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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102751/extracellular-vesicles-from-activated-platelets-a-semiquantitative-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-immuno-gold-labeling-study
#1
Alain R Brisson, Sisareuth Tan, Romain Linares, Céline Gounou, Nicolas Arraud
Cells release membrane vesicles in their surrounding medium either constitutively or in response to activating signals. Two main types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly distinguished based on their mechanism of formation, membrane composition and size. According to the current model, EVs shed from the plasma membrane, often called microvesicles, expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and range in size from 100 nm to 1 µm, while EVs originating from endosomal multi-vesicular bodies, called exosomes, contain tetraspanin proteins, including CD63, and range in size from 50 to 100 nm...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102740/update-on-functional-and-genetic-laboratory-assays-for-the-detection-of-platelet-microvesicles
#2
Maxime Laroche, Claire Dunois, Anne Marie Vissac, Jean Amiral
Functional and genetic assays for measuring platelet microvesicles (PMVs) are presented and discussed. Functional assays concern two groups of methods: a) homogeneous assays using the cofactor activity of phospholipids (PPLs) contained in PMVs and present in assayed plasmas, and a coagulation or a thrombin generation assay (TGA) as "end points"; b) capture-based assays, in which PMVs bind to an immobilized ligand, such as Annexin V in the presence of calcium, or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for membrane proteins...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102737/platelet-microvesicles-in-health-and-disease
#3
Imene Melki, Nicolas Tessandier, Anne Zufferey, Eric Boilard
Interest in cell-derived extracellular vesicles and their physiological and pathological implications is constantly growing. Microvesicles, also known as microparticles, are small extracellular vesicles released by cells in response to activation or apoptosis. Among the different microvesicles present in the blood of healthy individuals, platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs) are the most abundant. Their characterization has revealed a heterogeneous cargo that includes a set of adhesion molecules. Similarly to platelets, PMVs are also involved in thrombosis through support of the coagulation cascade...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100645/lipoxin-a4-stimulates-endothelial-mir-126-5p-expression-and-its-transfer-via-microvesicles
#4
Marilina Codagnone, Antonio Recchiuti, Paola Lanuti, Anna Maria Pierdomenico, Eleonora Cianci, Sara Patruno, Veronica Cecilia Mari, Felice Simiele, Pamela Di Tomo, Assunta Pandolfi, Mario Romano
The proresolution lipid mediator lipoxin (LX)A4 bestows protective bioactions on endothelial cells. We examined the impact of LXA4 on transcellular endothelial signaling via microRNA (miR)-containing microvesicles. We report LXA4 inhibition of MV release by TNF-α-treated HUVECs, associated with the down-regulation of 18 miR in endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) and the up-regulation of miR-126-5p, both in HUVECs and in EMVs. LXA4 up-regulated miR-126-5p by ∼5-fold in HUVECs and promoted a release of microvesicles (LXA4-EMVs) that enhanced miR-126-5p by ∼7-fold in recipient HUVECs...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094758/exosomes-isolated-from-serum-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients-display-alterations-in-their-content-of-profibrotic-and-antifibrotic-microrna-and-induce-a-profibrotic-phenotype-in-cultured-normal-dermal-fibroblasts
#5
Peter J Wermuth, Piera-Velazquez Sonsoles, Sergio A Jimenez
OBJECTIVES: Exosomes are lipid bilayer-bound microvesicles containing various macromolecules including numerous microRNA (miRNA). Exosomes mediate intercellular communication by fusing and releasing their macromolecular content into target cells. Here, we analysed the content of profibrotic and antifibrotic miRNAs in exosomes isolated from the serum of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and tested their ability to induce a profibrotic phenotype in normal human dermal fibroblasts in vitro...
January 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093297/bottom-up-synthesis-of-carbon-nanoparticles-with-higher-doxorubicin-efficacy
#6
Samer Bayda, Mohamad Hadla, Stefano Palazzolo, Vinit Kumar, Isabella Caligiuri, Emmanuele Ambrosi, Enrico Pontoglio, Marco Agostini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Alvise Benedetti, Pietro Riello, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Giuseppe Corona, Giuseppe Toffoli, Flavio Rizzolio
Nanomedicine requires intelligent and non-toxic nanomaterials for real clinical applications. Carbon materials possess interesting properties but with some limitations due to toxic effects. Interest in carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) is increasing because they are considered green materials with tunable optical properties, overcoming the problem of toxicity associated with quantum dots or nanocrystals, and can be utilized as smart drug delivery systems. Using black tea as a raw material, we synthesized CNPs with a narrow size distribution, tunable optical properties covering visible to deep red absorption, non-toxicity and easy synthesis for large-scale production...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079186/extracellular-vesicle-mediated-intercellular-communication-at-the-porcine-maternal-fetal-interface-a-new-paradigm-for-conceptus-endometrial-cross-talk
#7
Mallikarjun Bidarimath, Kasra Khalaj, Rami T Kridli, Frederick W K Kan, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Exosomes and microvesicles are extracellular vesicles released from cells and can contain lipids, miRNAs and proteins that affect cells at distant sites. Recently, microvesicles containing miRNA have been implicated in uterine microenvironment of pigs, a species with unique epitheliochorial (non-invasive) placentation. Here we report a novel role of conceptus-derived exosomes/microvesicles (hereafter referred to as extracellular vesicles; EVs) in embryo-endometrial cross-talk. We also demonstrate the stimulatory effects of EVs (PTr2-Exo) derived from porcine trophectoderm-cells on various biological processes including the proliferation of maternal endothelial cells (PAOEC), potentially promoting angiogenesis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077371/markers-of-endothelial-damage-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-on-hemodialysis
#8
Andrés Carmona, Maria Luisa Agüera, Carlos Luna Ruiz, Paula Buendia, Laura Calleros, Andrea Garcia-Jerez, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel Arias, Marta Arias-Guillen, Gabriel de Arriba, Jose Ballarin, Carmen Bernis, Elvira Fernandez, Sagrario Garcia-Rebollo, Javier Mancha, Gloria Del Peso, Estefania Perez, Esteban Poch, Jose M Portoles, Diego Rodriguez-Puyol, Rafael Sánchez-Villanueva, Felipe Sarro, Armando Torres, Alejandro Martin-Malo, Pedro Aljama, Rafael Ramirez, Julia Carracedo
Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease who are on hemodialysis (HD) remain in a chronic inflammatory state, characterized by the accumulation of uremic toxins that induce endothelial damage and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to examine microvesicles (MVs), monocyte subpopulations, and angiopoietins to identify prognostic markers in HD patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 160 prevalent HD patients from 10 centers across Spain were obtained from the Biobank of the Nephrology Renal Network (REDinREN, Madrid): 80 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 80 patients without DM who were matched for clinical and demographic criteria...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070858/exosome-and-microvesicle-enriched-fractions-isolated-from-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-gradient-separation-showed-different-molecular-signatures-and-functions-on-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#9
Federica Collino, Margherita Pomatto, Stefania Bruno, Rafael Soares Lindoso, Marta Tapparo, Wen Sicheng, Peter Quesenberry, Giovanni Camussi
Several studies have suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may mediate MSC paracrine action on kidney regeneration. This activity has been, at least in part, ascribed to the transfer of proteins/transcription factors and different RNA species. Information on the RNA/protein content of different MSC EV subpopulations and the correlation with their biological activity is currently incomplete. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular composition and the functional properties on renal target cells of MSC EV sub-populations separated by gradient floatation...
January 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057306/the-drosophila-accessory-gland-as-a-model-for-prostate-cancer-and-other-pathologies
#10
C Wilson, A Leiblich, D C I Goberdhan, F Hamdy
The human prostate is a gland of the male reproductive tract, which together with the seminal vesicles, is responsible for most seminal fluid production. It is a common site of cancer, and unlike other glands, it typically enlarges in aging men. In flies, the male accessory glands make many major seminal fluid components. Like their human equivalents, they secrete proteins from several conserved families, including proteases, lectins, and cysteine-rich secretory proteins, some of which interact with sperm and affect fertility...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039962/association-of-ficolin-3-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-presence-and-progression
#11
Carlos-Ernesto Fernandez-García, Elena Burillo, Jes S Lindholt, Diego Martinez-Lopez, Katrine Pilely, Carla Mazzeo, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Jesus Egido, Peter Garred, Luis M Blanco-Colio, Jose L Martin-Ventura
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients are usually asymptomatic and AAA evolution is unpredictable. Ficolin-3, mainly synthesized by the liver, is a molecule of the lectin complement-activation pathway involved in AAA pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES: To define extrahepatic sources of ficolin-3 in AAA, and investigate the role of ficolin-3 as a biomarker of AAA presence and progression. METHODS: Microvesicles (exosomes and microparticles) were isolated from culture conditioned medium of ADP-activated platelets, as well as from AAA tissue-conditioned medium (thrombus and wall)...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039861/uvb-generated-microvesicle-particles-a-novel-pathway-by-which-a-skin-specific-stimulus-could-exert-systemic-effects
#12
Katherine Fahy, Langni Liu, Christine M Rapp, Christina Borchers, Ji C Bihl, Yanfang Chen, Richard Simman, Jeffrey B Travers
Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) exerts profound effects on human skin. Much is known regarding the ability of UVB to generate a plethora of bioactive agents ranging from cytokines and other bioactive proteins, lipid mediators and micro-RNAs. It is presumed that these agents are in large part responsible for the effects of UVB, which only is absorbed appreciably in the epidermis. However, the exact mechanism by which these bioactive agents can leave the epidermis are as yet unclear. This review addresses the potential role of microvesicle particles (MVP) as UVB signaling agents through transmitting biologic mediators...
December 31, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038993/inflammaging-and-omics-in-human-longevity
#13
REVIEW
Daniela Monti, Rita Ostan, Vincenzo Borelli, Gastone Castellani, Claudio Franceschi
Inflammaging is a recent theory of aging originally proposed in 2000 where data and conceptualizations regarding the aging of the immune system (immunosenescence) and the evolution of immune responses from invertebrates to mammals converged. This theory has received an increasing number of citations and experimental confirmations. Here we present an updated version of inflammaging focused on omic data - particularly on glycomics - collected on centenarians, supercentenarians and their offspring. Accordingly, we arrived to the following conclusions: i) inflammaging has a structure where specific combinations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved; ii) inflammaging is systemic and more complex than we previously thought, as many organs, tissues and cell types participate in producing pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli conceptualized as "molecular garbage"; iii) inflammaging is dynamic, can be propagated locally to neighboring cells and systemically from organ to organ by circulating products and microvesicles, and amplified by chronic age-related diseases constituting a "local fire" which in turn produces additional inflammatory stimuli and molecular garbage; iv) an integrated Systems Medicine approach is urgently needed to let emerge a robust and highly informative set/combination of omic markers able to better grasp the complex molecular core of inflammaging in elderly and centenarians...
December 27, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024455/the-neisseria-meningitidis-lpxl1-mutant-induces-less-tissue-factor-expression-and-activity-in-primary-human-monocytes-and-monocyte-derived-microvesicles-than-the-wild-type-meningococcus
#14
Marit Hellum, Anne-Marie S Trøseid, Jens P Berg, Petter Brandtzaeg, Reidun Øvstebø, Carola E Henriksson
Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) may cause sepsis and meningitis. N. meningitidis with a mutated lpxL1 gene has five, instead of six, acyl chains in the lipid A moiety. Compared with patients infected with the wild type (wt) meningococcus, patients infected with the lpxL1 mutant have a mild meningococcal disease with less systemic inflammation and less coagulopathy. Circulating tissue factor (TF), the main initiator of coagulation, has a central role in the development of coagulation disturbances during sepsis...
January 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008089/extracellular-vesicles-their-role-in-cancer-biology-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#15
REVIEW
Shashi K Gopal, David W Greening, Alin Rai, Maoshan Chen, Rong Xu, Adnan Shafiq, Rommel A Mathias, Hong-Jian Zhu, Richard J Simpson
Cell-cell communication is critical across an assortment of physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an integral facet of intercellular communication largely through the transfer of functional cargo such as proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNA (miRNAs), DNAs and lipids. EVs, especially exosomes and shed microvesicles, represent an important delivery medium in the tumour micro-environment through the reciprocal dissemination of signals between cancer and resident stromal cells to facilitate tumorigenesis and metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005331/magnetic-and-folate-functionalization-enables-rapid-isolation-and-enhanced-tumor-targeting-of-cell-derived-microvesicles
#16
Wei Zhang, Zi-Li Yu, Min Wu, Jian-Gang Ren, Hou-Fu Xia, Guo-Liang Sa, Jun-Yi Zhu, Dai-Wen Pang, Yi-Fang Zhao, Gang Chen
Cell-derived microvesicles (MVs), which are biogenic nanosized membrane-bound vesicles that convey bioactive molecules between cells, have recently received attention for use as natural therapeutic platforms. However, the medical applications of MV-based delivery platforms are limited by the lack of effective methods for the efficient isolation of MVs and the convenient tuning of their targeting properties. Herein, we report the development of magnetic and folate (FA)-modified MVs based on a donor cell-assisted membrane modification strategy...
January 3, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003079/leukocyte-derived-microvesicles-dock-on-glomerular-endothelial-cells-stardust-in-the-kidney
#17
Matthias Mack
Microvesicles are released from the plasma membrane of various cell types, can be taken up by other cells, and can transport membrane proteins and cytosolic contents between cells. Kahn et al. demonstrate that leukocyte-derived microvesicles bearing B1-kinin receptors are enriched in the plasma of vasculitis patients and dock on endothelial cells in the glomerulus. Cell culture experiments suggest that B1-receptors transferred by these microvesicles are functionally active on acceptor cells.
January 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001501/the-small-gtpase-arf6-regulates-protein-trafficking-to-control-cellular-function-during-development-and-in-disease
#18
Allie H Grossmann, Helong Zhao, Noah Jenkins, Weiquan Zhu, Jackson R Richards, Jae Hyuk Yoo, Jacob M Winter, Bianca Rich, Tara M Mleynek, Dean Y Li, Shannon J Odelberg
The activation of the small GTPase ARF6 has been implicated in promoting several pathological processes related to vascular instability and tumor formation, growth, and metastasis. ARF6 also plays a vital role during embryonic development. Recent studies have suggested that ARF6 carries out these disparate functions primarily by controlling protein trafficking within the cell. ARF6 helps direct proteins to intracellular or extracellular locations where they function in normal cellular responses during development and in pathological processes later in life...
December 21, 2016: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999792/inflammation-related-micrornas-are-modulated-in-total-plasma-and-in-extracellular-vesicles-from-rats-with-chronic-ingestion-of-sucrose
#19
Malinalli Brianza-Padilla, Roxana Carbó, Julio C Arana, Gonzalo Vázquez-Palacios, Martha A Ballinas-Verdugo, Guillermo C Cardoso-Saldaña, Adán G Palacio, Yaneli Juárez-Vicuña, Fausto Sánchez, Eduardo Martínez-Martínez, Fengyang Huang, Fausto Sánchez-Muñoz, Rafael Bojalil
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) and the functional implications of miRNAs contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have gained attention in the last decade. Little is known about the regulation of the abundance of plasma miRNAs in response to chronic ingestion of carbohydrates. Therefore, we explored the circulating levels of miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223 in rats consuming sucrose in drinking water. Weanling Wistar rats were 25 weeks with 30% sucrose in drinking water, and miRNAs expression was determined in total plasma and in microvesicles, by RT-qPCR with TaqMan probe based assays for miR-21, miR-146a, miR-155, and miR-223, using cel-miR-39 (as spike in control and reference)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999198/tumour-derived-exosomes-as-a-signature-of-pancreatic-cancer-liquid-biopsies-as-indicators-of-tumour-progression
#20
REVIEW
Zarin Nuzhat, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Shayna Sharma, Gregory E Rice, Virendra Joshi, Carlos Salomon
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer in the world. It is known to have a poor prognosis, mostly because early stages of the disease are generally asymptomatic. Progress in pancreatic cancer research has been slow, leaving several fundamental questions pertaining to diagnosis and treatment unanswered. Recent studies highlight the putative utility of tissue-specific vesicles (i.e. extracellular vesicles) in the diagnosis of disease onset and treatment monitoring in pancreatic cancer...
December 16, 2016: Oncotarget
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