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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469213/exosomes-enter-vaccine-development-strategies-meeting-global-challenges-of-emerging-infections
#1
Alois Jungbauer
New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al, in this issue of Biotechnology Journal [1] Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in-vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40 and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3...
February 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468700/cancer-cells-govern-mir-2909-exosomal-recruitment-through-its-3-end-post-transcriptional-modification
#2
Sameena Wani, Deepak Kaul
It is widely believed that selective packaging of nucleic acids, especially microRNAs, into exosomes secreted by the cancer cells not only ensures their growth and survival but also helps in the escape from immune surveillance. Keeping in view the fact that human cellular miR-2909 has emerged to regulate genes involved in oncogenesis and immunity, the present study was addressed to reveal the nature of miR-2909 expression within cancer cells of different tissue origin and its incorporation into exosomes secreted by these cells...
February 21, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468680/proinflammatory-role-of-blister-fluid-derived-exosomes-in-bullous-pemphigoid
#3
Hui Fang, Shuai Shao, Man Jiang, Erle Dang, Shengxian Shen, Jieyu Zhang, Pei Qiao, Caixia Li, Gang Wang
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterised by the presence of autoantibodies against bullous pemphigoid autoantigens, leading to dermal-epidermal separation with consequent blister formation. However, whether and how the components of blister fluid exacerbate the progression of bullous pemphigoid is unclear. Exosomes are nanometre-sized vesicles released from cells into the body fluid, where they can transmit signals throughout the body. In the present study, we isolated and characterised exosomes from the blister fluids of patients with bullous pemphigoid, evaluated their proinflammatory role, and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467645/plasma-exosomal-mirna-122-5p-and-mir-300-3p-as-potential-markers-for-transient-ischaemic-attack-in-rats
#4
Dong-Bin Li, Jing-Li Liu, Wei Wang, Xiu-Mei Luo, Xia Zhou, Jin-Pin Li, Xiao-Li Cao, Xiao-Hong Long, Jia-Gui Chen, Chao Qin
Background: Differentiation of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) from ischaemic stroke within the thrombolysis time window is difficult. Although TIA may be diagnosed within this window, the latest imaging technologies are complex and costly. Serum markers, which are non-invasive, rapid and economic, are used for diagnosis and prognosis of various diseases. Exosome-derived miRNA markers for TIA are unknown. Methods: We examined focal brain ischaemia produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo) for 5 min, 10 min, and 2 h in rats...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466243/g-protein-coupled-receptor-receptor-interactions-give-integrative-dynamics-to-intercellular-communication
#5
REVIEW
Diego Guidolin, Manuela Marcoli, Cinzia Tortorella, Guido Maura, Luigi F Agnati
The proposal of receptor-receptor interactions (RRIs) in the early 1980s broadened the view on the role of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in the dynamics of the intercellular communication. RRIs, indeed, allow GPCR to operate not only as monomers but also as receptor complexes, in which the integration of the incoming signals depends on the number, spatial arrangement, and order of activation of the protomers forming the complex. The main biochemical mechanisms controlling the functional interplay of GPCR in the receptor complexes are direct allosteric interactions between protomer domains...
February 21, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465752/endothelial-extracellular-vesicles-modulate-the-macrophage-phenotype-potential-implications-in-atherosclerosis
#6
Shaolin He, Chun Wu, Junhui Xiao, Dazhu Li, Ziyan Sun, Ming Li
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells (ECs) and macrophages engage in tight and specific interactions that play critical roles in cardiovascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are circular membrane fragments released from the endosomal compartment as exosomes or shed from the surfaces of the membranes of most cell types. Increasing evidence indicates that EVs play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication. However, the contribution of EVs, as determine by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-exposed and/or Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2)-transduced ECs in the interaction between vascular ECs and monocytes/ macrophages, which is a key event in atherosclerotic plaque development, has remained elusive...
February 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464759/urine-waste-product-or-biologically-active-tissue
#7
(no author information available yet)
AIMS: Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. METHODS: To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464032/stroma-derived-extracellular-vesicles-deliver-tumor-suppressive-mirnas-to-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#8
Song Han, David H Gonzalo, Michael Feely, Carlos Rinaldi, Sayali Belsare, Haiyan Zhai, Krishan Kalra, Michael H Gerber, Christopher E Forsmark, Steven J Hughes
The biology of tumor-associated stroma (TAS) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not well understood. The paradoxical observation that stroma-depletion strategies lead to progression of PDAC reinforced the need to critically evaluate the functional contribution of TAS in the initiation and progression of PDAC. PDAC and TAS cells are unique in their expression of specific miRNAs, and this specific miRNA expression pattern alters host to tumor microenvironment interactions. Using primary human pancreatic TAS cells and primary xenograft PDAC cells co-culture, we provide evidence of miRNA trafficking and exchanging between TAS and PDAC cells, in a two-way, cell-contact independent fashion, via extracellular vesicles (EVs) transportation...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464019/the-involvement-of-serum-exosomal-mir-500-3p-and-mir-770-3p-in-aging-modulation-by-calorie-restriction
#9
Eun Kyeong Lee, Hyoung Oh Jeong, Eun Jin Bang, Chul Hong Kim, Ji Young Mun, Seulgi Noh, Jeong-An Gim, Dae Hyun Kim, Ki Wung Chung, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
Recent studies have shown a role for miRNAs in aging and age-related diseases, and the modulation of miRNA expression by diet attracts attention as a new therapeutic strategy. Here, we focused on identifying specific exosomal miRNAs derived from serum of aged rats and the effect of short-term calorie restriction (CR) on their expression. Exosomes from serum of young (7-month), old (22-month), and old-CR Sprague Dawley rats were isolated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy analyses, dynamic light scattering measurements, and Western blotting...
January 19, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463470/metabolic-kinases-moonlighting-as-protein-kinases
#10
REVIEW
Zhimin Lu, Tony Hunter
Protein kinases regulate every aspect of cellular activity, whereas metabolic enzymes are responsible for energy production and catabolic and anabolic processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some metabolic enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), ketohexokinase (KHK) isoform A (KHK-A), hexokinase (HK), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 and 2 (NME1/2), that phosphorylate soluble metabolites can also function as protein kinases and phosphorylate a variety of protein substrates to regulate the Warburg effect, gene expression, cell cycle progression and proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, exosome secretion, T cell activation, iron transport, ion channel opening, and many other fundamental cellular functions...
February 17, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463374/nano-vesicles-are-a-potential-tool-to-monitor-therapeutic-efficacy-of-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#11
Qi Yu, Ping Li, Meilin Weng, Shuang Wu, Yafang Zhang, Xue Chen, Qing Zhang, Guangxia Shen, Xianting Ding, Shen Fu
Exosomes are nano-vesicles that contribute to the effectiveness of many treatments. The aim of this study was to identify profiles of microRNA (miRNA) contained in serum exosomes that are differentially regulated in patients with prostate cancer undergoing carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). RNA was extracted from serum exosomes of eight patients with localized prostate cancer before and after CIRT, and miRNA was analyzed by the next generation sequencing. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the major signaling pathways associated with the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, such as MAPK, PI3K-AKT, mTOR, and AMPK may be implicated in the mechanism of CIRT action...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463370/exchangeability-of-fitc-sio%C3%A2-nanoparticles-between-cancer-cells-increases-the-range-of-drug-delivery
#12
Guoying Deng, Zizheng Wu, Feng Zhou, Chenyun Dai, Jingpeng Zhao, Yingjie Kang, Qian Wang, Xijian Liu, Yin Wang, Qiugen Wang
Drug delivery system studies aim to improve nanoparticle (NP) formulation to enable efficient delivery of NPs to tumors. However, NPs must be transported by blood or through direct injection. How NPs leave the circulatory system and how NPs diffuse into a tumor remain unclear, and this uncertainty is a limitation of drug delivery systems. The intimate connection between these questions and metabolism may be related to their biosafety in vivo. Thus, in this study, classical carrier SiO2 NPs were used as typical transport NPs, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used as the representative drug and tracer...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462943/functional-association-between-regulatory-rnas-and-the-annexins
#13
REVIEW
Katia Monastyrskaya
Cells respond to pathophysiological states by activation of stress-induced signalling. Regulatory non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) often form stable feed-forward loops which ensure prolongation of the signal, contributing to sustained activation. Members of the annexin protein family act as sensors for Ca2+ , pH, and lipid second messengers, and regulate various signalling pathways. Recently, annexins were reported to participate in feedback loops, suppressing miRNA synthesis and attenuating stress-induced dysregulation of gene expression...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462710/fibrin-glue-mesh-fixation-combined-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-or-exosomes-modulates-the-inflammatory-reaction-in-a-murine-model-of-incisional-hernia
#14
Rebeca Blázquez, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo, Verónica Álvarez, Alejandra Usón, Federica Marinaro, Javier G Casado
Surgical meshes are effective and frequently used to reinforce soft tissues. Fibrin glue (FG) has been widely used for mesh fixation and is also considered an optimal vehicle for stem cell delivery. The aim of this preclinical study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of MSCs and their exosomes combined with FG for the treatment of incisional hernia. A murine incisional hernia model was used to implant surgical meshes and different treatments with FG, MSCs and exo-MSCs were applied. The implanted meshes were evaluated at day 7 by anatomopathology, cellular analysis of infiltrating leukocytes and gene expression analysis of TH1/TH2 cytokines, MMPs, TIMPs and collagens...
February 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462562/exosome-mediated-ultra-effective-direct-conversion-of-human-fibroblasts-into-neural-progenitor-like-cells
#15
Yong Seung Lee, Woon Yong Jung, Hyejung Heo, Min Geun Park, Seung-Hun Oh, Byong-Gon Park, Soonhag Kim
Exosomes, naturally secreted nanoparticles, have been introduced as vehicles for horizontal transfer of genetic material. We induced autologous exosomes containing a cocktail of reprogramming factors ("reprosomes") to convert fibroblasts into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). The fibroblasts were treated with ultrasound and subsequently cultured in neural stem cell medium for 1 day to induce the release of reprosomes composed of reprogramming factors associated with chromatin remodeling and neural lineage-specific factors...
February 22, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462250/the-lnclocator-a-subcellular-localization-predictor-for-long-non-coding-rnas-based-on-a-stacked-ensemble-classifier
#16
Cao Zhen, Xiaoyong Pan, Yang Yang, Yan Huang, Hong-Bin Shen
Motivation: The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) studies have been hot topics in the field of RNA biology. Recent studies have shown that their subcellular localizations carry important information for understanding their complex biological functions. Considering the costly and time-consuming experiments for identifying subcellular localization of lncRNAs, computational methods are urgently desired. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no computational tools for predicting the lncRNA subcellular locations to date...
February 15, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460840/-comparative-sub-population-analysis-of-exosomes-from-blood-plasma-of-cancer-patients
#17
REVIEW
S N Tamkovich, N V Yunusova, A K Somov, G V Kakurina, E S Kolegova, E A Tugurova, P P Laktionov, I V Kondakova
To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the developed methods for diagnosis of oncological diseases using exosomes of blood, a stage of pre-selection of tumor exosomes from a common pool of circulating microvesicles is required. In the present work, universal proteins have been identified, their expression has been increased in the exosomes of patients with colorectal cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, and lung cancer. The use of antibodies against major exosomal proteins will further develop a simple and high-performance method of affinity isolation of tumor exosomes...
January 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460831/-isolation-of-extracellular-micro-vesicles-from-cell-culture-medium-comparative-evaluation-of-methods
#18
T A Shtam, R A Samsonov, A V Volnitskiy, R A Kamyshinsky, N A Verlov, M S Kniazeva, E A Korobkina, A S Orehov, A L Vasiliev, A L Konevega, A V Malek
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted by cells of multicellular organisms. EV mediate specific mode of intercellular communication by "horizontal" exchange of substances and information. This phenomenon seems to have an essential biological significance and became a subject of intensive research. Biogenesis, structural and functional features of the EV is being commonly studies in in vitro condition. Several methods of EV isolation from cell culture medium are established, however selection of method might influence on obtained results...
January 2018: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459780/identification-of-distinct-nanoparticles-and-subsets-of-extracellular-vesicles-by-asymmetric-flow-field-flow-fractionation
#19
Haiying Zhang, Daniela Freitas, Han Sang Kim, Kristina Fabijanic, Zhong Li, Haiyan Chen, Milica Tesic Mark, Henrik Molina, Alberto Benito Martin, Linda Bojmar, Justin Fang, Sham Rampersaud, Ayuko Hoshino, Irina Matei, Candia M Kenific, Miho Nakajima, Anders Peter Mutvei, Pasquale Sansone, Weston Buehring, Huajuan Wang, Juan Pablo Jimenez, Leona Cohen-Gould, Navid Paknejad, Matthew Brendel, Katia Manova-Todorova, Ana Magalhães, José Alexandre Ferreira, Hugo Osório, André M Silva, Ashish Massey, Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz, Giuseppe Galletti, Paraskevi Giannakakou, Ana Maria Cuervo, John Blenis, Robert Schwartz, Mary Sue Brady, Héctor Peinado, Jacqueline Bromberg, Hiroshi Matsui, Celso A Reis, David Lyden
The heterogeneity of exosomal populations has hindered our understanding of their biogenesis, molecular composition, biodistribution and functions. By employing asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4), we identified two exosome subpopulations (large exosome vesicles, Exo-L, 90-120 nm; small exosome vesicles, Exo-S, 60-80 nm) and discovered an abundant population of non-membranous nanoparticles termed 'exomeres' (~35 nm). Exomere proteomic profiling revealed an enrichment in metabolic enzymes and hypoxia, microtubule and coagulation proteins as well as specific pathways, such as glycolysis and mTOR signalling...
February 19, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459722/vesicle-based-secretion-in-schistosomes-analysis-of-protein-and-microrna-mirna-content-of-exosome-like-vesicles-derived-from-schistosoma-mansoni
#20
Vitalie Samoil, Maude Dagenais, Vinupriya Ganapathy, Jerry Aldridge, Anastasia Glebov, Armando Jardim, Paula Ribeiro
Exosomes are small vesicles of endocytic origin, which are released into the extracellular environment and mediate a variety of physiological and pathological conditions. Here we show that Schistosoma mansoni releases exosome-like vesicles in vitro. Vesicles were purified from culture medium by sucrose gradient fractionation and fractions containing vesicles verified by western blot analyses and electron microscopy. Proteomic analyses of exosomal contents unveiled 130 schistosome proteins. Among these proteins are common exosomal markers such as heat shock proteins, energy-generating enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, and others...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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