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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#1
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334990/insulin-resistance-and-exendin-4-treatment-for-multiple-system-atrophy
#2
Fares Bassil, Marie-Hélène Canron, Anne Vital, Erwan Bezard, Yazhou Li, Nigel H Greig, Seema Gulyani, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Wassilios G Meissner
Multiple system atrophy is a fatal sporadic adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with no symptomatic or disease-modifying treatment available. The cytopathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy is the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in oligodendrocytes, forming glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Impaired insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling (IGF-1) and insulin resistance (i.e. decreased insulin/IGF-1) have been reported in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Increasing evidence also suggests impaired insulin/IGF-1 signalling in multiple system atrophy, as corroborated by increased insulin and IGF-1 plasma concentrations in multiple system atrophy patients and reduced IGF-1 brain levels in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334892/inhibition-of-homologous-phosphorolytic-ribonucleases-by-citrate-may-represent-an-evolutionarily-conserved-communicative-link-between-rna-degradation-and-central-metabolism
#3
Carlanne M Stone, Louise E Butt, Joshua C Bufton, Daniel C Lourenco, Darren M Gowers, Andrew R Pickford, Paul A Cox, Helen A Vincent, Anastasia J Callaghan
Ribonucleases play essential roles in all aspects of RNA metabolism, including the coordination of post-transcriptional gene regulation that allows organisms to respond to internal changes and environmental stimuli. However, as inherently destructive enzymes, their activity must be carefully controlled. Recent research exemplifies the repertoire of regulatory strategies employed by ribonucleases. The activity of the phosphorolytic exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), has previously been shown to be modulated by the Krebs cycle metabolite citrate in Escherichia coli...
March 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334432/uch-l1-containing-exosomes-mediate-chemotherapeutic-resistance-transfer-in-breast-cancer
#4
Kuan Ning, Teng Wang, Xu Sun, Pengfei Zhang, Yun Chen, Jian Jin, Dong Hua
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy resistance has become a serious challenge in the treatment of breast cancer. Previous studies showed cells can transfer proteins, including those responsible for drug resistance to adjacent cells via exosomes. METHODS: The switches of drug resistance via exosomes transfer were assessed by CellTiter-Blue Viability assay, flow cytometry, and immunostaining analysis. Relative protein levels of Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), and phospho-extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2) were measured by Western blot...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332837/molecular-recognition-based-dna-nanoassemblies-on-the-surfaces-of-nanosized-exosomes
#5
Shuo Wan, Liqin Zhang, Sai Wang, Yuan Liu, Cuichen Wu, Cheng Cui, Hao Sun, Muling Shi, Ying Jiang, Long Li, Liping Qiu, Weihong Tan
Exosomes are membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles derived from cells, carrying biomolecules that include pro-teins and nucleic acids for intercellular communication. Owning to their advantages of size, structure, stability and biocompatibility, exosomes have been used widely as natu-ral nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of theranostic agents. Meanwhile, surface modifications needed to endow exosomes with additional functionalities remain challeng-ing by their small size and the complexity of their mem-brane surfaces...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328650/exosomes-in-critical-illness
#6
Nora Terrasini, Vincenzo Lionetti
OBJECTIVE: Exosomes are small, cell-released vesicles (40-100 nm in size) with the potential to transfer proteins, lipids, small RNAs, messenger RNAs, or DNA between cells via interstitial fluids. Due to their role in tissue homeostasis, exosomes have emerged as a new type of therapeutic and diagnostic (theranostic) tool in the noninvasive assessment of organ response to injury or treatment and in the development of reliable organ-protective intensive therapy. Our review provides current insights into the role of exosomes in the personalized management of injury and repair responses in critical illness...
March 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326171/large-scale-isolation-and-cytotoxicity-of-extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-activated-human-natural-killer-cells
#7
Ambrose Y Jong, Chun-Hua Wu, Jingbo Li, Jianping Sun, Muller Fabbri, Alan S Wayne, Robert C Seeger
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been the focus of great interest, as they appear to be involved in numerous important cellular processes. They deliver bioactive macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, allowing intercellular communication in multicellular organisms. EVs are secreted by all cell types, including immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK), and they may play important roles in the immune system. Currently, a large-scale procedure to obtain functional NK EVs is lacking, limiting their use clinically...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326167/residual-urinary-extracellular-vesicles-in-ultracentrifugation-supernatants-after-hydrostatic-filtration-dialysis-enrichment
#8
Luca Musante, Dorota Tataruch-Weinert, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Michael Henry, Paula Meleady, Harry Holthofer
Urinary extracellular vesicles (UEVs) appear an ideal source of biomarkers for kidney and urogenital diseases. The majority of protocols designed for their isolation are based on differential centrifugation steps. However, little is still known of the type and amount of vesicles left in the supernatant. Here we used an isolation protocol for UEVs which uses hydrostatic filtration dialysis as first pre-enrichment step, followed by differential centrifugation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mass spectrometry (MS), western blot, ELISA assays and tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) were used to characterise and quantify UEVs in the ultracentrifugation supernatant...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325957/heat-shock-protein-hsp27-secretion-by-ovarian-cancer-cells-is-linked-to-intracellular-expression-levels-occurs-independently-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-pathway-and-hsp27-s-phosphorylation-status-and-is-mediated-by-exosome-liberation
#9
Matthias B Stope, Gerd Klinkmann, Karoline Diesing, Dominique Koensgen, Martin Burchardt, Alexander Mustea
The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC) patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock...
2017: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324860/direct-detection-of-two-different-tumor-derived-extracellular-vesicles-by-sam-aunis-lspr-biosensor
#10
Abhimanyu Thakur, Guangyu Qiu, Siu-Pang Ng, Jintao Guan, Jianbo Yue, Youngjin Lee, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are abundant in various biological fluids including blood, saliva, urine, as well as extracellular milieu. Accumulating evidence has indicated that EVs, which contain functional proteins and small RNAs, facilitate intercellular communication between neighbouring cells, and are critical to maintain various physiological processes. In contrast, EV-derived toxic signals can spread out over the tissues adjacent to the injured area in certain diseases, including brain tumors and neurodegenerative disorders...
March 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323023/internalization-axonal-transport-and-release-of-fibrillar-forms-of-alpha-synuclein
#11
Gregor Bieri, Aaron D Gitler, Michel Brahic
Intra-neuronal protein aggregates made of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) are the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). With time, these aggregates spread through the brain following axonal projections. Understanding the mechanism of this spread is central to the study of the progressive nature of PD. Here we review data relevant to the uptake, transport and release of α-syn fibrils. We summarize several cell surface receptors that regulate the uptake of α-syn fibrils by neurons. The aggregates are then transported along axons, both in the anterograde and retrograde direction...
March 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322989/role-of-micrornas-in-endocrine-cancer-metastasis
#12
Cilene Rebouças Lima, Cibele Crastequini Gomes, Marinilce Fagundes Santos
The deregulation of transcription and processing of microRNAs (miRNAs), as well as their function, has been involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancer. Despite advances in therapeutic approaches, cancer still represents one of the major health problems worldwide. Cancer metastasis is an aggravating factor in tumor progression, related to increased treatment complexity and a worse prognosis. After more than one decade of extensive studies of miRNAs, the fundamental role of these molecules in cancer progression and metastasis is beginning to be elucidated...
March 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321582/exosomes-secreted-from-hek293-app-swe-ind-cells-impair-the-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#13
Tingting Zheng, Jiali Pu, Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Hongyu Pan, Ling Zhang, Heng Zhang, Binggui Sun, Baorong Zhang
This study aimed to investigate the neurotoxicity of exosomes to cultured neuroblastoma and neurons in vitro and to mature and newborn neurons in the hippocampus in vivo. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that exosomes, small membranous vesicles secreted from many cell types, contain pathogenic proteins including full-length amyloid precursor protein (flAPP) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites. However, the function of these exosomes in Alzheimer disease (AD) has not been much explored...
March 21, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321122/the-emerging-roles-of-tumor-derived-exosomes-in-hematological-malignancies
#14
REVIEW
M Boyiadzis, T L Whiteside
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) membranous vesicles of endocytic origin produced by all cells under physiological and pathological conditions. They have recently emerged as vehicles for intercellular transfer of molecular and genetic contents from parent to recipient cells. Exosome-mediated transfer of proteins or genes (RNA, miRNA, DNA) results in reprogramming of recipient cell functions. Exosomes carry and deliver information that is essential for health, and they participate in pathological events, including malignant transformation...
March 21, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319051/tissue-specific-exosome-biomarkers-for-noninvasively-monitoring-immunologic-rejection-of-transplanted-tissue
#15
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Laxminarayana Korutla, Andreas Habertheuer, Ming Yu, Susan Rostami, Chao-Xing Yuan, Sanjana Reddy, Chengyang Liu, Varun Korutla, Brigitte Koeberlein, Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Michael R Rickels, Ali Naji
In transplantation, there is a critical need for noninvasive biomarker platforms for monitoring immunologic rejection. We hypothesized that transplanted tissues release donor-specific exosomes into recipient circulation and that the quantitation and profiling of donor intra-exosomal cargoes may constitute a biomarker platform for monitoring rejection. Here, we have tested this hypothesis in a human-into-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model and validated the concept in clinical settings of islet and renal transplantation...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317854/sets-of-serum-exosomal-micrornas-as-candidate-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-kawasaki-disease
#16
Hong-Ling Jia, Chao-Wu Liu, Li Zhang, Wei-Jun Xu, Xue-Juan Gao, Jun Bai, Yu-Fen Xu, Ming-Guo Xu, Gong Zhang
Although Kawasaki disease is the main cause of acquired heart disease in children, no diagnostic biomarkers are available. We aimed to identify candidate biomarkers for diagnosing Kawasaki disease using serum exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs). Using frozen serum samples from a biobank, high-throughput microarray technologies, two-stage real-time quantitative PCR, and a self-referencing strategy for data normalization, we narrowed down the list of biomarker candidates to a set of 4 miRNAs. We further validated the diagnostic capabilities of the identified miRNAs (namely, CT(miR-1246)-CT(miR-4436b-5p) and CT(miR-197-3p)-CT(miR-671-5p)) in 79 samples from two hospitals...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316185/-research-update-on-exosomes-mediated-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Y F He, B Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316168/-advances-in-the-research-of-effects-of-exosomes-derived-from-stem-cells-on-wound-repair
#18
M Y Li, D W Liu, Y G Mao
Exosomes are nano-vesicles released by many kinds of cells. Exosomes play a significant role in cell-to-cell communication and substance transportation through direct effect of signaling molecules on the cell membrane surface, intracellular regulation of cellular content during membrane fusion, or regulation of release of various bioactive molecules. Several studies have reported that culture supernatant of stem cells has some related exosomes to take part in wound repair. The secretion of exosomes is depended on the source and the physiological and pathological condition of deriving cells...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303002/reciprocal-regulation-of-%C3%AE-globin-expression-by-exo-mirnas-relevance-to-%C3%AE-globin-silencing-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major
#19
Kuo-Ting Sun, Yu-Nan Huang, Kalaiselvi Palanisamy, Shih-Sheng Chang, I-Kuan Wang, Kang-Hsi Wu, Ping Chen, Ching-Tien Peng, Chi-Yuan Li
Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is a promising strategy in the treatment of β-thalassemia major (β-TM). The present study shows that plasma exosomal miRNAs (exo-miRs) are involved in γ-globin regulation. Exosomes shuttle miRNAs and mediate cell-cell communication. MiRNAs are regulators of biological processes through post-transcriptional targeting. Compared to HD (Healthy Donor), β-TM patients showed increased levels of plasma exosomes and the majority of exosomes had cellular origin from CD34+ cells...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300659/milk-derived-exosomes-for-oral-delivery-of-paclitaxel
#20
Ashish K Agrawal, Farrukh Aqil, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Wendy A Spencer, Joshua Beck, Beth W Gachuki, Sara S Alhakeem, Karine Oben, Radha Munagala, Subbarao Bondada, Ramesh C Gupta
In this report milk-derived exosomes have been investigated for oral delivery of the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PAC) as an alternative to conventional i.v. therapy for improved efficacy and reduced toxicity. PAC-loaded exosomes (ExoPAC) were found to have a particle size of ~108nm, a narrow particle size distribution (PDI ~0.190), zeta potential (~ -7mV) and a practical loading efficiency of ~8%. Exosomes and ExoPAC exhibited excellent stability in the presence of simulated-gastrointestinal fluids, and during the storage at -80°C...
March 11, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
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