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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908364/non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-is-the-fastest-growing-cause-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-liver-transplant-candidates
#1
Zobair Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Janus P Ong, Ira M Jacobson, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Ajay Duseja, Yuichiro Eguchi, Vincent W Wong, Francesco Negro, Yusuf Yilmaz, Manuel Romero-Gomez, Jacob George, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert Wong, Issah Younossi, Mariam Ziayee, Arian Afendy
BACKGROUND: While hepatitis B and C have been the main drivers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has recently become an important cause of HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the causes of HCC among liver transplant (LT) candidates in the U.S. METHODS: The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (2002-2016) was used to estimate the trends in prevalence of HCC in LT candidates with the most common types of chronic liver disease: alcoholic liver disease (ALD), chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C, and NASH...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907965/the-genetic-architecture-of-diet-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-mice
#2
Simon T Hui, Zeyneb Kurt, Iina Tuominen, Frode Norheim, Richard C Davis, Calvin Pan, Darwin L Dirks, Clara E Magyar, Samuel W French, Karthickeyan Chella Krishnan, Simon Sabir, Francisco Campos-Pérez, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Luis Macías-Kauffer, Paola León-Mimila, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Xia Yang, Simon W Beaven, Adriana Huertas-Vazquez, Aldons J Lusis
We report the genetic analysis of a "humanized" hyperlipidemic mouse model for progressive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Mice carrying transgenes for human APOE*3-Leiden and CETP and fed a "Western" diet were studied on the genetic backgrounds of over 100 inbred mouse strains. The mice developed hepatic inflammation and fibrosis that was highly dependent on genetic background, with vast differences in the degree of fibrosis. Histological analysis showed features characteristic of human NASH, including macrovesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, inflammatory foci and pericellular collagen deposition...
June 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907951/analysis-of-human-c24-bile-acids-metabolome-in-serum-and-urine-based-on-enzyme-digestion-of-conjugated-bile-acids-and-lc-ms-determination-of-unconjugated-bile-acids
#3
Pingping Zhu, Jian Zhang, Yujie Chen, Shanshan Yin, Mingming Su, Guoxiang Xie, Kim L R Brouwer, Changxiao Liu, Ke Lan, Wei Jia
Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions are closely associated with health and disease. A manifestation of such co-metabolism is the vast structural diversity of bile acids (BAs) involving both oxidative stereochemistry and conjugation. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a LC-MS-based method for the analysis of human C24 BA metabolome in serum and urine. The method has high throughput covering the discrimination of oxidative stereochemistry of unconjugated species in a 15-min analytical cycle...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906416/bioactive-lipid-species-and-metabolic-pathways-in-progression-and-resolution-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Elena Paschetta, Roberto Gambino
The prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing worldwide, yet there are no effective treatments. A decade has passed since initial lipidomic analyses of liver tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We have learned that liver cells from patients with NASH have an abnormal lipid composition, and the accumulation of lipids leads to organelle dysfunction, cell injury and death, and chronic inflammation, called liptoxicity. We review the lipid species and metabolic pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of NASH, as well as potential therapeutic targets, including enzymes involved in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, bioactive sphingolipids and polyunsaturated-derived eicosanoids and specialized proresolving lipid mediators...
June 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903531/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-new-york-city-an-autopsy-study
#5
Danielle M Fernandes, Vivek Pantangi, Muhammad Azam, Marcela Salomao, Alina C Iuga, Jay H Lefkowitch, James Gill, Raffaella Morotti, Joel E Lavine, Ali A Mencin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) in children in a diverse population sample in New York City. STUDY DESIGN: Liver specimens were examined from children 2-19 years old who died of unexpected causes within 48 hours of medical presentation and underwent autopsy in New York City from 2005 to 2010. Records were reviewed for age, sex, weight, height, and race. Two hepatopathologists evaluated each liver specimen to determine pathologic diagnosis...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902522/role-of-camp-and-phosphodiesterase-signaling-in-liver-health-and-disease
#6
Banrida Wahlang, Craig McClain, Shirish Barve, Leila Gobejishvili
Liver disease is a significant health problem worldwide with mortality reaching around 2 million deaths a year. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are the major causes of chronic liver disease. Pathologically, NAFLD and ALD share similar patterns of hepatic disorders ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. It is becoming increasingly important to identify new pharmacological targets, given that there is no FDA-approved therapy yet for either NAFLD or ALD...
June 11, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900399/the-effect-of-synbiotics-bifidobacterium-infantis-and-milk-oligosaccharides-on-shaping-gut-microbiota-community-structure-and-nash-treatment
#7
Prasant Kumar Jena, Lili Sheng, Nidhi Nagar, Chao Wu, Daniela Barile, David A Mills, Yui-Jui Yvonne Wan
Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis ( Bifidobacterium infantis ) consumes human milk oligosaccharides (MO) and protects intestinal permeability thereby having anti-inflammatory effects (Underwood et al., 2015; Bode, 2006; Asakuma et al., 2011) [1-3]. Via the gut-liver axis, gut barrier disruption and dysbiosis lead to hepatic inflammation (Sheng et al., 2017; Jena et al., 2017) [4,5,6]. Our published data revealed that butyrate, as well as synbiotics of B. infantis in combination with MO, had protective effects against cancer-prone non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models, i...
August 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899851/association-of-mrna-expression-of-iron-metabolism-associated-genes-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-rats
#8
Teruhisa Higuchi, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Akiko Fukushima, Hiroshi Matsumura, Shunichi Matsuoka, Tatsuo Kanda, Masahiko Sugitani, Akiko Tsunemi, Takahiro Ueno, Noboru Fukuda
Background: Excess iron is associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: mRNA expression of duodenal cytochrome b, divalent metal transporter 1, ferroportin 1, hepcidin, hephaestin and transferrin receptor 1 in liver were higher in high fat, high cholesterol-containing diet (HFCD) group than in normal diet (ND) group. mRNA levels of divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, which stimulate iron absorption and excretion, were enhanced in small intestine...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897812/inflammasome-activation-in-kupffer-cells-confers-a-protective-response-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-through-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-expression
#9
Moumita Adak, Debajyoti Das, Sougata Niyogi, Challa Nagalakshmi, Dipika Ray, Partha Chakrabarti
Hepatocellular death or ballooning distinguishes the transition of simple steatosis to irreversible nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the molecular mechanism of hepatocellular apoptosis in NASH is largely unclear, and discovery of endogenous mediators that could prevent or inhibit cell death is thereby critical in intercepting NASH progression. Here, we identified pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a secreted, moonlighting hepatokine as 1 hepatoprotective agent in mice with diet-induced NASH...
June 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896036/the-international-liver-congress-2018
#10
Walter Alexander
Our coverage of this year's International Liver Congress reviews sessions on hepatitis C, primary biliary cholangitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
June 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894414/risk-factors-and-clinical-course-for-liver-steatosis-or-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#11
Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Satoshi Miuma, Naota Taura, Hidetaka Shibata, Ryu Sasaki, Akihiko Soyama, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
BACKGROUND: Posttransplant liver steatosis occurs frequently and can affect patient outcome. Our aim was to clarify the risk factors for steatosis or steatohepatitis after living donor liver transplantation (LT) through a retrospective examination of recent 100 living donor LT recipients and their liver donors. METHODS: Liver biopsy was performed at 1-year after LT and each year, thereafter, or as needed due to abnormal liver enzyme levels, with a median follow-up of 4 (2~10) years...
June 11, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893699/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-insulin-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-the-morbidly-obese
#12
Cláudia B M Strey, Luiz A de Carli, Marciane Fantinelli, Sabrina S Gobbato, Guilherme F Bassols, Alexandre Losekann, Gabriela P Coral
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are increasing. Type 2 diabetes mellitus may aggravate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increasing the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aims to determine the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin therapy on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the patients with morbid obesity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical, anthropometric and laboratory data were analyzed together with intraoperative liver biopsies from morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery...
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892294/the-interleukin-20-cytokine-family-in-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Esther Caparrós, Rubén Francés
The three main causes of inflammation and chronic injury in the liver are viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, all of which can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which in turn may prompt the need for liver transplant. The interleukin (IL)-20 is a subfamily part of the IL-10 family of cytokines that helps the liver respond to damage and disease, they participate in the control of tissue homeostasis, and in the immunological responses developed in this organ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892281/distinct-housing-conditions-reveal-a-major-impact-of-adaptive-immunity-on-the-course-of-obesity-induced-type-2-diabetes
#14
Julia Sbierski-Kind, Jonas Kath, Sebastian Brachs, Mathias Streitz, Matthias G von Herrath, Anja A Kühl, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek, Knut Mai, Joachim Spranger, Hans-Dieter Volk
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, our knowledge is mostly based on conventional murine models and promising preclinical studies rarely translated into successful therapies. There is a growing awareness of the limitations of studies in laboratory mice, housed in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions, as relevant aspects of the human immune system remain unappreciated. Here, we assessed the impact of housing conditions on adaptive immunity and metabolic disease processes during high-fat diet (HFD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890136/hepatocyte-specific-deletion-of-brg1-alleviates-methionine-and-choline-deficient-diet-mcd-induced-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#15
Ming Kong, Xuyang Chen, Huihui Xu, Wenping, Mingming Fang, Yong Xu
Uncontrolled inflammatory response and augmented lipid accumulation represent two key pathophysiological events in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NF-κB and SREBP1c program transcriptional regulation of cellular inflammatory response and lipid metabolism, respectively. The epigenetic mechanism underlying NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory transcription and SREBP1c-dependent pro-lipogenic transcription remains incompletely understood. In the present study we investigated the investigated the involvement of Brg1, a chromatin remodeling protein, in NASH pathogenesis in methionine-and-choline diet (MCD) induced mouse model...
June 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886156/modeling-nafld-disease-burden-in-china-france-germany-italy-japan-spain-united-kingdom-and-united-states-for-the-period-2016-2030
#16
Chris Estes, Quentin M Anstee, Maria Teresa Arias-Loste, Heike Bantel, Stefeno Bellentani, Joan Caballeria, Massimo Colombo, Antonio Craxi, Javier Crespo, Christopher P Day, Andreas Geier, Loreta A Kondili, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Rohit Loomba, Michael P Manns, Giulio Marchesini, Francesco Negro, Salvatore Petta, Vlad Ratziu, Manuel Romero-Gomez, Arun Sanyal, Jörn M Schattenberg, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Lai Wei, Stefan Zeuzem, Homie Razavi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with resulting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasingly a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. This burden is expected to increase as epidemics of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome continue to grow. The goal of this analysis was to use a Markov model to forecast NAFLD disease burden using currently available data. METHODS: A model was used to estimate NAFLD and NASH disease progression in 8 countries based on data for adult prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883724/alisol-a-24-acetate-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-stimulating-autophagy-through-the-ampk-mtor-pathway
#17
Chenqu Wu, Menghui Jing, Lijuan Yang, Lei Jin, Yicun Ding, Juan Lu, Qin Cao, Yuanye Jiang
Alisol A 24-acetate (AA), a natural triterpenoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Alismatis, has various therapeutic effects. We investigated the anti-nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) effect of AA and its underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4 weeks to induce NASH. The mice were simultaneously treated with a daily dose of AA (15, 30, and 60 mg kg-1 , ig) for 4 weeks. On the last day, the animals were sacrificed and plasma and liver tissue were collected...
June 5, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883718/genetically-modified-mouse-models-to-study-hepatic-neutral-lipid-mobilization
#18
REVIEW
Guenter Haemmerle, Achim Lass
Excessive accumulation of triacylglycerol is the common denominator of a wide range of clinical pathologies of liver diseases, termed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Such excessive triacylglycerol deposition in the liver is also referred to as hepatic steatosis. Although liver steatosis often resolves over time, it eventually progresses to steatohepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, with associated complications, including liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and ultimately death of affected individuals...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883530/fat-and-liver-transplantation-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Carmen Vinaixa, Nazia Selzner, Marina Berenguer
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a growing indication for liver transplantation (LT) worldwide, particularly in the western world. Patients with NASH typically combine features of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular comorbidities, which challenge pre-LT evaluation, surgical approaches, post-LT management and outcomes. Post-LT survival in NASH patients is excellent, similar to that achieved with other indications, particularly in the absence of cardiovascular comorbidities...
June 8, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883377/circulating-phospholipid-patterns-in-nafld-patients-associated-with-a-combination-of-metabolic-risk-factors
#20
Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Wolfgang Stremmel, Walee Chamulitrat, Anita Pathil
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its related comorbidities and genetic modifications. METHODS: 97 patients with diagnosed NAFLD were recruited at a single center during 2013⁻2016. Based on histological and transient elastography assessment, 69 patients were divided into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) subgroups...
May 21, 2018: Nutrients
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