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Joint infection

Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
P Soeters, F Bozzetti, L Cynober, A Forbes, A Shenkin, L Sobotka
In a recent consensus report in Clinical Nutrition the undernourished category of malnutrition was proposed to be defined and diagnosed on the basis of a low BMI or unintentional weight loss combined with low BMI or FFMI with certain cut off points. The definition was endorsed by ESPEN despite recent endorsement of a very different definition. The approach aims to assess whether nutritional intake is sufficient but is imprecise because a low BMI does not always indicate malnutrition and individuals with increasing BMI's may have decreasing FFM's...
October 8, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Laura Prieto-Borja, Graciela Rodriguez-Sevilla, Alvaro Auñon, Concepción Pérez-Jorge, Enrique Sandoval, Joaquín Garcia-Cañete, Ignacio Gadea, Ricardo Fernandez-Roblas, Antonio Blanco, Jaime Esteban
BACKGROUND: The development of sonication protocols over the last few years has improved the sensitivity of conventional cultures for the diagnosis of prosthetic-joint infection (PJI). However, the development of a new, specifically designed kit for the molecular diagnosis of PJI could provide a major improvement in this field. METHODS: Prostheses retrieved from patients who underwent implant removal from May 2014 to May 2015 were sent for culture, and processed according to a previously defined protocol that included sonication...
October 18, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Michael Maceroli, Lucas E Nikkel, Bilal Mahmood, John P Ketz, Xing Qiu, Joseph Ciminelli, Susan Messing, John C Elfar
OBJECTIVES: To determine if hospital arthroplasty volume affects patient outcomes after undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) for displaced femoral neck fractures. METHODS: The Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database from the New York State Department of Health was used to group hospitals into quartiles based on overall THA volume from 2000 to 2010. The database was then queried to identify all patients undergoing THA specifically for femoral neck fracture during this time period...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Suhitha Veeravelli, Bijan Najafi, Ivan Marin, Fernando Blumenkron, Shannon Smith, Stephen A Klotz
Approximately 1.2 million people in the United States live with HIV infection. Medical advancements have increased the life expectancy and this cohort is aging. HIV-positive individuals have a high incidence of frailty (~20%) characterized by depression and sedentary behavior. Exercise would be healthy, but due to the frail status of many HIV-positive individuals, conventional exercise is too taxing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel game-based training program (exergame) in ameliorating some aspects of frailty in HIV-infected individuals...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
S L Huang, B Zhang, L S Chen, L Liang, X N Luo, Z M Lu, S Y Zhang
Objective: To report rare cases of congenital neck cutaneous sinus with an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint and to investigate their origins and managements. Methods: A total of ten patients with congenital neck cutaneous sinus having an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint treated in the Guangdong General Hospital from January 2010 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There four boys and six girls, aging from 11 months to 96 months with an average of 33.4 months, and they had a common feature showing a congenital cutaneous sinus with an orifice near sternoclavicular joint...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Zeynep Maraş Özdemir, Ayşegül Sağır Kahraman, Cemile Ayşe Görmeli, Reşit Sevimli, Nusret Akpolat
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), typically found in children, is a rare single or multisystem disorder with a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations. Unusual presentations of LCH are occasionally encountered and it may be difficult to distinguish LCH from an infection or a benign or malignant tumor. RESULTS: A 35-year-old female presented with pain in her back and left buttock, malaise, and weight loss, with a duration of several months...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Giovanni Ravasi, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Ricardo Baruch, Juan Vicente Guanira, Ricardo Luque, Carlos F Cáceres, Massimo Ghidinelli
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Jelmer Sjollema, Heidrun Keul, Henny van der Mei, René Dijkstra, Minie Rustema-Abbing, Joop de Vries, Ton Loontjens, Ton Dirks, Henk Busscher
Various potential anti-infection strategies can be thought of for biomaterial implants and devices. Permanent, tissue-integrated implants such as artificial joint prostheses require a different anti-infection strategy than, for instance, removable urinary catheters. The different requirements set to biomaterials implants and devices in different clinical applications call for tailor-made strategies. Here, a modular coating-concept for biomaterials is reported, which in its full, trifunctional form comprises nonadhesiveness to bacteria and antimicrobial release, combined with enhanced tissue integration characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Anne J Spaans, L Paul van Minnen, Assa Braakenburg, Aebele B Mink van der Molen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of joint distraction of the first carpometacarpal (CMC1) joint in patients with CMC1 osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: An external joint distractor was placed over the CMC1 joint by K-wire fixation in the trapezium and the metacarpal. The joint was distracted 3 mm during surgery. The device was then kept in place for 8 weeks. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire (MHQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and grip strength were recorded preoperatively and at set postoperative intervals...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Olivier Borens, Pablo S Corona, Lars Frommelt, Stergios Lazarinis, Michael Richard Reed, Carlo Luca Romano
Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) continues to gain acceptance as the standard of care for the treatment of severe degenerative joint disease, and is considered one of the most successful surgical interventions in the history of medicine. A devastating complication after TJA is infection. Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), represents one of the major causes of failure and remains a significant challenge facing orthopaedics today. PJI usually requires additional surgery including revision of the implants, fusion or amputations causing tremendous patient suffering but also a heavy health economics burden...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
H Claude Sagi, David Donohue, Seth Cooper, David P Barei, Justin Siebler, Michael T Archdeacon, Marcus Sciadini, Michelle Romeo, Patrick F Bergin, Thomas Higgins, Hassan Mir
OBJECTIVES: The current literature focuses on wound severity, time to debridement and antibiotic administration with respect to risk of infection after open fracture. The purpose of this analysis was to determine if either the incidence of post-traumatic infection or causative organism varies with treating institution or the season in which the open fracture occurred. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Seven level-one regional referral trauma centers located in each of the seven climatic regions of the continental United States (Northwest; High Plains; Midwest/Ohio Valley; New England/Mid-Atlantic; Southeast; South; and Southwest)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Sanka Amadoru, Kwang Lim, Mark Tacey, Craig Aboltins
AIMS: To explore differences in presentation and outcomes between younger and older patients with bacterial spinal infections. METHODS: Clinical, microbiological and radiological information was collected for patients at a single metropolitan hospital with spinal infections (spondylodiscitis, vertebral osteomyelitis, septic discitis, facet joint septic arthritis, and spinal epidural abscess) between January 2008 and January 2015. Patients were excluded if under 18 years of age, or if clinical and imaging findings were inconsistent with the diagnosis...
October 18, 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Jai Prakash Soni, Ratna D Puri, Kapil Jetha, G S L Bhavani, Monika Chaudhary, Sudha Kohli, I C Verma
Infantile systemic hyalinosis (OMIM 236490) is a progressive autosomal recessive disorder characterized by widespread deposition of hyaline material in many tissues leading to multiple subcutaneous skin nodules, gingival hypertrophy and joint contractures. The authors describe five children from four unrelated families, from the "mali (farmer)" community in Jodhpur, with the disorder. All of them had classical clinical features, and four died from severe infections between age of 7 mo to 3 y. Two affected children had the same, but novel mutation in the initiation codon, in homozygous form c...
October 18, 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Iris K Minichmayr, André Schaeftlein, Joseph L Kuti, Markus Zeitlinger, Charlotte Kloft
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess linezolid pharmacokinetics in the plasma and interstitial space fluid (ISF) of patients with sepsis, diabetic foot infections or cystic fibrosis and healthy volunteers. The impacts of joint characteristics and disease on plasma and target-site exposure were to be identified together with the benefit of dose intensification in critically ill patients. METHODS: Rich plasma (n = 1598) and ISF concentrations in subcutaneous adipose (n = 1430) and muscle tissue (n = 1089) measured by microdialysis were pooled from three clinical trials with 51 individuals receiving 600 mg of intravenous and oral linezolid...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz, Andreas Stallmach, Christian Lautenschläger
Biofilm formation, also known as microfouling, on indwelling medical devices such as catheters or prosthetic joints causes difficult to treat and recurrent infections. It is also the initial step for biocorrosion of surfaces in aquatic environment. An efficient prevention of microfouling is preferable but the development of antibiofilm surfaces is enormously challenging. Therefore, soda-lime, aluminosilicate, and three borosilicate glasses with different TiO2 and ZnO compositions were investigated on their feasibility to prevent biofilm formation by standardized in vitro biofilm assays using different pathogenic bacteria...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Merritt D Kinon, Rani Nasser, Jonathan Nakhla, Rupen Desai, Jessica R Moreno, Reza Yassari, Carlos A Bagley
Pediatric emergency physicians must have a high clinical suspicion for atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation (AARS), particularly when a child presents with neck pain and an abnormal head posture without the ability to return to a neutral position. As shown in the neurosurgical literature, timely diagnosis and swift initiation of treatment have a greater chance of treatment success for the patient. However, timely treatment is complicated because torticollis can result from a variety of maladies, including: congenital abnormalities involving the C1-C2 joint or the surrounding supporting muscles and ligaments, central nervous system abnormalities, obstetric palsies from brachial plexus injuries, clavicle fractures, head and neck surgery, and infection...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Michael P Palmer, Rachael Melton-Kreft, Laura Nistico, N Louisa Hiller, Leon H J Kim, Gregory T Altman, Daniel T Altman, Nicholas G Sotereanos, Fen Z Hu, Patrick J De Meo, Garth D Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have identified known bacterial pathogens in the knees of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) before arthroplasty. AIMS: The current study was designed to determine the incidence and types of bacteria present in the synovial fluid of native knee joints from adult patients with diagnoses of septic arthritis and OA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were enrolled between October 2010 and January 2013. Synovial fluid samples from the affected knee were collected and evaluated with both traditional microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (molecular diagnostics [MDx]) to prospectively characterize the microbial content...
October 17, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
G Suleyman, R Kenney, M J Zervos, A Weinmann
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral therapy (OPAT) has become a safe and effective modality for patients requiring intravenous or prolonged antimicrobial therapy since the 1970s. It is being increasingly utilized in various settings; however, studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of clinic-based OPAT are limited. Since 2012, patients being considered for OPAT have required an infectious disease (ID) consultation at our institution. Candidates receiving once-daily antimicrobials who were ineligible for home infusion or nursing home placement as determined by their insurance companies and those who preferred the clinic over nursing home or home infusion were referred to the ID clinic...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Alan Kivitz, Thomas Wallace, Ewa Olech, Michael Borofsky, Jenny Devenport, Jinglan Pei, Margaret Michalska
INTRODUCTION: To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) in US patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who rolled over from the two global phase 3 studies, SUMMACTA (NCT01194414) and BREVACTA (NCT1232569), into this open-label, single-arm, phase 3b study. METHODS: Patients continued to receive TCZ-SC 162 mg weekly or every other week or switched from intravenous TCZ to TCZ-SC 162 mg qw for up to 84 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with serious adverse events (SAEs)...
September 24, 2016: Rheumatol Ther
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