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Brachial neuropathy

Malo Le Hanneur, Andres A Maldonado, Benjamin M Howe, Michelle L Mauermann, Robert J Spinner
BACKGROUND: Several hypotheses have been proposed for the pathophysiology of suprascapular nerve (SSN) palsy, including compression, traction, and nerve inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To provide insight into the pathophysiology of isolated nontraumatic SSN palsy by performing critical reinterpretations of electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies and magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with such diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients referred to our institution for the past 20 yr with a diagnosis of nontraumatic isolated suprascapular neuropathy who had an upper extremity EDX study and a shoulder or brachial plexus MR scan...
February 26, 2018: Neurosurgery
Rola A Mahmoud, Charles K Abrams
Peripheral neurological complications of lymphomas are rare and much less frequent than central complications. Nonetheless, on occasion, systemic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may directly infiltrate the peripheral nervous system at various levels. This report describes a man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leptomeningeal disease who developed progressive areflexic quadraparesis. Initial electromyography (EMG) was consistent with a polyradiculopathy and a repeat EMG performed 1 month later for worsening symptoms showed evidence of demyelination...
March 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Pinar Karakaya, Bahar Ozdemir, Meral Mert, Yildiz Okuturlar
AIM: The sodium-sparing effect of insulin leads to increase in total sodium pool of the body which is a chronic stimulus for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between ANP and microvascular complications of diabetes. METHODS: 60 patients, 30-70 years old, with the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are enrolled into the study. Patients with a chronic disease other than DM are excluded. Blood samples for routine biochemical tests are taken after at least 12 h fasting at 8-9 am...
February 14, 2018: Obesity Facts
Cristian Milicin, Elena Sîrbu
INTRODUCTION: Lower motor neurons are the only neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) with the ability to regenerate without any intervention after an axotomy. AIM: This present study was conducted to analyze clinical and electrophysiological parameters in four groups of upper limb peripheral neuropathies, before and after treatment, comparing the results obtained after three cures of complex rehabilitation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected a number of 107 patients (66 women and 41 men) aged between 29 and 77 years (mean age = 49...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Andrew W Kam, Patrick H Lam, Pieter S W A Haen, Martin Tan, Aminudin Shamsudin, George A C Murrell
BACKGROUND: Brachial plexopathy is not uncommon after shoulder surgery. Although thought to be due to stretch neuropathy, its etiology is poorly understood. This study aimed to identify arm positions and maneuvers that may risk causing brachial plexopathy during shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS: Tensions in the cords of the brachial plexuses of 6 human cadaveric upper limbs were measured using load cells while each limb was placed in different arm positions and while they underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty and revision reverse arthroplasty...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Jerry Tsung-Kai Lin, Johnny Chuieng-Yi Lu, Yenlin Huang, Tommy Nai-Jen Chang, David Chwei-Chin Chuang
Lymphangiomas are rare malformations of the lymphatic system and can often be found in the neck region, where its proximity to the brachial plexus may cause compressive neuropathy and possible iatrogenic injuries during dissection. We report 4 cases of lymphangiomas with compression of the brachial plexus that were successfully removed without permanent nerve injuries and present a literature review of the preoperative approach and surgical techniques. A preoperative multidisciplinary approach can help surgeons predict what they may encounter during the surgery...
January 24, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Samir Assaad Khalil, Magdy Helmy Megallaa, Kamel Hemida Rohoma, Myriam AbouSeif Guindy, Adel Zaki, Mohamed Hassanein, Amin Helmy Malaty, Hanaa Mohamed Ismael, Ibrahim Fahmy Kharboush, Dalal Nasr-Eldein El Kafash, Hassan Nooman Sallam, Iman Abdelkareem Desouky
BACKGROUND: In Egypt, data on the prevalence of chronic diabetic complications, which are essential for the adjustment of policies and practices related to diabetes care, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of chronic complications of diabetes; namely neuropathy, diabetic kidney disease (DKD), retinopathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in newly-diagnosed versus known type 2 diabetic patients. SUBJECTS & METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that is based on a previous household survey conducted on a representative sample of the population of Alexandria, Egypt...
January 24, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
John G Horneff, Matthew Pepe, Bradford Tucker, Fotios Tjoumakaris, Nicholas Lombardi, Charles Wowkanech, Luke S Austin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize the occurrence of distal mononeuropathy (DMN) in patients before and after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR) as well as resolution of the symptoms. METHODS: One hundred one patients over the age of 18 undergoing arthroscopic RCR +/- concurrent procedures completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of a symptomatic DMN. Patients with history of diabetic neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, brachial plexopathy, or Spurling sign were excluded...
January 17, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
John Souter, Kevin Swong, Matthew McCoyd, Neelam Balasubramanian, Magan Nielsen, Vikram C Prabhu
BACKGROUND: Common peroneal nerve (CPN) compressive neuropathy is the most common lower extremity entrapment neuropathy. MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained single-institution database of all cases of CPN palsy that underwent decompression and neuroplasty over a five-year period was performed. RESULTS: Thirty patients underwent a neuroplasty of the CPN over a five year period (2010-2015) at our institution...
January 17, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yasuhito Sasaki, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Eiko Hashimoto, Yu Sasaki, Takeshi Yamaguchi, Takehiro Kijima, Koji Akimoto, Seiji Ohtori, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are believed to coexist with cervical spine lesions. In cases of preexisting neuropathy, such as cervical spine lesions, fatty degeneration has likely already occurred due to the neuropathy. In these cases, rotator cuff tear is thought to occur easily because of preexisting extensive fatty degeneration and degeneration of the tendons due to neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of paralysis due to neuropathy proximal to the suprascapular nerve on the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons using a rat model of brachial plexus paralysis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Iram Naz, Elliot Walters, Cameron M Akbari, Christopher E Attinger, Paul J Kim
Vascular assessment of the lower extremity is a critical step in any patient presenting with lower extremity chronic wounds to predict the likelihood of healing and risk of amputation. This concept is vital in patients with diabetes due to their complex vascular anatomy and disease distribution. Three arteries supply the six angiosomes of the lower extremity (i.e., three-dimensional blocks of tissue fed by a "source" artery in the foot and ankle). In diabetic patients, assessment of adequate blood flow to the lower extremities is complicated by the presence of arterial calcification, associated neuropathy, and inflammation...
October 12, 2017: Surgical Technology International
Kelly G Gwathmey
Cancer in the form of solid tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma can infiltrate and metastasize to the peripheral nervous system, including the cranial nerves, nerve roots, cervical, brachial and lumbosacral plexuses, and, rarely, the peripheral nerves. This review discusses the presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options for metastatic lesions to these components of the peripheral nervous system and is organized based on the anatomic distribution. As skull base metastases (also discussed in Chapter 14) result in cranial neuropathies, these will be covered in detail, as well as cancers that directly infiltrate the cranial nerves...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Pierre R Bourque, Jodi Warman Chardon, Mark Bryanton, Melissa Toupin, Bruce F Burns, Carlos Torres
BACKGROUND: Neurolymphomatosis is a process of neoplastic endoneurial invasion, most strongly associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It must be distinguished from paraneoplastic, metabolic, nutritional and treatment-related causes of neuropathy that are common in this patient population. METHODS: This brief case series illustrates the protean manifestations of neurolymphomatosis of the brachial plexus, ranging from focal distal mononeuropathy to multifocal brachial plexopathy, either as the index manifestation of lymphoma or as a complication of relapsing disease...
January 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Petr Kozler, Dana Maresova, Jaroslav Pokorny
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find how a simultaneous impairment of the CNS (cellular brain edema induced by water intoxication) and PNS (blockade of the right forelimb brachial plexus by local anesthewtic - Marcaine) affects spontaneous locomotor activity of adult rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into groups of animals without water intoxication (without WI) - A,B,C, and those that were water intoxicated (induction of brain edema - after WI) - D,E,F. Both groups were further divided into intact ones (A,D), animals with PNS lesion (Marcaine) (B,E) and sham-operated animals (C,F)...
December 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Barbara Robnik, Darja Keše, Tereza Rojko, Alenka Horvat-Ledinek, Aleš Pražnikar, Bojana Beović
Few reports in the literature describe isolated peripheral neuropathies in relation to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without concurrent damage to the central nervous system. To our knowledge only a single case of mononeuritis multiplex with brachial plexus neuropathy coincident with M. pneumoniae has been documented until now. Here we present the first clinical case of lobar M. pneumoniae pneumonia in a 19-year-old female patient, where coincident neurological complications manifested as unilateral brachial plexus neuropathy, affecting axillar and suprascapular nerves...
April 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Khalil Ahmad, Saeed Bin Ayaz, Heyyan Bin Khalil, Sumeera Matee
A number of orthopedic injuries can occur during epileptic seizures. Anterior shoulder dislocation is one such orthopedic injury that is quite rare. The shoulder dislocation may injure the brachial plexus. Besides seizures, the nerves can also be damaged by anticonvulsive therapy. Muscle wasting following a seizure can misguide a clinician to investigate only neural or muscular pathologies. We report here an individual with epilepsy who was referred to us for electrodiagnostic evaluation of proximal muscle wasting related to a suspected proximal neuropathy...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Ingrid J T Herraets, H Stephan Goedee, Johan A Telleman, Jan-Thies H van Asseldonk, Leo H Visser, W Ludo van der Pol, Leonard H van den Berg
OBJECTIVE: Wartenberg's migrant sensory neuritis (WMSN) is a rare, patchy, pure sensory neuropathy of unknown etiology. High-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is an emerging diagnostic technique for neuropathies, but it has not been applied in WMSN. In this study we aimed to determine HRUS abnormalities in WMSN. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of 8 newly diagnosed patients with WMSN and 22 treatment-naive disease controls (16 patients with pure sensory axonal neuropathy and 6 with pure sensory chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) or Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS))...
January 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Shikha Khandelwal, Suvinay Saxena, Disha J Hansalia
Background: Neurolymphomatosis is a neurologic complication poorly recognized by neurologists and oncologists and presents usually several months after successful treatment of systemic lymphoma. Other disorders that must be differentiated from these entities include peripheral-nerve or nerve root compression and paraneoplastic neuropathy. Aim: To describe the unusual occurrence of neurolymphomatosis in a patient of B-cell lymphoma. Method: Diagnosis was made by demonstration of enhancement of nerve roots on Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brachial, lumbosacral plexus, peripheral nerves or by increased hyper-metabolic activity along the course of affected nerves on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
Mohammad W Kassem, Joe Iwanaga, Marios Loukas, Jonathan J Stone, Jay Smith, Robert J Spinner, R Shane Tubbs
Inflammatory etiologies are becoming increasingly recognized as explanations of some neuropathies, especially those occurring in the perioperative period. Although "brachial neuritis" is known to affect extraplexal nerves, accessory nerve palsy following median sternotomy has been attributed to stretch on the nerve. To better elucidate stretch as a potential cause, a cadaveric study was performed. Two patients who developed accessory nerve palsy following median sternotomy are presented to illustrate features consistent with the diagnosis of a perioperative inflammatory neuropathy...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Barbara J Duffy, Tito D Tubog
Perioperative peripheral nerve injury is a serious yet preventable perioperative complication. Since the inception of the American Association of Anesthesiologists Closed Claim Project, the incidence of peripheral nerve injury has remained constant with an overall reported prevalence rate of 15% to 16%. To date, the most frequent nerve injuries are ulnar nerve neuropathy and brachial plexus injury. This article will review the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, causative and risks factors, and preventive measures for the two most common nerve injuries...
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
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