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Stefanie C Fleck, Nathan C Twaddle, Mona I Churchwell, Daniel R Doerge, Paritosh Pande, Justin G Teeguarden
Biomonitoring of human exposure to estrogens most frequently focuses on environmental and dietary estrogens, and infrequently includes measures of exposure to potent endogenous estrogens present in serum. Pregnancy is a developmentally sensitive period during which "added" serum estrogenicity exceeding normal intra-individual daily variability may be of particular relevance. We made repeated measurements of serum concentrations of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), estetrol (E4), daidzein (DDZ), genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA) in thirty pregnant women using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization (ESI)...
March 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Xinghao Wang, Jiayi Yao, Siyuan Wang, Xiaoxue Pan, Ruiyang Xiao, Qingguo Huang, Zunyao Wang, Ruijuan Qu
Photodegradation of pollutants is classically explained by reaction with reactive oxygen species. However Mn(III) may also remove pollutants, but direct evidence is actually lacking. Here we investigated the role of soluble Mn(III) on phototransformation of four typical estrogens, namely estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), in the presence of Mn(II) and humic acid. Conversion rates of 60.2%, 89.0%, 87.6%, and 80.2% were achieved for E1, E2, E3, and EE2, respectively, after 72 h visible light irradiation...
March 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Hiroya Kadokawa, Kiran Pandey, Kereilwe Onalenna, Asrafun Nahar
Estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) are considered "weak" estrogens, which exert suppressive effects through estrogen receptors α and β. However, recent studies have demonstrated that E1 and E3, as well as estradiol (E2), suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from bovine gonadotrophs via G-protein-coupled receptor 30, which is expressed in various reproductive organs. Currently, there is a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding E1 and E3, including their blood levels...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Ad Brouwers, Pieter G Dingjan, Ben Dujardin, Everardus J van Zoelen, Paul Lips, Louis J Gooren
It has been claimed that hyperestrogenism occurs in hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), but not in simple clubbing. However, one of our patients had simple clubbing and hyperestrogenism. We therefore measured estrogens, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and gonadotropins in five patients with HOA and in 18 patients with simple clubbing. Of the patients with HOA, 80% had a high urinary estriol concentration. In their serum, 80% had high estrone, 0% high estradiol, and 40% high SHBG. Of the patients with simple clubbing, 89% had a high urinary estriol concentration...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Libby M Morimoto, David Zava, Katherine A McGlynn, Frank Z Stanczyk, Alice Y Kang, Xiaomei Ma, Joseph L Wiemels, Catherine Metayer
BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) incidence has increased over the last 40 years in the United States. In contrast to TGCT among infants, it is hypothesized that TGCT in adolescents and young men is the result of sex steroid hormone imbalance during early fetal development. However, little is known about the neonatal period when abrupt hormonal changes occur, and direct supporting evidence is scarce due to the difficulties in obtaining pre-diagnostic specimens. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study examining hormone levels at birth among 91 infants (0-4 years) and 276 adolescents (15-19 years) diagnosed with TGCT, and 344 matched controls...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Oscar J Pozo, Josep Marcos, Olha Khymenets, Andy Pranata, Christopher Fitzgerald, Malcolm Donald McLeod, Cedric Shackleton
The steroid disulfates (aka bis-sulfates or bis(sulfates)) are a significant but minor fraction of the urinary steroid metabolome that have not been widely studied because major components are not hydrolyzed by the commercial sulfatases commonly used in steroid metabolomics. In early studies, conjugate fractionation followed by hydrolysis using acidified solvent (solvolysis) was used for the indirect detection of this fraction by GC-MS. This paper describes the application of a specific LC-MS/MS method for the direct identification of disulfates in urine, and their use as markers for the prenatal diagnosis of disorders causing reduced estriol production: STSD (Steroid Sulfatase Deficiency), SLOS (Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome) and PORD (P450 Oxido-Reductase Deficiency)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
A O Mueck, X Ruan, V Prasauskas, P Grob, O Ortmann
In recent years, a vast quantity of clinical data has been accumulated on the pathophysiology of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA)/genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in peri- and postmenopausal women and on the treatment options for these conditions. Guidelines from several societies have recently been updated in favor of VVA/GSM vaginal therapy with the lowest possible doses of estrogens. The combination of a vaginal ultra-low dose of 0.03 mg of estriol (E3) and lyophilized, viable Lactobacillus acidophilus KS400 (0...
January 30, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Maria Grazia Matarazzo, Salvatore Caruso, Giuliana Giunta, Gaetano Valenti, Giuseppe Sarpietro, Antonio Cianci
OBJECTIVES: OAB is a common finding in postmenopausal women. Hypoestrogenism is the root cause of many signs and symptoms of Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (vaginal dryness, atrophy, dyspareunia, urinary disorders, etc.). As such the aim of this study was to evaluate the urodynamic effects of ultralowdose estriol vaginal gel formulation to treat women with Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause and Overactive Bladder Syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This open-labeled, single center, prospective study involved 37 women with OAB recruited in our Urogynecological Unit between January and July 2016...
March 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Lai Peng, Xiaohu Dai, Yiwen Liu, Jing Sun, Shaoxian Song, Bing-Jie Ni
Complete removal of estrogens such as estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) in wastewater treatment is essential since their release and accumulation in natural water bodies are giving rise to environment and health issues. To improve our understanding towards the estrogen bioremediation process, a mathematical model was proposed for describing estrogen removal by nitrifying activated sludge. Four pathways were involved in the developed model: i) biosorption by activated sludge flocs; ii) cometabolic biodegradation linked to ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth; iii) non-growth biodegradation by AOB; and iv) biodegradation by heterotrophic bacteria (HB)...
January 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Pengcheng Xu, Xian Zhou, Defu Xu, Yanbing Xiang, Wanting Ling, Mindong Chen
This study investigated the occurrence and contamination risk of estrogens in livestock manure in Jiangsu Province, China. Four estrogens-estriol (E3), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), bisphenol A (BPA), and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2)-were detected in livestock manure from hens, ducks, swine, and cows. The respective mean concentrations of each estrogen found in these manures were 289.8, 334.1, 330.3, and 33.7 μg/kg for E3; 38.6, 10.9, 52.9, and 38.8 μg/kg for 17β-E2; 63.6, 48.7, 51.9, and 11.7 μg/kg for BPA; and 14...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Josias Merib, Daniel A Spudeit, Gabriela Corazza, Eduardo Carasek, Jared L Anderson
In this study, a rapid and straightforward approach based on magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) as extraction phases and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed to analyze the hormones estriol, 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethynylestradiol, and estrone in human urine samples. This is the first report of an application of manganese-based MILs compatible with HPLC to extract compounds of biological interest from urine samples. The hydrophobic MILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloromanganate (II) ([P6,6,6,14+]2[MnCl42-]) and aliquat tetrachloromanganate (II) ([Aliquat+]2[MnCl42-]) were employed and the optimized extraction conditions were comprised of 5 mg of MIL ([P6,6,6,14+]2[MnCl42-]), 5 μL of methanol (MeOH) as disperser solvent, and an extraction time of 90 s at sample pH 6...
January 8, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alex Glineur, Bruno Barbera, Katherine Nott, Philippe Carbonnelle, Sébastien Ronkart, Georges Lognay, Eva Tyteca
Natural estrogens (estrone: E1, 17β-estradiol: E2, estriol: E3) and synthetic 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) are reported as strong endocrine disruptors even at extremely low concentrations. Therefore, the watch list from the European Commission regarding emerging aquatic pollutants recommended maximum detection limits of 0.035 ng/L for EE2 and 0.4 ng/L for E1 and E2. In this study, a UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method allowing quantification of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 in aqueous matrices was developed. The analytes were derivatized using pyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride and a broad range of product ions were generated and their specificity was assessed by analyzing both surface and groundwater...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Katarzyna Smolarz, Sandra Zabrzańska, Lucyna Konieczna, Anna Hallmann
This paper describes changes in the content of free steroid hormones e.g. testosterone (T), estradiol-17β (E2), estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) of Mytilus trossulus from the southern Baltic Sea as a function of season, stage of gametogenesis, sex, tissue (gonadal and somatic) and depth. The highest levels of T, E2, E1 and E3 were found in mussels sampled in spring and summer while the lowest levels were found in winter. This pattern was stable and was seen in both sexes and tissues in mussels from both mussel beds...
December 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
John O Trimble, Bob Light
Transdermal compositions for hormone replacement are comprised of exogenous hormones that are biochemically similar to those produced endogenously by the ovaries or elsewhere in the body. In this work, estradiol, estriol, and testosterone were loaded in transdermal vehicles, prepared using one of three selected penetration enhancer mixtures: Vehicle 1 (olive oil and oleic acid), Vehicle 2 (isopropyl palmitate and lecithin), and Vehicle 3 (isopropyl myristate and lecithin). The influence of penetration enhancers on transdermal delivery was evaluated using Franz-type diffusion cells and Normal Human 3D Model of Epidermal Tissue...
November 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
Minjie Chen, Jie Zhang, Shaochen Pang, Chang Wang, Ling Wang, Yonghua Sun, Maoyong Song, Yong Liang
By measuring the vitellogenin 1 (vtg1) expression through quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization, we used the zebrafish embryo as an in vivo model to access the estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects of several endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as natural estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), synthetic hormones including diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-octyl phenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), tamoxifen (TMX) and 3-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TBC). According to our data, the estrogenic effect of the tested chemicals was ranked as: DES>E2 >E3 >OP>BPA, which is consistent with various in vivo and in vitro models...
January 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Erkka Järvinen, Feng Deng, Heidi Kidron, Moshe Finel
Estrone, estradiol and estriol are endogenous human estrogens that are rapidly conjugated with glucuronic acid in both intestinal and hepatic epithelial cells. The resulting glucuronides, estrone-3-glucuronide (E1 -G), estradiol-3- and 17-glucuronides (E2 -3G and E2 -17G), as well as estriol-3- and 16-glucuronides (E3 -3G and E3 -16G) are found in human plasma and urine. Unlike E2 -17G, the efflux transport of other estrogen glucuronides by human transporters has not yet been investigated comprehensively. We have studied the transport of E1 -G, E2 -3G, E3 -3G, E3 -16G and estrone-3-sulfate (E1 -S), another important estrogen conjugate, using the vesicular transport assay with recombinant human MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MDR1 and BCRP that were expressed in insect cells...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Andreas Schoenborn, Pascal Schmid, Sarah Bräm, Georg Reifferscheid, Marina Ohlig, Sebastian Buchinger
The planar yeast estrogen screen (p-YES) can serve as a highly valuable and sensitive screening tool for the detection of estrogenic compounds in various sample matrices such as water and wastewater, personal care products and foodstuff. The method combines the separation of sample constituents by thin layer chromatography with the direct detection of estrogenic compounds on the surface of the HPTLC-plate. The previous protocol using the immersion of a normal phase silica HPTLC-plate in a cell suspension for bio-autography resulted in blurred signals due to the accelerated diffusion of compounds on the wet surface of the HPTLC-plate...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Xiaoguang Sunny Li, Shu Li, Gottfried Kellermann
Accurate quantitation of estrogens (i.e, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3)) is valuable for clinical assessment of human health and disease. Alterations in estrogen levels have been implicated in numerous pathological conditions. However, inadequacies in sensitivity and specificity, cumbersome sample preparation and invasive specimen collection hamper the usability of available methods for clinical applications. Herein, a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three estrogens in human saliva providing a non-invasive alternative to conventional blood samples...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Lili Zhu, Yuhua Cao, Xinjiong Ni, Aimei You, Guangqun Cao
Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for bisphenol A were prepared by coassembling magnetic nanoparticles and amphiphilic random copolymers. Under optimized conditions, bisphenol A as template molecules, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer particles with regular morphology, small size, good monodispersity, and high content of OA-Fe3 O4 were prepared by the coassembly method using P(MMA-co-MAA) with monomer ratio of 9:1. These magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer particles could be rapidly collected by an external magnet within 1 min...
January 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Ce Wang, Di Guan, Chen Chen, Shang He, Xiaoting Liu, Chengbin Wang, Huijuan Wu
Unconjugated estriol (uE3) is one of the main naturally occurring estrogens that plays an important role in growth and development of the fetus. Usually, the level of uE3 is very low in men and non-pregnant women, but in pregnant women, the level of estriol has been found to be quite high. Therefore, the combination of uE3, AFP, and hCG is now widely used for Down Syndrome screening as a triple marker. Here, we developed a superparamagnetic lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to quantitatively detect uE3...
November 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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