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Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are emerging as critical components of an intercellular information network between the tumor and the host. The tumor escapes from the host immune system by using a variety of mechanisms designed to impair or eliminate anti-tumor immunity. TEX carrying a cargo of immunoinhibitory molecules and factors represent one such mechanism. TEX, which are present in all body fluids of cancer patients, deliver negative molecular or genetic signals to immune cells re-programming their functions...
October 20, 2016: Vaccines
Xuyang Zheng, Chuantao Ye, Jieru Zhao, Peiyu Bian, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia
Objective To observe the alterations of innate immunity related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in exosomes extracted from the plasma of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) patients, and analyze their relationship with the disease stage and severity. Methods Exosomes were extracted from the plasma samples of HFRS patients, healthy controls and recovered HFRS patients. Transmission electronic microscopy and Western blotting were performed to confirm the efficiency of the extraction. lncRNA profiles in the different groups were determined by high-throughput sequencing...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Guilherme B Dos Santos, Karina M Monteiro, Edileuza Danieli da Silva, Maria Eduarda Battistella, Henrique B Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
The genus Echinococcus consists of parasites that have a life cycle with two mammalian hosts. Their larval stage, called the hydatid cyst, develops predominantly in the liver and lungs of intermediate hosts. The hydatid cyst is the causative agent of cystic hydatid disease and the species Echinococcus granulosus, G1 haplotype, is responsible for the vast majority of cases in humans, cattle and sheep. Protein characterization in hydatid cysts is essential for better understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the fertility process of Echinococcus...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
J Gourlay, A P Morokoff, R B Luwor, H-J Zhu, A H Kaye, S S Stylli
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known mediators of intercellular communication for both normal and tumour cells. With the capability to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, EVs are able to influence numerous functional and pathological aspects of both donor and recipient cells. The tumour microenvironment possesses a high level of complex heterogeneity, particularly within the most prominent brain malignancy, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This complexity relies on a network-based communication between many different components of the local niche, including the various cell types, stroma, blood vessels, secreted factors and surrounding matrix...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Maria-Cristina Arcangeletti, Rosita Vasile Simone, Isabella Rodighiero, Flora De Conto, Maria-Cristina Medici, Clara Maccari, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an opportunistic pathogen leading to severe and even fatal diseases in 'at-risk' categories of individuals upon primary infection or the symptomatic reactivation of the endogenous virus. The mechanisms which make the virus able to reactivate from latency are still matter of intense study. However, the very low number of peripheral blood monocytes (an important latent virus reservoir) harbouring HCMV DNA makes it very difficult to obtain adequate viral quantities to use in such studies...
October 22, 2016: Virology Journal
Henryka Długońska, Justyna Gatkowska
Extracellular vesicles – EV’s, including exosomes, are known to be essential tools of intercellular communication, enabling the exchange of information without direct contact between cells. Exosomes are secreted both in vitro and in vivo by single- and multi-cellular organisms, regardless of their type, and play an essential role in cell-to-cell communication. EV’s may carry various materials and ongoing studies have provided a new insight into their potential participation in various critical biological processes, including carcinogenesis, protein trafficking, immunostimulation and pathogenesis of infectious diseases...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Shang-Chun Guo, Shi-Cong Tao, Wen-Jing Yin, Xin Qi, Jia-Gen Sheng, Chang-Qing Zhang
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) represents a debilitating complication following glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapy. Synovial-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) can exert protective effect in the animal model of GC-induced ONFH by inducing cell proliferation and preventing cell apoptosis. Recent studies indicate the transplanted cells exert therapeutic effects primarily via a paracrine mechanism and exosomes are an important paracrine factor that can be directly used as therapeutic agents for tissue engineering...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Qiuhong Chen, Ritsuko Takada, Chiyo Noda, Satoru Kobayashi, Shinji Takada
Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes are heterogeneous in molecular composition and physical properties. Here we examined whether epithelial cells secrete a heterogeneous population of exosomes, and if that is the case, whether epithelial cell polarity affects release of different populations of exosomes, especially that of those carrying Wnt. Sucrose-density ultracentrifugation and molecular marker analysis revealed that different populations of exosomes or exosome-like vesicles were released from MDCK cells depending on the cell polarity...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sang-Ho Kwon, Sekyung Oh, Marisa Nacke, Keith E Mostov, Joshua H Lipschutz
Exosomes, 40-150 nm extracellular vesicles, transport biological macromolecules that mediate intercellular communications. While exosomes are known to originate from maturation of endosomes into multivesicular endosomes (MVEs; also known as multivesicular bodies, MVBs) with subsequent fusion of the MVEs with the plasma membrane, it remains unclear how cargos are selected for exosomal release. Using an inducible expression system for the exosome cargo protein GPRC5B and following its trafficking trajectory, we show here that newly synthesized GPRC5B protein accumulates in the Golgi complex prior to its release into exosomes...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kei-Hoi Cheung, Shivakumar Keerthikumar, Paola Roncaglia, Sai Lakshmi Subramanian, Matthew E Roth, Monisha Samuel, Sushma Anand, Lahiru Gangoda, Stephen Gould, Roger Alexander, David Galas, Mark B Gerstein, Andrew F Hill, Robert R Kitchen, Jan Lötvall, Tushar Patel, Dena C Procaccini, Peter Quesenberry, Joel Rozowsky, Robert L Raffai, Aleksandra Shypitsyna, Andrew I Su, Clotilde Théry, Kasey Vickers, Marca H M Wauben, Suresh Mathivanan, Aleksandar Milosavljevic, Louise C Laurent
BACKGROUND: To address the lack of standard terminology to describe extracellular RNA (exRNA) data/metadata, we have launched an inter-community effort to extend the Gene Ontology (GO) with subcellular structure concepts relevant to the exRNA domain. By extending GO in this manner, the exRNA data/metadata will be more easily annotated and queried because it will be based on a shared set of terms and relationships relevant to extracellular research. METHODS: By following a consensus-building process, we have worked with several academic societies/consortia, including ERCC, ISEV, and ASEMV, to identify and approve a set of exRNA and extracellular vesicle-related terms and relationships that have been incorporated into GO...
April 12, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
Yuan Ren, Nan Ji, Xixiong Kang, Renzhi Wang, Wenbin Ma, Zhenjun Hu, Xingfeng Liu, Yajie Wang
Glioblastoma is a highly vascularized brain tumor that causes high mortality. Kininogen-1 (KNG1) has demonstrated both tumor suppressor and antiangiogenesis properties in gliobastoma cells. We analyzed the microarray and proteomic profiles of tumor tissues from glioblastoma patients (N = 180), and identified potential RNA regulators of the KNG1. Validation experiments in U87 glioblastoma cells showed that the regulation of KNG1 by CTU1, KIAA1274, and RAX was mediated by miR-138. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of CTU1, KIAA1274, or RAX in U87 cells and immortalized human endothelial cells (iHECs) significantly reduced KNG1 expression (P < 0...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Takeshi Harada, Hideki Yamamoto, Shosei Kishida, Michiko Kishida, Chihiro Awada, Toshifumi Takao, Akira Kikuchi
Wnt5b, a member of the same family of proteins as Wnt5a of which overexpression is associated with cancer aggressiveness, is suggested to be involved in cancer progression, however details remain unclarified. We analyzed biochemical properties of purified Wnt5b and the mode of secretion of Wnt5b by cancer cells. Wnt5b was glycosylated at three asparagine residues and lipidated at one serine residue, and these post-translational modifications of Wnt5b are essential for secretion. Purified Wnt5b showed Dvl2 phosphorylation and Rac activation abilities to a similar extent as Wnt5a...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Science
Tomasz Róg, Adam Orłowski, Alicia Llorente, Tore Skotland, Tuulia Sylvänne, Dimple Kauhanen, Kim Ekroos, Kirsten Sandvig, Ilpo Vattulainen
In this Data in Brief article we provide a data package of GROMACS input files for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of multicomponent, asymmetric lipid bilayers using the OPLS-AA force field. These data include 14 model bilayers composed of 8 different lipid molecules. The lipids present in these models are: cholesterol (CHOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (SOPE), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (SOPS), N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosyl-phosphatidylcholine (SM16), and N-lignoceroyl-D-erythro-sphingosyl-phosphatidylcholine (SM24)...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Sayantan Maji, Pankaj Chaudhary, Irina Akopova, Phung M Nguyen, Richard J Hare, Ignacy Gryczynski, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
: Tumor-derived exosomes are emerging mediators of tumorigenesis and tissue-specific metastasis. Proteomic profiling has identified Annexin A2 as one of the most highly expressed proteins in exosomes; however, studies focused on the biological role of exosomal-AnnexinA2 (exo-AnxA2) are still lacking. In this study, mechanistic insight was sought regarding exo-AnxA2 and its function in angiogenesis and breast cancer metastasis. Multiple in vitro and in vivo techniques were used to study the role of exo-AnxA2 in angiogenesis...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Shu Wen Wen, Jaclyn Sceneay, Luize G Lima, Christina Sf Wong, Melanie Becker, Sophie Krumeich, Richard J Lobb, Vanessa Castillo, Ke Ni Wong, Sarah Ellis, Belinda S Parker, Andreas Moller
Small membranous secretions from tumor cells, termed exosomes, contribute significantly to intercellular communication and subsequent reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment. Here we use optical imaging to determine that exogenously administered fluorescently-labeled exosomes derived from highly metastatic murine breast cancer cells, distributed predominantly to the lung of syngeneic mice, a frequent site of breast cancer metastasis. At the sites of accumulation, exosomes were taken up by CD45+ bone marrow-derived cells...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Research
Kristin M Klohonatz, Ashley D Cameron, Joanna R Hergenreder, Juliano C da Silveira, Aeriel D Belk, D N R Veeramachaneni, Gerrit J Bouma, Jason E Bruemmer
During early pregnancy the conceptus and mare communicate to establish pregnancy. Cell-secreted vesicles (e.g. exosomes) have been reported in serum. Exosomes contain bioactive materials, such as miRNA, that can mediate cell responses. We hypothesized that (i) exosomes are present in mare circulation and quantity varies with pregnancy status, (ii) exosomes contain miRNAs unique to pregnancy status, and (iii) miRNAs target pathways in endometrium based upon pregnancy status of the mare. First, serum samples were obtained from mares in a crossover design, with each mare providing samples from a pregnant and non-mated control cycle (n = 3/sample day) on Days 12, 14, 16, and 18 post-ovulation...
October 19, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Jamal El-Saghir, Farah Nassar, Nadim Tawil, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membrane nano-vesicles secreted by a multitude of cells that harbor biological constituents such as proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes can potentially transfer their cargo to other cells, implicating them in many patho-physiological processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), residents of the bone marrow and metastatic niches, potentially interact with cancer cells and/or their derived exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells act as intercellular messengers delivering leukemia-related genes that modulate the properties of human MSCs in favor of leukemia...
October 19, 2016: Retrovirology
Ryo Uratani, Yuji Toiyama, Takahito Kitajima, Mikio Kawamura, Junichiro Hiro, Minako Kobayashi, Koji Tanaka, Yasuhiro Inoue, Yasuhiko Mohri, Takao Mori, Toshio Kato, Ajay Goel, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing interest in developing circulating microRNA (miRNA) as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of high-risk colorectal adenomas and early-stage CRCs, but the comparative diagnostic significance of serum vs. exosomal miRNAs remains unexplored. METHODS: Based upon published literature, we performed an initial discovery step by investigating the expression of a miRNA panel in 20 normal colonic mucosa, 27 adenomas, and 19 CRC tissues...
2016: PloS One
Xiang Yu, Matthew R Willmann, Stephen J Anderson, Brian D Gregory
RNA turnover is necessary for controlling proper mRNA levels post-transcriptionally. In general, RNA degradation is via exoribonucleases that degrade RNA either from the 5' end to the 3' end, such as XRN4, or in the opposite direction by the multi-subunit exosome complex. Here, we use genome-wide mapping of uncapped and cleaved transcripts to reveal the global landscape of co-translational mRNA decay in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. We found that this process leaves a clear three nucleotide periodicity in open reading frames...
October 7, 2016: Plant Cell
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