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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449195/neutrophil-microvesicles-from-healthy-control-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-prevent-the-inflammatory-activation-of-macrophages
#1
Hefin I Rhys, Francesco Dell'Accio, Costantino Pitzalis, Adrian Moore, Lucy V Norling, Mauro Perretti
Microvesicles (MVs) are emerging as a novel means to enact cell-to-cell communication in inflammation. Here, we aimed to ascertain the ability of neutrophil-derived MVs to modulate target cell behaviour, the focus being the macrophage. MVs were generated in response to tumour necrosis factor-α, from healthy control neutrophils or those from rheumatoid arthritis patients. MVs were used to stimulate human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro, or administered intra-articularly in the K/BxN mouse model of arthritis...
February 7, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437578/tissue-factor-an-essential-mediator-of-hemostasis-and-trigger-of-thrombosis
#2
REVIEW
Steven P Grover, Nigel Mackman
Tissue factor (TF) is the high-affinity receptor and cofactor for FVII/VIIa. The TF-FVIIa complex is the primary initiator of blood coagulation and plays an essential role in hemostasis. TF is expressed on perivascular and epithelial cells at organ and body surfaces where it forms a hemostatic barrier. TF also provides additional hemostatic protection to vital organs, such as the brain, lung, and heart. Under pathological conditions, TF can trigger both arterial and venous thrombosis. For instance, atherosclerosis plaques contain high levels of TF on macrophage foam cells and microvesicles that drives thrombus formation after plaque rupture...
February 8, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435930/quantum-language-of-microrna-application-for-new-cancer-therapeutic-targets
#3
Yoichi Robertus Fujii
MicroRNA (miRNA) is the noncoding gene: therefore, the miRNA gene inheritably controls protein gene expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Aberrant expression of miRNA genes causes various human diseases, especially cancers. Although cancer is a complex disease, cancer/miRNA implication has yet been grasped from the perspective of miRNA profile in bed side. Since miRNA is the mobile genetic element, the clinical verification of miRNA in microvesicle of blood is too much straggle to predict potential cancer/miRNA associations without bioinformatical computing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435928/mining-exosomal-micrornas-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-cardiac-regeneration
#4
Sang-Ging Ong, Won Hee Lee, Yang Zhou, Joseph C Wu
Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent advances in cardiac regenerative therapy have allowed for novel modalities in replenishing the damaged myocardium. However, poor long-term engraftment and survival of transplanted cells have largely precluded effective cell replacement. As an alternative to direct cell replacement, the release of paracrine protective factors may be a more plausible effector for cardioprotection which may partially be mediated through secretion of microvesicles, or exosomes, that contribute to cell-cell communication...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433864/leukoreduction-of-packed-red-blood-cells-attenuates-proinflammatory-properties-of-storage-derived-microvesicles
#5
Jillian R Richter, Jeffrey M Sutton, Phillip Hexley, Taylor A Johannigman, Alex B Lentsch, Timothy A Pritts
BACKGROUND: Leukoreduction prior to packed red blood cell (pRBC) storage is not a universally accepted practice. Our laboratory has previously shown that microvesicles (MVs) accumulate in pRBC units during storage and play an important role in lung injury after resuscitation. Currently, the effect of leukoreduction on MV formation in stored pRBC units is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that leukoreduction of pRBC units prior to storage would attenuate the production of MVs and decrease pulmonary inflammation after hemorrhage and resuscitation...
March 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432782/subpopulations-of-extracellular-vesicles-and-their-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Cecilia Lässer, Su Chul Jang, Jan Lötvall
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have over the last 10-15 years been recognized to convey key messages in the molecular communication between cells. Indeed, EVs have the capacity to shuttle proteins, lipids, and nucleotides such as RNA between cells, leading to an array of functional changes in the recipient cells. Importantly, the EV secretome changes significantly in diseased cells and under conditions of cellular stress. More recently, it has become evident that the EV secretome is exceptionally diverse, with many different types of EVs being released by a single cell type, and these EVs can be described in terms of differences in density, molecular cargos, and morphology...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428958/down-regulation-of-neuropathy-target-esterase-in-preeclampsia-placenta-inhibits-human-trophoblast-cell-invasion-via-modulating-mmp-9-levels
#7
Ting Zhong, Jiaxiang Chen, Yan Ling, Bei Yang, Xingxing Xie, Dainan Yu, Dalei Zhang, Jiexiu Ouyang, Haibin Kuang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuropathy target esterase (NTE, also known as neurotoxic esterase) is proven to deacylate phosphatidylcholine (PC) to glycerophosphocholine as a phospholipase B. Recently; studies showed that artificial phosphatidylserine/PC microvesicles can induce preeclampsia (PE)-like changes in pregnant mice. However, it is unclear whether NTE plays a key role in the pathology of PE, a pregnancy-related disease, which was characterized by deficient trophoblast invasion and reduced trophoblast-mediated remodeling of spiral arteries...
February 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427323/androgen-receptor-dampens-tissue-factor-expression-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-egr1
#8
Bastian Hoesel, Marion Mussbacher, Burak Dikorman, Manuel Salzmann, Alice Assinger, Lena Hell, Johannes Thaler, José Basílio, Bernhard Moser, Ulrike Resch, Hannah Paar, Nigel Mackman, Johannes A Schmid
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men. Advanced prostate cancer is usually treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which aims at diminishing circulating testosterone to reduce cancer growth. There is growing evidence that ADT can increase the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in prostate cancer patients. The tissue factor (TF) gene is one of the most important mediators of coagulation and VTE, but so far there is limited data on androgen receptor (AR) mediated TF gene expression...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423356/stem-cell-therapies-for-the-resolution-of-radiation-injury-to-the-brain
#9
Sarah M Smith, Charles L Limoli
Purpose of review: To encapsulate past and current research efforts focused on stem cell transplantation strategies to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Recent Findings: Transplantation of human stem cells in the irradiated brain was first shown to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in a landmark paper by Acharya et al., appearing in PNAS in 2009. Since that time, work from the same laboratory as well as other groups have reported on the beneficial (as well as detrimental) effects of stem cell grafting after cranial radiation exposure...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419408/distinct-pathogenesis-of-pancreatic-cancer-microvesicle-associated-venous-thrombosis-identifies-new-antithrombotic-targets-in-vivo
#10
Konstantin Stark, Irene Schubert, Urjita Joshi, Badr Kilani, Parandis Hoseinpour, Manovriti Thakur, Petra Grünauer, Susanne Pfeiler, Tobias Schmidergall, Sven Stockhausen, Markus Bäumer, Sue Chandraratne, Marie-Luise von Brühl, Michael Lorenz, Raffaele Coletti, Sven Reese, Iina Laitinen, Sonja Maria Wörmann, Hana Algül, Christiane J Bruns, Jerry Ware, Nigel Mackman, Bernd Engelmann, Steffen Massberg
OBJECTIVE: Cancer patients are at high risk of developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism, a leading cause of mortality in this population. However, it is largely unclear how malignant tumors drive the prothrombotic cascade culminating in DVT. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we addressed the pathophysiology of malignant DVT compared with nonmalignant DVT and focused on the role of tumor microvesicles as potential targets to prevent cancer-associated DVT...
February 1, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402982/microparticles-produced-by-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e7-expressing-cells-impair-antigen-presenting-cell-function-and-the-cytotoxic-t-cell-response
#11
J Zhang, C Burn, K Young, M Wilson, K Ly, M Budhwani, A Tschirley, A Braithwaite, M Baird, M Hibma
High-risk, cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause infections of the epidermis that may progress to cancer, including cervical cancer. Viral persistence, contributed to by viral evasion of the host immune response, is associated with the likelihood of cancer developing. Langerhans cells (LCs) are the only professional antigen presenting cells located in the epidermis, therefore may influence the antiviral immune response. Microparticles, or microvesicles, are small membrane particles shed by cells that can exert effects on other cells at both a local and systemic level...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400984/antigen-presentation-by-extracellular-vesicles-from-professional-antigen-presenting-cells
#12
Marthe F S Lindenbergh, Willem Stoorvogel
The initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity require multifaceted modes of communication between different types of immune cells, including direct intercellular contact, secreted soluble signaling molecules, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs can be formed as microvesicles directly pinched off from the plasma membrane or as exosomes secreted by multivesicular endosomes. Membrane receptors guide EVs to specific target cells, allowing directional transfer of specific and complex signaling cues. EVs are released by most, if not all, immune cells...
January 31, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397740/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-microvesicles-in-human-saliva-for-lung-cancer
#13
Yan Sun, Chunhui Huo, Zhi Qiao, Zhi Shang, Asad Uzzaman, Sha Liu, Xiaoteng Jiang, Liu-Yin Fan, Liyun Ji, Xin Guan, Cheng-Xi Cao, Hua Xiao
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived microparticles present in most body fluids, mainly including microvesicles and exosomes. EVs-harbored proteins have emerged as novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and prediction of different cancers. Herein, we successfully isolated microvesicles and exosomes from human saliva, which were further characterized comprehensively. Salivary EVs protein profiling in normal subjects and lung cancer patients was systematically compared through utilizing LC-MS/MS based label free quantification...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389393/not-all-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-exosomes-calcify-equally-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
Adriana Dusso, Maria Isabel Colombo, Catherine M Shanahan
Prevention of medial calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease requires the maintenance of vascular smooth muscle cell fitness. To preserve viability under chronic kidney disease-induced stress, vascular smooth muscle cells increase exosome formation and release, but the result is aggravated pathological calcification. Now Chen et al. report that microvesicles from calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells may propagate procalcifying signals to normal vascular smooth muscle cells. To help design effective strategies to impair procalcifying cell-to-cell communication, this commentary updates the current understanding of the main regulators of microvesicle/exosome biogenesis and secretion...
February 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384376/new-technologies-for-analysis-of-extracellular-vesicles
#15
Huilin Shao, Hyungsoon Im, Cesar M Castro, Xandra Breakefield, Ralph Weissleder, Hakho Lee
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are diverse, nanoscale membrane vesicles actively released by cells. Similar-sized vesicles can be further classified (e.g., exosomes, microvesicles) based on their biogenesis, size, and biophysical properties. Although initially thought to be cellular debris, and thus under-appreciated, EVs are now increasingly recognized as important vehicles of intercellular communication and circulating biomarkers for disease diagnoses and prognosis. Despite their clinical potential, the lack of sensitive preparatory and analytical technologies for EVs poses a barrier to clinical translation...
January 31, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382685/proteomic-profiling-reveals-the-transglutaminase-2-externalization-pathway-in-kidneys-after-unilateral-ureteric-obstruction
#16
Giulia Furini, Nina Schroeder, Linghong Huang, David Boocock, Alessandra Scarpellini, Clare Coveney, Elisa Tonoli, Raghavendran Ramaswamy, Graham Ball, Claudia Verderio, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Increased export of transglutaminase-2 (TG2) by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) into the surrounding interstitium modifies the extracellular homeostatic balance, leading to fibrotic membrane expansion. Although silencing of extracellular TG2 ameliorates progressive kidney scarring in animal models of CKD, the pathway through which TG2 is secreted from TECs and contributes to disease progression has not been elucidated. In this study, we developed a global proteomic approach to identify binding partners of TG2 responsible for TG2 externalization in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO) using TG2 knockout kidneys as negative controls...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378353/contact-system-activation-and-cancer-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-cancer-associated-thrombosis
#17
E Campello, M W Henderson, D F Noubouossie, P Simioni, N S Key
Cancer induces a systemic hypercoagulable state that elevates the baseline thrombotic risk of affected patients. This hypercoagulable state reflects a complex interplay between cancer cells and host cells and the coagulation system as part of the host response to cancer. Although the tissue factor (TF)/factor VIIa pathway is proposed to be the principal initiator of fibrin formation in cancer patients, clinical studies have not shown a consistent relationship between circulating TF levels (often measured as plasma microvesicle-associated TF) and the risk of thrombosis...
February 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372302/pathogenic-role-of-inflammatory-response-during-shiga-toxin-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-hus
#18
Ramon Alfonso Exeni, Romina Jimena Fernandez-Brando, Adriana Patricia Santiago, Gabriela Alejandra Fiorentino, Andrea Mariana Exeni, Maria Victoria Ramos, Marina Sandra Palermo
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is defined as a triad of noninmune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. The most frequent presentation is secondary to Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, which is termed postdiarrheal, epidemiologic or Stx-HUS, considering that Stx is the necessary etiological factor. After ingestion, STEC colonize the intestine and produce Stx, which translocates across the intestinal epithelium. Once Stx enters the bloodstream, it interacts with renal endothelial and epithelial cells, and leukocytes...
January 25, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366073/predictive-value-of-circulating-microvesicles-in-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-patency
#19
Marta Brambilla, Paola Canzano, Laura Rossetti, Chiara Zara, Laura Cavallotti, Alessandro Parolari, Fabrizio Veglia, Elena Tremoli, Marina Camera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365921/mitochondrial-activity-is-a-major-contributor-to-the-pro-inflammatory-capacity-of-microvesicles
#20
Florian Puhm, Taras Afonyushkin, Georg Obermayer, Christoph Binder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
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