevant to the issue were also examined. These included chronobiology, since the changes in photoperiod have been known to affect circadian rhythms, mood disturbances, exercise, sleep and hypoxia, countermeasure investigations in Antarctica, and other locations lacking a normal photoperiod...
March 14, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
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