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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050312/non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-related-liver-tumorigenesis-is-suppressed-in-mice-lacking-hepatic-retinoid-storage
#1
Takayasu Ideta, Yohei Shirakami, Masaya Ohnishi, Akinori Maruta, Koki Obara, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Hiroyuki Tomita, Takuji Tanaka, William S Blaner, Masahito Shimizu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease that can develop into a more serious form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although hepatic retinoid stores are progressively lost during the development of liver disease, how this affects steatohepatitis and its related hepatocarcinogenesis is unknown. In order to investigate these, we used subcutaneous injection of streptozotocin (0.2 mg/body) and high-fat diet to induce steatohepatitis and hepatic tumorigenesis in lecithin:retinol acyltransferase -deficient mice (n = 10), which lack stored retinoid in the liver, and control mice (n = 12)...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048675/naringenin-inhibits-alcoholic-injury-by-improving-lipid-metabolism-and-reducing-apoptosis-in-zebrafish-larvae
#2
Haiyan Lin, Zhenting Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peng Huang, Ning Ma, Yuqing Zhang, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Shaohui Huang, Haiyan An, Xuegang Sun, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities that range from isolated alcoholic steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naringenin, a predominant flavanone in grapefruit, increases resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation and protects against multiple organ injury in various animal models. However, the specific mechanisms responsible for protection against alcoholic injury are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of naringenin on alcoholic events and the molecular regulatory mechanisms of naringenin in the liver and whole body of zebrafish larvae following exposure to 350 mmol/l ethanol for 32 h...
September 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046730/aliskiren-effect-on-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-metabolic-syndrome
#3
F N Ramalho, S C Sanches, M C Foss, M J Augusto, D M Silva, A M Oliveira, L N Ramalho
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is highly associated with metabolic syndrome, a major cause of morbidity in the globalized society. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences hepatic fatty acid metabolism, inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, on metabolic syndrome-related NASH. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice (n = 45) were divided into three groups: controls; animals inoculated with streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg/day) for 5 days and fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks; and animals inoculated with STZ for 5 days, fed with HFD for 8 weeks and treated with aliskiren (100 mg/kg/day) for the final 2 weeks...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045180/quantitative-liver-mri-biopsy-correlation-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-can-one-be-used-to-predict-the-other
#4
Jonathan R Dillman, Andrew T Trout, Emma N Costello, Suraj D Serai, Kristin S Bramlage, Rohit Kohli, Stavra A Xanthakos
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between quantitative liver MRI measurements and liver biopsy findings in pediatric and young adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a registry that prospectively enrolls pediatric and young adult patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD at our tertiary medical center with parent or guardian and subject informed consent, as appropriate...
October 18, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040984/ability-of-cytokeratin-18-fragments-and-fib-4-index-to-diagnose-overall-and-mild-fibrosis-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-japanese-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients
#5
Natsuko Kobayashi, Takashi Kumada, Hidenori Toyoda, Toshifumi Tada, Takanori Ito, Masayoshi Kage, Takeshi Okanoue, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Several laboratory markers used in lieu of liver biopsy are reportedly useful in the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, we investigated the diagnostic impact of various non-invasive markers for predicting NASH. METHODS: A total of 229 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients who underwent liver biopsy were enrolled for the study. The diagnostic ability of various markers to diagnose NASH from NAFLD was investigated...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038503/gastric-acid-suppression-promotes-alcoholic-liver-disease-by-inducing-overgrowth-of-intestinal-enterococcus
#6
Cristina Llorente, Peter Jepsen, Tatsuo Inamine, Lirui Wang, Sena Bluemel, Hui J Wang, Rohit Loomba, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Mitchell L Schubert, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet, Jun Xu, Tatiana Kisseleva, Samuel B Ho, Jessica DePew, Xin Du, Henrik T Sørensen, Hendrik Vilstrup, Karen E Nelson, David A Brenner, Derrick E Fouts, Bernd Schnabl
Chronic liver disease is rising in western countries and liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death worldwide. Simultaneously, use of gastric acid suppressive medications is increasing. Here, we show that proton pump inhibitors promote progression of alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by increasing numbers of intestinal Enterococcus spp. Translocating enterococci lead to hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte death. Expansion of intestinal Enterococcus faecalis is sufficient to exacerbate ethanol-induced liver disease in mice...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038049/inhibition-of-egfr-attenuates-fibrosis-and-stellate-cell-activation-in-diet-induced-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Dandan Liang, Hongjin Chen, Leping Zhao, Wenxin Zhang, Jie Hu, Zhiguo Liu, Peng Zhong, Wei Wang, Jingying Wang, Guang Liang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD begins with steatosis and advances to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in NAFLD progression are not understood. Based on recent studies showing dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in animal models of liver injury, we sought to determine if inhibition of EGFR mitigates liver fibrosis and HSC activation in NAFLD. We utilized the high fat diet (HFD)-induced murine model of liver injury to study the role of EGFR in NAFLD...
October 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037210/a-vicious-circle-between-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
REVIEW
Zhonge Chen, Rong Yu, Ying Xiong, Fangteng Du, Shuishan Zhu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a spectrum of diseases, including simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipotoxicity, insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation are involved in the disease process. Lipotoxicity promotes inflammation and IR, which in turn, increase adipocyte lipolysis and exacerbates lipotoxicity. Furthermore, IR and inflammation form a vicious circle, with each condition promoting the other and accelerating the development of NAFLD in the presence of lipotoxicity...
October 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034439/low-grade-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-is-common-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-on-quantitative-jejunal-aspirate-culture
#9
Uday C Ghoshal, Chalamalasetty Sreenivasa Baba, Ujjala Ghoshal, George Alexander, Asha Misra, Vivek A Saraswat, Gourdas Choudhuri
BACKGROUND: Though pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear, association with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth [SIBO] and fecal dysbiosis is suggested. We evaluated SIBO in NASH using quantitative jejunal aspirate culture (conventional criteria: ≥ 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL and newer cutoff ≥ 10(3) CFU/mL) and glucose hydrogen breath test. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with NASH (age 37.5 years, range 20-54, 9, 24% female), diagnosed by ultrasonography, alanine aminotransferase >1...
October 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031905/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-decreases-after-liver-fat-reduction-via-growth-hormone-augmentation
#10
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Martin Torriani, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) ameliorates steatohepatitis but is increased in humans with fatty liver, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms and/or FGF21 resistance. Further, animal models suggest that GH increases serum FGF21. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone releasing hormone agonist, reduces liver fat in HIV-infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in FGF21 during tesamorelin treatment, to elucide the interplay between FGF21, GH augmentation, and liver fat reduction in humans...
October 7, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028281/usefulness-of-the-index-of-nash-ion-for-the-diagnosis-of-steatohepatitis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-an-external-validation-study
#11
Ramy Younes, Chiara Rosso, Salvatore Petta, Monica Cucco, Milena Marietti, Gian Paolo Caviglia, Alessia Ciancio, Maria Lorena Abate, Carlo Cammà, Antonina Smedile, Antonio Craxì, Giorgio Maria Saracco, Elisabetta Bugianesi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The non-invasive identification of steatohepatitis (NASH) in patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease is an unmet need in clinical practice. Index of NASH (ION) is a new tool for the prediction of NASH. We aimed to externally validate ION and to compare it with CK-18. Since necroinflammation precedes fibrosis, we also tested ION in combination with non-invasive tools for fibrosis. METHODS: We analyzed data from 292 Italian patients (169 Southern cohort, and 123 Northern cohort) with an histological diagnosis of NAFLD...
October 13, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027308/animal-models-for-analyzing-metabolic-syndrome-associated-liver-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Koichi Tsuneyama, Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Minoru Matsumoto, Tomoko Kobayashi, Yuki Morimoto, Takaaki Tsunematsu, Hirohisa Ogawa
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a worldwide healthcare issue and a dominant risk factor for the development of incurable diseases affecting the entire body. The hepatic manifestations of MS include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive variant, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is known to progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Excellent animal models for determining the mechanism of pathogenesis and establishing therapeutic treatment of NASH/HCC are strongly required worldwide...
October 12, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026064/the-effect-of-recipient-body-mass-index-and-its-extremes-on-survival-and-graft-vascular-and-biliary-complications-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#13
Emmanouil Giorgakis, Michele Tedeschi, Eliano Bonaccorsi-Riani, Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Krishna Menon, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Wayel Jassem, Parthi Srinivasan, Andreas Prachalias, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND This is the largest UK-based study on the effect of recipient body mass index (BMI) and its extremes (BMI <18.5 and BMI ≥35 kg/m²) on liver transplant (LT) outcomes. Its purpose was to analyze the BMI effect on post-LT mortality, graft loss, primary non-function (PNF), and graft vascular and biliary complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were retrieved from a single-center LT database of 2,115 consecutive patients receiving first LT during period February 2004 to September 2015. Survivals were compared across the BMI groups; the effects of recipient BMI on survival, PNF, and graft vascular and biliary complications were analyzed via regression...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025246/vaspin-mrna-levels-in-the-liver-of-morbidly-obese-women-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Marek Waluga, Michał Kukla, Michał Żorniak, Marta Grabiec, Maciej Kajor, Michał Dyaczyński, Grzegorz Kowalski, Dominika Żądło, Agnieszka Berdowska, Rafał Kotulski, Rafał J Bułdak, Tomasz Sawczyn, Ewa Waluga, Paweł Olczyk, Marek Hartleb
The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic vaspin mRNA in morbidly obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to look for its relationships with metabolic and histopathological features. The study included 56 severely obese women who underwent intraoperative wedge liver biopsy during bariatric surgery. Hepatic vaspin mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Vaspin mRNA found in all included patients was markedly higher in patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2 (4.59 ±3...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025245/hepatic-chemerin-mrna-in-morbidly-obese-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Maciej Kajor, Michał Kukla, Marek Waluga, Łukasz Liszka, Michał Dyaczyński, Grzegorz Kowalski, Dominika Żądło, Agnieszka Berdowska, Mateusz Chapuła, Anna Kostrząb-Zdebel, Rafał J Bułdak, Tomasz Sawczyn, Marek Hartleb
The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic chemerin mRNA, serum chemerin concentration, and immunohistochemical staining for chemerin and and chemokine receptor-like 1 (CMKLR1) in hepatic tissue in 56 morbidly obese women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to search for a relationship with metabolic and histopathological features. Chemerin mRNA was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, chemerin, and CMKLR1 immunohistochemical expression with specific antibodies, while serum chemerin concentration was assessed with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...
2017: Polish Journal of Pathology: Official Journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024407/ghrelin-deletion-protects-against-age-associated-hepatic-steatosis-by-downregulating-the-c-ebp%C3%AE-p300-dgat1-pathway
#16
Bobby Guillory, Nicole Jawanmardi, Polina Iakova, Barbara Anderson, Pu Zang, Nikolai A Timchenko, Jose M Garcia
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. NAFLD usually begins as low-grade hepatic steatosis which further progresses in an age-dependent manner to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in some patients. Ghrelin is a hormone known to promote adiposity in rodents and humans, but its potential role in hepatic steatosis is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic ghrelin deletion will protect against the development of age-related hepatic steatosis...
October 12, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023819/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-impairs-expression-of-the-type-ii-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptor
#17
Tanaporn Khamphaya, Natsasi Chukijrungroat, Vitoon Saengsirisuwan, Kisha A Mitchell-Richards, Marie E Robert, Albert Mennone, Michael H Nathanson, Jittima Weerachayaphorn
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent liver disease worldwide. It may result in several types of liver problems including impaired liver regeneration, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Because liver regeneration depends on calcium signaling, we examined the effects of NAFLD on expression of the type II inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR2), the principle calcium release channel in hepatocytes. ITPR2 promoter activity was measured in Huh7 and HepG2 cells. ITPR2 and c-Jun protein levels were evaluated in Huh7 cells, in liver tissue from a rat model of NAFLD and in liver biopsy specimens of patients with simple steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023783/melatonin-application-in-targeting-oxidative-induced-liver-injuries-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Keywan Mortezaee, Neda Khanlarkhani
It is believed that oxidative stress is a key causing factor of liver damage induced by a variety of agents, and it is a major contributing factor in almost all conditions compromising liver function, including ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver is the organ that high concentration of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) accumulates, and it is the sole organ where circulating melatonin is metabolized...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023757/acute-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia-due-to-anti-en-a-autoantibody-successfully-treated-with-rituximab
#19
Elena Nedelcu, Megan Desai, Jennifer Green, Kathleen M Bensing, Austin Turner, David Head, Pampee P Young
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) due to anti-En(a) has been previously reported in association with massive intravascular hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and fatal outcomes. Here we report a case of successfully treated AIHA due to anti-En(a) . CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old male with a past medical history of cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis status post-orthotopic liver transplant presented with 1-month history of progressive anemia...
October 11, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022011/placental-extract-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-by-exerting-protective-effects-on-endothelial-cells
#20
Akihiro Yamauchi, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Teruhide Koyama, Nobuyoshi Iinuma, Shumpei Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Eiichi Hirano, Taiichi Kaku, Takayuki Shindo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of fatty liver disease that is defined by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with human placental extract (HPE) reportedly ameliorates the hepatic injury. We evaluated the effect of HPE treatment in a mouse model of NASH. In the methione- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced liver injury model, fibrosis started from regions adjacent to the sinusoids. We administered the MCD diet with high-salt loading (8% NaCl in the drinking water) to mice deficient in the vasoprotective molecule RAMP2 for 5 weeks, with or without HPE...
September 2017: Heliyon
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