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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932472/exosomes-what-do-we-love-so-much-about-them
#1
Michael E Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930879/melanoma-exosomes-deliver-a-complex-biological-payload-that-upregulates-ptpn11-to-suppress-t-lymphocyte-function
#2
Yueting Wu, Wentao Deng, Emily Chambers McGinley, David J Klinke
As exosomes are emerging as a new mode of intercellular communication, we hypothesized that the payload contained within exosomes is shaped by somatic evolution. To test this, we assayed the impact on primary CD8+ T cell function, a key mechanism for anti-tumor immunity, of exosomes derived from three melanoma-related cell lines. While morphologically similar, exosomes from each cell line were functionally different, as B16F0 exosomes dose-dependently suppressed T cell proliferation. In contrast, Cloudman S91 exosomes promoted T cell proliferation and Melan-A exosomes had a negligible effect on primary CD8+ T cells...
December 8, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929413/exosome-proteome-of-u-87mg-glioblastoma-cells
#3
Sohyun Chun, Seunghyun Ahn, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Seyeon Park
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter secreted by many cell types, and are associated with a wide range of physiological and/or pathological processes. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA contribute to cell-to-cell communication and cell-to-environment regulation, however, their biological functions are not yet fully understood. In this report, exosomes in the glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG, were isolated and the proteome was investigated. In addition, exosome proteome changes in U-87MG cells exposed to a low temperature were investigated to elucidate whether the exosome proteome could respond to an external stimulus...
December 6, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929118/exosomal-microrna-mir-1246-induces-cell-motility-and-invasion-through-the-regulation-of-dennd2d-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
Sujata Sakha, Tomoki Muramatsu, Koji Ueda, Johji Inazawa
Metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in cancers. Exosomes, which are packed with RNA and proteins and are released in all biological fluids, are emerging as an important mediator of intercellular communication. However, the function of exosomes remains poorly understood in cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that exosomes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from a highly metastatic human oral cancer cell line, HOC313-LM, induced cell growth through the activation of ERK and AKT as well as promoted cell motility of the poorly metastatic cancer cell line HOC313-P...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929108/human-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomal-mirnas-are-critical-factors-for-inducing-anti-proliferation-signalling-to-a2780-and-skov-3-ovarian-cancer-cells
#5
Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Hideyo Yasuda, Jin-Hoi Kim
An enigmatic question exists concerning the pro- or anti-cancer status of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Despite growing interest, this question remains unanswered, and the debate became intensified with new evidences backing each side. Here, we showed that human adipose MSC (hAMSC)-derived conditioned medium (CM) exhibited inhibitory effects on A2780 human ovarian cancer cells by blocking the cell cycle, and activating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis signalling. Explicitly, we demonstrated that exosomes, an important biological component of hAMSC-CM, could restrain proliferation, wound-repair and colony formation ability of A2780 and SKOV-3 cancer cells...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926529/altered-microrna-profiles-in-plasma-exosomes-from-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis
#6
Shaofeng Yan, Hua Zhang, Wenyan Xie, Fangang Meng, Kai Zhang, Yin Jiang, Xin Zhang, Jianguo Zhang
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) is the most common type of focal epilepsy. The present study aimed to explore the expression and functions of exosomal microRNAs in mTLE-HS. A total of 50 microRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in mTLE-HS compared with healthy controls. Among them, 2 were increased and 48 were decreased. The 6 significant differentially expressed candidate microRNAs (miR-3613-5p, miR-4668-5p, miR-8071, miR-197-5p, miR-4322, and miR-6781-5p ) in exosome were validated...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926477/intra-or-extra-exosomal-secretion-of-hdgf-isoforms-the-extraordinary-function-of-the-hdgf-a-n-terminal-peptide
#7
Jessica Nüße, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ursula Mirastschijski, Lennart Kappelmann, Sørge Kelm, Frank Dietz
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a protein with diverse intracellular functions. Moreover, after non-conventional secretion, extracellular HDGF is able to influence different signalling pathways, leading for example to induction of processes like epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration. Intriguingly, in recent proteome studies, HDGF was also found secreted by special microvesicles called exosomes. Recently, we demonstrated the existence of two new HDGF isoforms (B and C). These isoforms are involved in different cellular processes than HDGF-A...
December 7, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924938/the-secretome-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-from-ms-patients-protects-against-eae
#8
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Francesca Diomede, Patrizia Ballerini, Michele Paolantonio, Marco Marchisio, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924340/exosome-like-silica-nanoparticles-a-novel-ultrasound-contrast-agent-for-stem-cell-imaging
#9
Fang Chen, Ming Ma, Junxin Wang, Fang Wang, Shi-Xiong Chern, Eric Ruike Zhao, Anamik Jhunjhunwala, Sean Darmadi, Hangrong Chen, Jesse V Jokerst
Ultrasound is critical in many areas of medicine including obstetrics, oncology, and cardiology with emerging applications in regenerative medicine. However, one critical limitation of ultrasound is the low contrast of target tissue over background. Here, we describe a novel cup-shaped silica nanoparticle that is reminiscent of exosomes and that has significant ultrasound impedance mismatch for labelling stem cells for regenerative medicine imaging. These exosome-like silica nanoparticles (ELS) were created through emulsion templating and the silica precursors bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) and bis(3-trimethoxysilyl-propyl)amine (TSPA)...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923027/corrigendum-melanoma-exosomes-educate-bone-marrow-progenitor-cells-toward-a-pro-metastatic-phenotype-through-met
#10
Héctor Peinado, Maša Alecˇković, Simon Lavotshkin, Irina Matei, Bruno Costa-Silva, Gema Moreno-Bueno, Marta Hergueta-Redondo, Caitlin Williams, Guillermo García-Santos, Cyrus M Ghajar, Ayuko Nitadori-Hoshino, Caitlin Hoffman, Karen Badal, Benjamin A Garcia, Margaret K Callahan, Jianda Yuan, Vilma R Martins, Johan Skog, Rosandra N Kaplan, Mary S Brady, Jedd D Wolchok, Paul B Chapman, Yibin Kang, Jacqueline Bromberg, David Lyden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#11
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921011/mechanisms-of-infectivity-and-evasion-derived-from-microvesicles-cargo-produced-by-trypanosoma-cruzi
#12
REVIEW
Bruna C Borges, Isadora A Uehara, Laysa O S Dias, Paula C Brígido, Claudio V da Silva, Marcelo J B Silva
Cell invasion by the intracellular protozoans requires interaction of proteins from both the host and the parasite. Many parasites establish chronic infections, showing they have the potential to escape the immune system; for example, Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease. Parasite internalization into host cell requires secreted and surface molecules, such as microvesicles. The release of microvesicles and other vesicles, such as exosomes, by different eukaryotic organisms was first observed in the late twentieth century...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918449/exosomes-as-mirna-carriers-formation-function-future
#13
REVIEW
Xiaojie Yu, Margarete Odenthal, Jochen W U Fries
Exosomes, which are one of the smallest extracellular vesicles released from cells, have been shown to carry different nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs significantly regulate cell growth and metabolism by posttranscriptional inhibition of gene expression. The rapidly changing understanding of exosomes' formation and function in delivering miRNAs from cell to cell has prompted us to review current knowledge in exosomal miRNA secretion mechanisms as well as possible therapeutic applications for personalized medicine...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917920/transcriptome-and-long-noncoding-rna-sequencing-of-three-extracellular-vesicle-subtypes-released-from-the-human-colon-cancer-lim1863-cell-line
#14
Maoshan Chen, Rong Xu, Hong Ji, David W Greening, Alin Rai, Keiichi Izumikawa, Hideaki Ishikawa, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Richard J Simpson
Previously we reported that LIM1863 colorectal cancer (CRC) cells secrete three distinct extracellular vesicle subtypes - two subpopulations of exosomes (apical EpCAM-Exos and basolateral A33-Exos) and shed microvesicles (sMVs) - with distinct protein and miRNA signatures. Here, we extend our omics approach to understand the fundamental role of LIM1863-derived EVs by performing a comprehensive analysis of their mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) using RNA-Seq. We show that 2,389 mRNAs, 317 pseudogene transcripts, 1,028 lncRNAs and 206 short non-coding RNAs selectively distributed to (i...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917441/size-selective-harvesting-of-extracellular-vesicles-for-strategic-analyses-towards-tumor-diagnoses
#15
Chihiro Manri, Takahide Yokoi, Hirokazu Nishida
Extracellular vesicles (EV), typified by exosomes or microvesicles, are expected to be effective diagnostic markers for cancers. The sizes of the vesicles range from 20 to 1000 nm, but the size-dependent variations of the contents of EVs are still poorly understood. We succeeded in the size-selective harvesting of the vesicles by utilizing the molecular weight-dependent characteristics of a variety of polyethylene glycols (PEG) as precipitating reagents and analyzed the antigens displayed on the surfaces of the vesicles and the miRNAs included in the vesicles from each size group...
December 5, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916565/the-association-of-exosomes-with-lymph-nodes
#16
REVIEW
Joshua L Hood
Cells produce extracellular nanovesicles known as exosomes that transport information between tissue microenvironments. Exosomes can engage and regulate the function of various immune cell types facilitating both normal and pathological processes. It follows that exosomes should also associate with lymph nodes containing immune cells. Herein, data derived from investigations that incorporate experiments pertaining to the trafficking of exosomes to lymph nodes is reviewed. Within lymph nodes, direct evidence demonstrates that exosomes associate with dendritic cells, subcapsular sinus macrophages, B lymphocytes and stromal cells...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914242/molecular-lipid-species-in-urinary-exosomes-as-potential-prostate-cancer-biomarkers
#17
Tore Skotland, Kim Ekroos, Dimple Kauhanen, Helena Simolin, Therese Seierstad, Viktor Berge, Kirsten Sandvig, Alicia Llorente
BACKGROUND: Exosomes have recently appeared as a novel source of noninvasive cancer biomarkers, since these nanovesicles contain molecules from cancer cells and can be detected in biofluids. We have here investigated the potential use of lipids in urinary exosomes as prostate cancer biomarkers. METHODS: A high-throughput mass spectrometry quantitative lipidomic analysis was performed to reveal the lipid composition of urinary exosomes in prostate cancer patients and healthy controls...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913196/nf-kb-regulated-exosomal-mir-155-promotes-the-inflammation-associated-with-arsenite-carcinogenesis
#18
Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Xinlu Liu, Lu Lu, Hui Xu, Qianlei Yang, Junchao Xue, Le Shi, Jun Li, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
In the cancer microenvironment, extracellular communication allows various types of cells to coordinate and execute biological functions. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes, as mediators of cell communication, are involved in tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which exosomal miRNAs regulate inflammatory infiltration in arsenite-induced liver cancer. The present research aimed to determine if miRNAs secreted from arsenite-transformed human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells are transferred into normal L-02 and THLE-3 cells, which are functionally active in the recipient cells...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912844/heparanase-from-basic-research-to-therapeutic-applications-in-cancer-and-inflammation
#19
Israel Vlodavsky, Preeti Singh, Ilanit Boyango, Lilach Gutter-Kapon, Michael Elkin, Ralph D Sanderson, Neta Ilan
Heparanase, the sole heparan sulfate degrading endoglycosidase, regulates multiple biological activities that enhance tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Heparanase expression is enhanced in almost all cancers examined including various carcinomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies. Numerous clinical association studies have consistently demonstrated that upregulation of heparanase expression correlates with increased tumor size, tumor angiogenesis, enhanced metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, knockdown of heparanase or treatments of tumor-bearing mice with heparanase-inhibiting compounds, markedly attenuate tumor progression further underscoring the potential of anti-heparanase therapy for multiple types of cancer...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910046/exosomes-based-gene-therapy-for-microrna-delivery
#20
Prabhu Mathiyalagan, Susmita Sahoo
Despite recent advances in scientific knowledge and clinical practice, cardiovascular disease management and treatment remain a major burden. While several treatment strategies using drugs and surgeries are being developed for cardiovascular manifestations, gene-based therapies hold significant promise. Recent findings from our laboratory unveiled a novel mechanism that exosomes, secreted nanovesicles from stem cells, mediate cardiac repair via transferring their unique repertoire of microRNAs (miRNA) to recipient cells in the heart...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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