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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679565/activation-of-tlr3-and-its-adaptor-ticam-1-increases-mir-21-levels-in-extracellular-vesicles-released-from-human-cells
#1
Yoshimi Fukushima, Masaaki Okamoto, Kana Ishikawa, Takahisa Kouwaki, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) recognizes viral RNAs and trigger the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a PRR, recognizes viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in endolysosomes, whereas cytoplasmic dsRNA is sensed by another PRR, MDA5. TLR3 and MDA5 utilize TICAM-1 and MAVS, respectively, to trigger the signal for inducing innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes and microvesicles; an accumulating body of evidence has shown that EVs delivers functional RNA, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), to other cells and thus mediate intercellular communications...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678959/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-content-in-bioactive-lipid-mediators-more-than-a-sack-of-microrna
#2
Eric Boilard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are small membrane-bound vesicles released by cells under various conditions. In a multitude of physiological and pathological conditions, EVs contribute to intercellular communication by facilitating exchange of material between cells. Rapidly growing interest is aimed at better understanding EV function and their use as biomarkers. The vast EV cargo includes cytokines, growth factors, organelles, nucleic acids (messenger and micro RNA), and transcription factors...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678958/cholesterol-and-the-journey-of-extracellular-vesicles
#3
Frank W Pfrieger, Nicolas Vitale
Eukaryotic cells employ distinct means to release specific signals and material. Research within the last decade has identified different types of membrane-enclosed structures collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs) as one of them. EVs fall in two categories depending on their subcellular origin. Exosomes are generated within the endosomal system and reach the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Microvesicles or microparticles are generated by shedding of the plasma membrane...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670015/extracellular-vesicles-as-conveyors-of-membrane-derived-bioactive-lipids-in-immune-system
#4
REVIEW
Krizia Sagini, Eva Costanzi, Carla Emiliani, Sandra Buratta, Lorena Urbanelli
Over the last 20 years, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been established as an additional way to transmit signals outside the cell. They are membrane-surrounded structures of nanometric size that can either originate from the membrane invagination of multivesicular bodies of the late endosomal compartment (exosomes) or bud from the plasma membrane (microvesicles). They contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids—namely miRNA, but also mRNA and lncRNA—which are derived from the parental cell, and have been retrieved in every fluid of the body...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#5
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665255/concise-review-rational-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#6
REVIEW
Michael R Ward, Armin Abadeh, Kim A Connelly
The capacity of stem and progenitor cells to stimulate cardiac regeneration has been studied for almost 20 years, with very promising preclinical data and mixed clinical results. Several cell types have been studied, identified by their cell surface markers, differentiation capacity and their secreted growth factors. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have potent regenerative capacity, through multiple mechanisms, including mesoderm lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663027/molecular-interactions-at-the-surface-of-extracellular-vesicles
#7
REVIEW
Edit I Buzás, Eszter Á Tóth, Barbara W Sódar, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor
Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and large oncosomes have been shown to participate in a wide variety of biological processes and are currently under intense investigation in many different fields of biomedicine. One of the key features of extracellular vesicles is that they have relatively large surface compared to their volume. Some extracellular vesicle surface molecules are shared with those of the plasma membrane of the releasing cell, while other molecules are characteristic for extracellular vesicular surfaces...
April 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662552/strategies-for-enumeration-of-circulating-microvesicles-on-a-conventional-flow-cytometer-counting-beads-and-scatter-parameters
#8
Mohammad J Alkhatatbeh, Anoop K Enjeti, Sara Baqar, Elif I Ekinci, Dorothy Liu, Rick F Thorne, Lisa F Lincz
Enumeration of circulating microvesicles (MVs) by conventional flow cytometry is accomplished by the addition of a known amount of counting beads and calculated from the formula: MV/μl = (MV count/bead count) × final bead concentration. We sought to optimize each variable in the equation by determining the best parameters for detecting 'MV count' and examining the effects of different bead preparations and concentrations on the final calculation. Three commercially available bead preparations (TruCount, Flow-Count and CountBright) were tested, and MV detection on a BD FACSCanto was optimized for gating by either forward scatter (FSC) or side scatter (SSC); the results were compared by calculating different subsets of MV on a series of 74 typical patient plasma samples...
January 2018: Journal of Circulating Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660443/cell-to-cell-communication-by-extracellular-vesicles-focus-on-microglia
#9
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Giorgio Bergamini, Lawrence Rajendran
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658149/coagulation-parameters-following-ehv-1-infection-in-horses
#10
M E Wilson, C L Holz, A K Kopec, J J Dau, J P Luyendyk, G Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelia, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1...
April 15, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642618/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicles-in-bone-metastasis
#11
REVIEW
Michela Rossi, Giulia Battafarano, Matteo D'Agostini, Andrea Del Fattore
Multiple types of cancer have the specific ability to home to the bone microenvironment and cause metastatic lesions. Despite being the focus of intense investigation, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the metastasis of disseminated tumor cells still remain largely unknown. Bone metastases severely impact quality of life since they are associated with pain, fractures, and bone marrow aplasia. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries on the role of extracellular vesicles (EV) in the regulation of bone remodeling activity and bone metastasis occurrence...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624165/bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-orf133-and-orf134-are-involved-in-the-embedding-of-occlusion-derived-viruses-into-polyhedra
#12
Yunwang Shen, Haiping Wang, Weifan Xu, Xiaofeng Wu
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf133 (bm133) and orf134 (bm134), the orthologues of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac4 and ac5, are two adjacent genes with opposite transcriptional orientations and are highly conserved in all sequenced group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs). A double bm133-bm134 knockout bacmid was generated to enable the functional study of each gene independently or together. Compared with wild-type and double-repair viruses, deletion of both bm133 and bm134 did not affect budded virus (BV) production or viral DNA replication in transfected BmN cells...
April 6, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623292/mirna-extraction-from-cell-free-biofluid-using-protein-corona-formed-around-carboxyl-magnetic-nanoparticles
#13
Shengqiang Xu, Seyedmehdi Hossaini Nasr, Daoyang Chen, Xiaoxian Zhang, Liangliang Sun, Xuefei Huang, Chunqi Qian
MicroRNA (miRNA) in urine has been considered as a potential biomarker for early-stage diagnosis of multiple diseases like urinary system cancer, kidney injury and diabetes, owing to their many demonstrated advantages including long-term stability and noninvasiveness. However, the traditional enrichment and extraction processes of miRNAs from urine are cumbersome and tedious due to the low concentration and multiple carriers of miRNAs. Herein, we present a novel method to collect low concentrations of miRNAs from dilute solutions such as urine and cell culture medium...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621595/extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-alcohol-and-drug-induced-liver-injury-and-their-therapeutic-applications
#14
REVIEW
Young-Eun Cho, Byoung-Joon Song, Mohammed Akbar, Moon-Chang Baek
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous vesicles originating from various cells and tissues, including the liver parenchymal hepatocytes and nonparenchymal cells such as Kupffer and stellate cells. Recently, the pathophysiological role of EVs, such as exosomes and microvesicles, has been increasingly recognized based on intercellular communications. These EVs travel through the circulating blood and interact with specific cells and then deliver their cargos such as nucleic acids and proteins into recipient cells...
April 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621120/absences-of-endothelial-microvesicle-changes-in-the-presence-of-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma
#15
Charles E Wade, Nena Matijevic, Yao-Wei W Wang, Erika Gonzalez Rodriguez, Ernesto Lopez, Sisse R Ostrowski, Jessica C Cardenas, Lisa A Baer, Tzu-An Chen, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Hanne H Henriksen, Jakob Stensballe, Bryan A Cotton, John B Holcomb, Pär I Johansson
INTRODUCTION: Severe trauma is accompanied by endothelial glycocalyx disruption, which drives coagulopathy, increasing transfusion requirements and death. This syndrome has been termed traumatic endotheliopathy (EOT). Some have suggested EOT results from endothelial cellular damage and apoptosis. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) represent cellular damage. We hypothesized that EOT is associated with endothelial damage and apoptosis resulting in an increase in circulating EMVs. METHODS: Prospective, observational study enrolling severely injured patients...
April 4, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620263/tpx2-silencing-mediated-by-joint-action-of-microvesicles-and-ultrasonic-radiation-inhibits-the-migration-and-invasion-of-skov3-cells
#16
Dong Huang, Jianmin Chen, Cuiyu Yang, Minzhen Wang
Ovarian cancer, with its high morbidity, has one of the highest mortality rates among gynecological malignant tumors. Overexpression of targeting protein for Xklp2 (TPX2) has been identified in numerous malignant tumors. The present study sought to determine whether TPX2 silencing inhibited the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer cells, and whether microvesicles‑ and ultrasonic radiation‑mediated small interfering (si)RNA‑TPX2 transfection may improve the therapeutic effect. The SKOV3 cell line, derived from papillary serous cytadenocarcinoma of the human ovary, was selected as a cell model...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619314/chemotherapeutic-drug-based-metal-organic-particles-for-microvesicle-mediated-deep-penetration-and-programmable-ph-nir-hypoxia-activated-cancer-photochemotherapy
#17
Da Zhang, Ming Wu, Zhixiong Cai, Naishun Liao, Kun Ke, Hongzhi Liu, Ming Li, Gang Liu, Huanghao Yang, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
A novel metal-organic particle (MOP) based nanodrug formed by mild self-assembly of chemotherapeutic drugs, including banoxantrone and doxorubicin, through Cu(II)-mediated coordination effects, is reported. In this nanodrug, Cu(II) acts as a bridge to join AQ4N and DOX, and then, self-assembly of [-AQ4N-Cu(II)-(DOX)2 -Cu(II)-] n complexes forms nanosized MOPs (referred to as ADMOPs) through multiple interactions including host-metal-guest coordination, hydrophobic interactions, π-stacking, and van der Waals force...
February 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616307/extracellular-vesicles-and-their-immunomodulatory-functions-in-pregnancy
#18
REVIEW
Soumyalekshmi Nair, Carlos Salomon
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles released into the extracellular space by almost all types of cells. EVs can cross the physiological barriers, and a variety of biological fluids are enriched in them. EVs are a heterogeneous population of vesicles, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. The different subpopulations of vesicles can be differentiated by size and origin, in which exosomes (~100 nm and from endocytic origin) are the most studied so far. EVs have essential roles in cell-to-cell communication and are critical modulators of immune response under normal and pathological conditions...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615970/the-potential-role-of-platelet-related-micrornas-in-the-development-of-cardiovascular-events-in-high-risk-populations-including-diabetic-patients-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Justyna Pordzik, Katarzyna Pisarz, Salvatore De Rosa, Axel Dyve Jones, Ceren Eyileten, Ciro Indolfi, Lukasz Malek, Marek Postula
Platelet activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, which often leads to potentially fatal ischemic events at later stages of the disease. Platelets and platelet microvesicles (PMVs) contain large amounts of microRNA (miRNA), which contributes largely to the pool of circulating miRNAs. Hence, they represent a promising option for the development of innovative diagnostic biomarkers, that can be specific for the underlying etiology. Circulating miRNAs can be responsible for intracellular communication and may have a biological effect on target cells...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615915/application-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-therapeutic-agent-delivery-in-anti-tumor-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Daria S Chulpanova, Kristina V Kitaeva, Leysan G Tazetdinova, Victoria James, Albert A Rizvanov, Valeriya V Solovyeva
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic progenitor cells, which can be isolated from different types of tissues including bone marrow, adipose tissue, tooth pulp, and placenta/umbilical cord blood. There isolation from adult tissues circumvents the ethical concerns of working with embryonic or fetal stem cells, whilst still providing cells capable of differentiating into various cell lineages, such as adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. An important feature of MSCs is the low immunogenicity due to the lack of co-stimulatory molecules expression, meaning there is no need for immunosuppression during allogenic transplantation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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