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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921011/mechanisms-of-infectivity-and-evasion-derived-from-microvesicles-cargo-produced-by-trypanosoma-cruzi
#1
REVIEW
Bruna C Borges, Isadora A Uehara, Laysa O S Dias, Paula C Brígido, Claudio V da Silva, Marcelo J B Silva
Cell invasion by the intracellular protozoans requires interaction of proteins from both the host and the parasite. Many parasites establish chronic infections, showing they have the potential to escape the immune system; for example, Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease. Parasite internalization into host cell requires secreted and surface molecules, such as microvesicles. The release of microvesicles and other vesicles, such as exosomes, by different eukaryotic organisms was first observed in the late twentieth century...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919931/low-mt-co1-in-monocytes-and-microvesicles-is-associated-with-outcome-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Paul Holvoet, Maarten Vanhaverbeke, Katarzyna Bloch, Pieter Baatsen, Peter Sinnaeve, Stefan Janssens
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome oxidase (COX) IV complex regulates energy production in mitochondria. Impaired COX gene expression is related to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but whether it is directly related to the incidence of cardiovascular events is unknown. We investigated whether COX gene expression in monocytes is predictive for cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease patients. To avoid monocyte isolation from fresh blood, we then aimed to validate our findings in monocyte-derived microvesicles isolated from plasma...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917920/transcriptome-and-long-noncoding-rna-sequencing-of-three-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-released-from-the-human-colon-cancer-lim1863-cell-line
#3
Maoshan Chen, Rong Xu, Hong Ji, David W Greening, Alin Rai, Keiichi Izumikawa, Hideaki Ishikawa, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Richard J Simpson
Previously we reported that LIM1863 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells secrete three distinct extracellular vesicle subtypes - two subpopulations of exosomes (apical EpCAM-Exos and basolateral A33-Exos) and shed microvesicles (sMVs) - with distinct protein and miRNA signatures. Here, we extend our omics approach to understand the fundamental role of LIM1863-derived EVs by performing a comprehensive analysis of their mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) using RNA-Seq. We show that 2,389 mRNAs, 317 pseudogene transcripts, 1,028 lncRNAs and 206 short non-coding RNAs selectively distributed to (i...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917441/size-selective-harvesting-of-extracellular-vesicles-for-strategic-analyses-towards-tumor-diagnoses
#4
Chihiro Manri, Takahide Yokoi, Hirokazu Nishida
Extracellular vesicles (EV), typified by exosomes or microvesicles, are expected to be effective diagnostic markers for cancers. The sizes of the vesicles range from 20 to 1000 nm, but the size-dependent variations of the contents of EVs are still poorly understood. We succeeded in the size-selective harvesting of the vesicles by utilizing the molecular weight-dependent characteristics of a variety of polyethylene glycols (PEG) as precipitating reagents and analyzed the antigens displayed on the surfaces of the vesicles and the miRNAs included in the vesicles from each size group...
December 5, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914700/microvesicle-transfer-of-kinin-b1-receptors-is-a-novel-inflammatory-mechanism-in-vasculitis
#5
Robin Kahn, Maria Mossberg, Anne-Lie Ståhl, Karl Johansson, Ingrid Lopatko Lindman, Caroline Heijl, Mårten Segelmark, Matthias Mörgelin, L M Fredrik Leeb-Lundberg, Diana Karpman
During vasculitis, activation of the kinin system induces inflammation, whereby the kinin B1-receptor is expressed and activated after ligand binding. Additionally, activated blood cells release microvesicles into the circulation. Here we determined whether leukocyte-derived microvesicles bear B1-kinin receptors during vasculitis, and if microvesicles transfer functional B1-receptors to recipient cells, thus promoting inflammation. By flow cytometry, plasma from patients with vasculitis were found to contain high levels of leukocyte-derived microvesicles bearing B1-receptors...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906035/extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis
#6
REVIEW
Joseph Withrow, Cameron Murphy, Yutao Liu, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are both debilitating diseases that cause significant morbidity in the US population. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are now recognized to play important roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting various proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs. EV-derived proteins and miRNAs impact cell viability and cell differentiation, and are likely to play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of both OA and RA. Some of the processes by which these membrane-bound vesicles can alter joint tissue include extracellular matrix degradation, cell-to-cell communication, modulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, and antigen presentation...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902742/chloroquine-sensitizes-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-but-not-nasoepithelial-cells-to-irradiation-by-blocking-autophagy
#7
Anna Makowska, Michael Eble, Kirsten Prescher, Mareike Hoß, Udo Kontny
BACKGROUND: Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma requires the application of high dosages of radiation, leading to severe long-term complications in the majority of patients. Sensitizing tumor cells to radiation could be a means to increase the therapeutic window of radiation. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells display alterations in autophagy and blockade of autophagy has been shown to sensitize them against chemotherapy. METHODS: We investigated the effect of chloroquine, a known inhibitor of autophagy, on sensitization against radiation-induced apoptosis in a panel of five nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and a SV40-transformed nasoepithelial cell line...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902458/dna-sequences-within-glioma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-can-cross-the-intact-blood-brain-barrier-and-be-detected-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients
#8
Noemí García-Romero, Josefa Carrión-Navarro, Susana Esteban-Rubio, Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, María Peris-Celda, Marta M Alonso, Juan Guzmán-De-Villoria, Carlos Fernández-Carballal, Ana Ortiz de Mendivil, Sara García-Duque, Carmen Escobedo-Lucea, Ricardo Prat-Acín, Cristóbal Belda-Iniesta, Angel Ayuso-Sacido
Tumor-cell-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) can cross the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the bloodstream. However, in certain gliomas, the BBB remains intact, which might limit EVs release. To evaluate the ability of tumor-derived EVs to cross the BBB, we used an orthotopic xenotransplant mouse model of human glioma-cancer stem cells featuring an intact BBB. We demonstrated that all types of tumor cells-derived EVs-apoptotic bodies, shedding microvesicles and exosomes-cross the intact BBB and can be detected in the peripheral blood, which provides a minimally invasive method for their detection compared to liquid biopsies obtained from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899180/syncytiotrophoblast-extracellular-vesicles-circulating-biopsies-reflecting-placental-health
#9
Dionne Tannetta, Gavin Collett, Manu Vatish, Chris Redman, Ian Sargent
The ability to directly monitor the status of the placenta throughout pregnancy would be a major advance in both general and personalized obstetric care, allowing treatments to be tailored to the dynamic changes that can occur in gestation. Syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEV) are membrane bound vesicles, released from the surface of the placenta directly into the maternal circulation, in the form of exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. They carry many syncytiotrophoblast derived factors such as proteins, lipids, glycans and nucleic acids, which together could dynamically signal to the mother the status of the placenta...
November 16, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891624/quarantine-versus-pathogen-reduced-plasma-coagulation-factor-content-and-rotational-thromboelastometry-coagulation
#10
Oliver M Theusinger, David Goslings, Jan-Dirk Studt, Brigitte Brand-Staufer, Burkhardt Seifert, Donat R Spahn, Beat M Frey
BACKGROUND: Different types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) exist, and the concentrations of plasma proteins vary between individuals and blood groups. Furthermore, processing may also influence the content. Quarantine-stored plasma (qFFP) and plasma that was pathogen-reduced using blood-safety (Intercept) technology (piFFP) were analyzed regarding procoagulant and anticoagulant hemostasis proteins, including endogenous thrombin (thrombin-generation) potential (ETP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five samples of each type of FFP were analyzed using only male Blood Group O donors...
November 27, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888550/mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-biology-and-preclinical-evidence-for-therapeutic-potential-for-organ-dysfunction-following-trauma-or-sepsis
#11
Michael A Matthay, Shibani Pati, Jae-Woo Lee
Several experimental studies have provided evidence that bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSC) may be effective in treating critically ill surgical patients who develop traumatic brain injury, acute renal failure, or the acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is also preclinical evidence that MSC may be effective in treating sepsis-induced organ failure, including evidence that MSC have anti-microbial properties. This review considers preclinical studies with direct relevance to organ failure following trauma, sepsis or major infections that apply to critically ill patients...
November 26, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887958/bottom-up-synthesis-of-carbon-nanoparticles-with-higher-doxorubicin-efficacy
#12
Samer Bayda, Mohamad Hadla, Stefano Palazzolo, Vinit Kumar, Isabella Caligiuri, Emmanuele Ambrosi, Enrico Pontoglio, Marco Agostini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Alvise Benedetti, Pietro Riello, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Giuseppe Corona, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio
Nanomedicine requires intelligent and non-toxic nanomaterials for real clinical applications. Carbon materials possess interesting properties but with some limitations due to toxic effects. Interest in carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is increasing because they are considered green materials with tunable optical properties, overcoming the problem of toxicity associated with quantum dots or nanocrystals, and can be utilized as smart drug delivery systems. Using black tea as a raw material, we synthesized CNPs with a narrow size distribution, tunable optical properties covering visible to deep red absorption, non-toxicity and easy synthesis for large-scale production...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885249/lactation-related-microrna-expression-in-microvesicles-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood
#13
De-Jing Wang, Chen-Meiyi Wang, Yi-Ting Wang, Hai Qiao, Liao-Qiong Fang, Zhi-Biao Wang
BACKGROUND The complex process by which lactation is initiated upon neonate delivery remains incompletely understood. Microvesicles (MVs) can transmit microRNAs (miRNAs) into recipient cells to influence cell function, and recent studies have identified miRNAs essential for mammary gland development and lactation. This study aimed to investigate the expression of lactation-related miRNAs in MVs isolated from human umbilical cord blood immediately after delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from 70 healthy pregnant women, and MVs were isolated through differential centrifugation and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Western blotting, and nanoparticle tracking analysis...
November 24, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882267/microvesicles-as-vehicles-for-tissue-regeneration-changing-of-the-guards
#14
REVIEW
Nikolaos Panagiotou, R Wayne Davies, Colin Selman, Paul G Shiels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microvesicles (MVs) have been recognised as mediators of stem cell function, enabling and guiding their regenerative effects. RECENT FINDINGS: MVs constitute one unique size class of extracellular vesicles (EVs) directly shed from the cell plasma membrane. They facilitate cell-to-cell communication via intercellular transfer of proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA). MVs derived from stem cells, or stem cell regulatory cell types, have proven roles in tissue regeneration and repair processes...
2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878206/new-findings-on-venous-thrombogenesis
#15
James R Byrnes, Alisa S Wolberg
Venous thrombosis (VT) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death worldwide. Complications from VT and pulmonary embolism are the leading cause of lost disability-adjusted life years. Risks include genetic (e.g., non-O blood group, activated protein C resistance, hyperprothrombinemia) and acquired (e.g., age, surgery, cancer, pregnancy, immobilisation, female hormone use) factors. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that promote VT are incompletely understood, but involve abnormalities in blood coagulability, vessel function, and flow (so-called Virchow's Triad)...
November 23, 2016: Hämostaseologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871771/characteristics-of-erythrocyte-derived-microvesicles-and-its-relation-with-atherosclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Kai-Yin Li, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang, Yan-Wei Hu
Microvesicles are formed under many circumstances, especially in atheromatous plaques. Erythrocyte-derived microvesicles (ErMVs) have been proved to promote atherosclerosis by promoting hypercoagulation, mediating inflammation and inducing cell adhesion. Several clinical studies have reported potential roles of ErMVs in cardiovascular disease diagnosis, but the current understanding of ErMVs remains insufficient. In this paper, we will review current research on the formation and degradation of ErMVs and the possible effects of ErMVs in atherosclerosis, discuss potential clinical applications in cardiovascular disease, and hope to raise awareness of the relation with atherosclerosis...
October 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865782/application-of-nano-lc-maldi-tof-tof-ms-for-proteomic-analysis-of-microvesicles
#17
Joanna Kasprzyk, Ewa Stępień, Wojciech Piekoszewski
Activated platelets and platelet derived microvesicles (PMVs) emerged recently to be promising biomarkers. There is no universal procedure to carry out the proteomic analysis on microvesicles. In this study we proposed a nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) technique coupled off-line with a spectrometric measurement MALDI-TOF-MS/MS as a throughput and time-saving procedure. In this study we developed a simplified method to evaluate the protein composition of platelet organelles and PMVs. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was collected from healthy donors...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863537/high-resolution-proteomic-and-lipidomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-microvesicles-from-different-cell-sources
#18
Reka A Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John Leszyk, Scott A Shaffer, Hannah E Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Marian DiFiglia, Michael A Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2016: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863532/microvesicles-secreted-from-equine-amniotic-derived-cells-and-their-potential-role-in-reducing-inflammation-in-endometrial-cells-in-an-in-vitro-model
#19
Claudia Perrini, Maria Giuseppina Strillacci, Alessandro Bagnato, Paola Esposti, Maria Giovanna Marini, Bruna Corradetti, Davide Bizzaro, Antonella Idda, Sergio Ledda, Emanuele Capra, Flavia Pizzi, Anna Lange-Consiglio, Fausto Cremonesi
BACKGROUND: It is known that a paracrine mechanism exists between mesenchymal stem cells and target cells. This process may involve microvesicles (MVs) as an integral component of cell-to-cell communication. METHODS: In this context, this study aims to understand the efficacy of MVs in in-vitro endometrial stressed cells in view of potential healing in in-vivo studies. For this purpose, the presence and type of MVs secreted by amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) were investigated and the response of endometrial cells to MVs was studied using a dose-response curve at different concentrations and times...
November 18, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862694/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-microvesicles-modulate-lps-induced-inflammatory-responses-to-microglia-cells
#20
Yarúa Jaimes, Yahaira Naaldijk, Kerstin Wenk, Christiane Leovsky, Frank Emmrich
Microglia cells are the central nervous system immune cells and have been pointed out as the main mediators of the inflammation leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells with very high self-renewal properties and uncomplicated in vitro culture. Research has shown that MSCs have the capacity to induce tissue regeneration and reduce inflammation. Studies demonstrated that MSCs have complex paracrine machineries involving shedding of cell-derived microvesicles (MVs), which entail part of the regulatory and regenerative activity of MSCs, as observed in animal models...
November 16, 2016: Stem Cells
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