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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823103/bariatric-surgery-is-accompanied-by-changes-in-extracellular-vesicle-associated-and-plasma-fatty-acid-binding-protein-4
#1
Justyna K Witczak, Thinzar Min, Sarah L Prior, Jeffrey W Stephens, Philip E James, Aled Rees
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery markedly reduces fat mass with beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by a variety of cells, including adipocytes, and may mediate some of these benefits. However, the effects of bariatric surgery on circulating EVs are unclear. METHODS: Concentration of plasma EVs isolated by ultracentrifugation at baseline, 1 and 6 months post-bariatric surgery (n = 20) was established using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis...
August 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821634/lipidomic-and-proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-from-mouse-cortical-collecting-duct-cells
#2
Viet D Dang, Kishore Kumar Jella, Ragy R T Ragheb, Nancy D Denslow, Abdel A Alli
Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles that are involved in cellular communication and signaling. Exosomes are produced by epithelial cells and are found in biologic fluids including blood and urine. The packaged material within exosomes includes proteins and lipids, but the molecular comparison within exosome subtypes is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between exosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane and basolateral plasma membrane of polarized murine cortical collecting duct principal cells...
August 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819811/circulating-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-aging-process-impact-of-aerobic-exercise
#3
Karine Bertoldi, Laura Reck Cechinel, Bruna Schallenberger, Giana Blume Corssac, Samuel Davies, Irene Clemes Külkamp Guerreiro, Adriane Belló-Klein, Alex Sander R Araujo, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Our aim was to investigate transitory and delayed exercise effects on serum extracellular vesicles (EVs) in aging process. Male Wistar rats of 3-, 21-, and 26-month old were allocated into exercised and sedentary groups. The exercise protocol consisted in a daily moderate treadmill exercise (20 min daily during 2 weeks). Trunk blood was collected 1 and 18 h after the last exercise session, and circulating EVs were obtained. CD63 levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were used as markers of exosome, a subtype of EVs...
August 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819550/effects-of-storage-temperature-on-airway-exosome-integrity-for-diagnostic-and-functional-analyses
#4
Rosario Maroto, Yingxin Zhao, Mohammad Jamaluddin, Vsevolod L Popov, Hongwang Wang, Madumali Kalubowilage, Yueqing Zhang, Jonathan Luisi, Hong Sun, Christopher T Culbertson, Stefan H Bossmann, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Background: Extracellular vesicles contain biological molecules specified by cell-type of origin and modified by microenvironmental changes. To conduct reproducible studies on exosome content and function, storage conditions need to have minimal impact on airway exosome integrity. Aim: We compared surface properties and protein content of airway exosomes that had been freshly isolated vs. those that had been treated with cold storage or freezing. Methods: Mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomes purified by differential ultracentrifugation were analysed immediately or stored at +4°C or -80°C...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819549/metastatic-state-of-parent-cells-influences-the-uptake-and-functionality-of-prostate-cancer-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles
#5
Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, Maarit Neuvonen, Maarit Takatalo, Uma Thanigai Arasu, Cristian Capasso, Vincenzo Cerullo, Johng S Rhim, Kirsi Rilla, Marjo Yliperttula, Pia R-M Siljander
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, mediate intercellular signalling which has a profound role in cancer progression and in the development of metastasis. Internalisation of EVs can prompt functional changes in the recipient cells, the nature of which depends on the molecular composition and the cargo of the EVs. We hypothesised that the metastatic stage of cancerous parent cells would determine the uptake efficacy and the subsequent functional effects of the respective cancer cell-derived EVs...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819459/exosomes-derived-from-natural-killer-cells-exert-therapeutic-effect-in-melanoma
#6
Liya Zhu, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Objective: Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from normal and tumor cells and are detectable in cell culture supernatant and human biological fluids. Although previous studies have explored exosomes released from cancer cells, little is understood regarding the functions of exosomes released by normal cells. Natural killer (NK) cells display rapid immunity to metastatic or hematological malignancies, and efforts have been undertaken to clinically exploit the antitumor properties of NK cells. However, the characteristics and functions of exosomes derived from NK cells remain unknown...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817816/exosomes-derived-from-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-tumor-growth-through-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#7
Jin Qi, Yali Zhou, Zuoyi Jiao, Xu Wang, Yang Zhao, Yangbin Li, Huijuan Chen, Luxi Yang, Hongwen Zhu, Yumin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are known to home to sites of tumor microenvironments where they participate in the formation of the tumor microenvironment and to interplay with tumor cells. However, the potential functional effects of MSCs on tumor cell growth are controversial. Here, we, from the view of bone marrow MSC-derived exosomes, study the molecular mechanism of MSCs on the growth of human osteosarcoma and human gastric cancer cells. METHODS: MSCs derived from human bone marrow (hBMSCs) were isolated and cultured in complete DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, cell culture supernatants containing exosomes were harvested and exosome purification was performed by ultracentrifugation...
August 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817685/clinical-implications-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-distribution-in-serum-exosomal-fraction-measurement-by-elisa
#8
Shozo Yokoyama, Akihiro Takeuchi, Shunsuke Yamaguchi, Yasuyuki Mitani, Takashi Watanabe, Kenji Matsuda, Tsukasa Hotta, John E Shively, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: Serum exosomal proteins have great potential as indicators of disease status in cancer, inflammatory or metabolic diseases. The association of a fraction of various serum proteins such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with circulating exosomes has been debated. The establishment of a method to measure the exosomal fraction of such proteins might help resolve this controversy. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure serum exosomal molecules, for example CEA, is rare in research laboratories and totally absent in clinical biology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816640/exosomal-microrna-communication-between-tissues-during-organogenesis
#9
Toru Hayashi, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are required to coordinate cell proliferation, patterning, and functional differentiation of multiple cell types in a developing organ. This exquisite coordination is dependent on various secreted molecules that provide developmental signals to mediate these tissue interactions. Recently, it was reported that mature mesenchymal-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fetal mouse salivary gland are loaded into exosomes, and transported to the epithelium where they influence progenitor cell proliferation...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816238/acute-myeloid-leukemia-transforms-the-bone-marrow-niche-into-a-leukemia-permissive-microenvironment-through-exosome-secretion
#10
B Kumar, M Garcia, L Weng, X Jung, J L Murakami, X Hu, T McDonald, A Lin, A R Kumar, D L DiGiusto, A S Stein, V A Pullarkat, S K Hui, N Carlesso, Y-H Kuo, R Bhatia, G Marcucci, C-C Chen
Little is known about how leukemia cells alter the bone marrow (BM) niche to facilitate their own growth and evade chemotherapy. Here, we provide evidence that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts remodel the BM niche into a leukemia-growth-permissive and normal-hematopoiesis-suppressive microenvironment through exosome secretion. Either engrafted AML cells or AML-derived exosomes increased mesenchymal stromal progenitors and blocked osteolineage development and bone formation in vivo. Pre-conditioning with AML-derived exosomes 'primed' the animals for accelerated AML growth...
August 17, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815045/tumor-derived-exosomes-induce-cd8-t-cell-suppressors
#11
Brian T Maybruck, Lukas W Pfannenstiel, Marcela Diaz-Montero, Brian R Gastman
BACKGROUND: The suppressive nature of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment plays a major role in regulating anti-tumor immune responses. Our previous work demonstrated that a soluble factor from tumor cells is able to induce a suppressor phenotype (SP) in human CD8(+) T cells typified by loss of CD27/CD28 expression and acquisition of a potent suppressor function. The present study hypothesized that the soluble mechanism that is inducing the SP in CD8(+) T cells are tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814883/serum-exosomal-mir-125b-is-a-novel-prognostic-marker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Weifeng Liu, Jie Hu, Kaiqian Zhou, Feiyu Chen, Zheng Wang, Boyi Liao, Zhi Dai, Ya Cao, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with high mortality. Circulating miRNA has been demonstrated as a novel noninvasive biomarker for many tumors. This study aimed to investigate the potential of circulating miR-125b as a prognostic marker of HCC. Exosomes were extracted from serum samples collected from two independent cohorts: cohort 1: HCC (n=30), chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n=30), liver cirrhosis (LC, n=30); cohort 2: HCC (n=128). We found that miR-125b levels were remarkably increased in exosomes compared to those in serum from patients with CHB, LC, and HCC (P<0...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814814/umbilical-cord-extracts-improve-diabetic-abnormalities-in-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-increase-their-therapeutic-effects-on-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
Kanna Nagaishi, Yuka Mizue, Takako Chikenji, Miho Otani, Masako Nakano, Yusaku Saijo, Hikaru Tsuchida, Shinichi Ishioka, Akira Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi Saito, Mineko Fujimiya
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) has been applied as the most valuable source of autologous cell transplantation for various diseases including diabetic complications. However, hyperglycemia may cause abnormalities in intrinsic BM-MSC which might lose sufficient therapeutic effects in diabetic patients. We demonstrated the functional abnormalities in BM-MSC derived from both type 1 and type 2 diabetes models in vitro, which resulted in loss of therapeutic effects in vivo in diabetic nephropathy (DN)...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814772/myosin-isoform-expressed-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer-stimulates-cell-invasion
#14
Ivan V Maly, Tera M Domaradzki, Victoria A Gosy, Wilma A Hofmann
During metastasis, tumor cells migrate out of their original tissue to invade other organs. Secretion of exosomes and metalloproteases is essential for extracellular matrix remodeling, enabling migration through tissue barriers. Metastatic prostate cancer is differentiated by expression of the rare isoform A of the molecular motor myosin IC, however the function of this isoform remained unknown. Here we show that it contributes causatively to the invasive motility of prostate cancer cells. We found that the isoform associates with metalloprotease-containing exosomes and stimulates their secretion...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814500/mono-ubiquitination-of-syntaxin-3-leads-to-retrieval-from-the-basolateral-plasma-membrane-and-facilitates-cargo-recruitment-to-exosomes
#15
Adrian J Giovannone, Elena Reales, Pallavi Bhattaram, Alberto Fraile-Ramos, Thomas Weimbs
Syntaxin 3 (Stx3), a SNARE protein located and functioning at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells, is required for epithelial polarity. A fraction of Stx3 is localized to late endosomes/lysosomes though how it traffics there and its function in these organelles is unknown. Here we report that Stx3 undergoes mono-ubiquitination in a conserved polybasic domain. Stx3 present at the basolateral - but not the apical - plasma membrane is rapidly endocytosed, targeted to endosomes, internalized into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) and excreted in exosomes...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811610/antibiotic-induced-release-of-small-extracellular-vesicles-exosomes-with-surface-associated-dna
#16
Andrea Németh, Norbert Orgovan, Barbara W Sódar, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Krisztina Pálóczi, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor, Krisztina V Vukman, Ágnes Kittel, Lilla Turiák, Zoltán Wiener, Sára Tóth, László Drahos, Károly Vékey, Robert Horvath, Edit I Buzás
Recently, biological roles of extracellular vesicles (which include among others exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) have attracted substantial attention in various fields of biomedicine. Here we investigated the impact of sustained exposure of cells to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the released extracellular vesicles. Ciprofloxacin is widely used in humans against bacterial infections as well as in cell cultures against Mycoplasma contamination. However, ciprofloxacin is an inducer of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of mammalian cells...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#17
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807885/biogenesis-and-function-of-escrt-dependent-extracellular-vesicles
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Juan, Maximilian Fürthauer
From bacteria to humans, cells secrete a large variety of membrane-bound extracellular vesicles. Only relatively recently has it however started to become clear that the exovesicular transport of proteins and RNAs is important for normal physiology and numerous pathological conditions. Extracellular vesicles can be formed through the release of the intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes as so-called exosomes, or through direct, ectosomal, budding from the cell surface. Through their ability to promote the bending of membranes away from the cytoplasm, the components of the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) have been implicated in both exo- and ectosomal biogenesis...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807820/the-biology-function-and-clinical-implications-of-exosomes-in-lung-cancer
#19
Li Zhou, Tangfeng Lv, Qun Zhang, Qingqing Zhu, Ping Zhan, Suhua Zhu, Jianya Zhang, Yong Song
Exosomes are 30-100 nm small membrane vesicles of endocytic origin that are secreted by all types of cells, and can also be found in various body fluids. Increasing evidence implicates that exosomes confer stability and can deliver their cargos such as proteins and nucleic acids to specific cell types, which subsequently serve as important messengers and carriers in lung carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the biogenesis and components of exosomes mainly in lung cancer, we summarize their function in lung carcinogenesis (epithelial mesenchymal transition, oncogenic cell transformation, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune response in tumor microenvironment), and importantly we focus on the clinical potential of exosomes as biomarkers and therapeutics in lung cancer...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807240/role-of-exosomes-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Demetrios Moris, Eliza W Beal, Jeffery Chakedis, Richard A Burkhart, Carl Schmidt, Mary Dillhoff, Xufeng Zhang, Stamatios Theocharis, Timothy M Pawlik
Exosomes are nanovesicles that may play a role in intercellular communication by acting as carriers of functional contents such as proteins, lipids, RNA molecules and circulating DNA from donor to recipient cells. In addition, exosomes may play a potential role in immunosurveillance and tumor pathogenesis and progression. Recently, research has increasingly focused on the role of exosomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary liver malignancy. We herein review data on emerging experimental and clinical studies focused on the role of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, progression and chemotherapy response of patients with HCC...
September 2017: Surgical Oncology
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