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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527894/hfe-genotype-affects-exosome-phenotype-in-cancer
#1
Oliver D Mrowczynski, A B Madhankumar, Becky Slagle-Webb, Sang Y Lee, Brad E Zacharia, James R Connor
Neuroblastoma is the third most common childhood cancer, and timely diagnosis and sensitive therapeutic monitoring remain major challenges. Tumor progression and recurrence is common with little understanding of mechanisms. A major recent focus in cancer biology is the impact of exosomes on metastatic behavior and the tumor microenvironment. Exosomes have been demonstrated to contribute to the oncogenic effect on the surrounding tumor environment and also mediate resistance to therapy. The effect of genotype on exosomal phenotype has not yet been explored...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526928/exosomes-in-cardiovascular-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Iain M Dykes
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that mediate intercellular transport of a cytosolic cargo. Exosomal transfer of micro-RNA can modify gene expression in targeted cells. Exosome-based endocrine/paracrine signaling has been shown to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes including those associated with cardiovascular injury and disease, but remains relatively poorly understood. Exosomes offer great potential to the clinical field, with applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics...
May 19, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524762/exosomes-promote-restoration-after-an-experimental-animal-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Laura Otero-Ortega, Mari Carmen Gómez de Frutos, Fernando Laso-García, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Esperanza Medina-Gutiérrez, Juan Antonio López, Jesús Vázquez, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Exosomes are gaining importance because they show great promise in therapeutic applications for several diseases. Particularly in stroke, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy work as paracrine effectors responsible for promoting neurovascular remodeling and functional recovery. Adult male rats were subjected to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by intrastriatal injection of collagenase type IV; 24 h after surgery, MSC-derived exosomes were administered through the tail vein. The rats were euthanized at 7 or 28 days after treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524163/dsdna-containing-exosomes-the-culprit-in-chemotherapy-induced-diarrhea
#4
Paul Kurywchak, Raghu Kalluri
Chemotherapy is a predominant strategy to treat cancer and is often associated with toxicities like severe diarrhea that puts patients at additional risk and can hinder treatment strategies. Lian et al. recently explored the immune-mediated mechanisms of Irinotecan-induced diarrhea in colorectal cancer and found that double-stranded DNA in small vesicles can launch inflammation pathways in immune cells through the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2.
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523512/reduced-adipogenesis-after-lung-tumor-exosomes-priming-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#5
Shihua Wang, Xiaoxia Li, Meiqian Xu, Jing Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
A key feature of cancer cachexia is the loss of adipose tissue, mainly due to increased lipolysis and an impairment of adipogenesis. Recent findings have shown that cancer exosomes promoted lipolysis in adipose tissue. However, effects of cancer exosomes on adipogenesis were not reported. In this study, we found that lung cancer exosomes could be internalized by human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) and significantly inhibited hAD-MSC adipogenesis as demonstrated by Oil Red O staining and decreased expression of adipogenic-specific genes...
May 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523463/immature-exosomes-derived-from-microrna-146a-overexpressing-dendritic-cells-act-as-antigen-specific-therapy-for-myasthenia-gravis
#6
Weifan Yin, Song Ouyang, Zhaohui Luo, Qiuming Zeng, Bo Hu, Liqun Xu, Yuan Li, Bo Xiao, Huan Yang
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neurological autoimmune disease characterized by fluctuating weakness of certain voluntary muscles. Current treatments for MG are largely directed at suppressing the whole immune system by using immunosuppressants or glucocorticoids and often cause several side effects. The ideal therapeutic methods for MG should suppress aberrant immunoactivation specifically, while retaining normal function of the immune system. In this study, we first produced exosomes from microRNA-146a overexpressing dendritic cells (DCs)...
May 18, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523434/salivary-exosomal-psma7-a-promising-biomarker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523150/cancer-s-smart-bombs-tumor-derived-exosomes-target-lung-epithelial-cells-triggering-pre-metastatic-niche-formation
#8
EDITORIAL
Dionysios Antonopoulos, Nikolaos A A Balatsos, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521461/kras-and-braf-mutations-in-serum-exosomes-from-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-in-a-chinese-population
#9
Yi-Xin Hao, Yong-Mei Li, Ming Ye, Yan-Yan Guo, Qiu-Wen Li, Xiu-Mei Peng, Qi Wang, Shu-Fang Zhang, Hui-Xia Zhao, He Zhang, Guang-Hui Li, Jian-Hua Zhu, Wen-Hua Xiao
The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor- targeted therapy is significantly associated with Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) and B-raf serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutation in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), for which the standard gene testing is currently performed using tumor tissue DNA. The aim of the present study was to compare the presence of KRAS and BRAF mutations in the serum exosome and primary tumor tissue from patients with CRC. Genomic DNA were extracted from the tumor tissues of 35 patients with histologically-confirmed CRC and exosomal mRNA were obtained from peripheral blood, which were collected from the corresponding patients prior to surgery...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521391/role-of-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-in-cancer
#10
Junyi Wu, Zhen Qu, Zi-Wei Fei, Jun-Hua Wu, Chun-Ping Jiang
Exosomes are small, extracellular membrane- enclosed vesicles that contain a variety of molecules, including proteins, DNA, mRNA and non-coding RNA; these vesicles have been defined as new tools for intercellular communication between cells. Numerous types of cells, including stem cells, secrete exosomes into the extracellular environment, and are significant communicators in the tumor microenvironment. Stem cells are a unique cell population defined by their ability to indefinitely self-renew, differentiate into a variety of cell lines, and form clonal cell populations...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520934/the-smap1-2-proteins-of-the-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-solfataricus-interact-with-the-exosome-and-stimulate-a-rich-tailing-of-transcripts
#11
Birgit Märtens, Linlin Hou, Fabian Amman, Michael T Wolfinger, Elena Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Udo Bläsi
The conserved Sm and Sm-like proteins are involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism. Here, we explored the interactome of SmAP1 and SmAP2 of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) to shed light on their physiological function(s). Both, SmAP1 and SmAP2 co-purified with several proteins involved in RNA-processing/modification, translation and protein turnover as well as with components of the exosome involved in 3΄ to 5΄ degradation of RNA. In follow-up studies a direct interaction with the poly(A) binding and accessory exosomal subunit DnaG was demonstrated...
May 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516087/dna-sequence-analysis-in-clinical-medicine-proceeding-cautiously
#12
REVIEW
Moyra Smith
Delineation of underlying genomic and genetic factors in a specific disease may be valuable in establishing a definitive diagnosis and may guide patient management and counseling. In addition, genetic information may be useful in identification of at risk family members. Gene mapping and initial genome sequencing data enabled the development of microarrays to analyze genomic variants. The goal of this review is to consider different generations of sequencing techniques and their application to exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing and their clinical applications...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515465/gender-specific-differential-expression-of-exosomal-mirna-in-synovial-fluid-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#13
Ravindra Kolhe, Monte Hunter, Siyang Liu, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Chetan Pundkar, Ashis K Mondal, Bharati Mendhe, Michelle Drewry, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Yutao Liu, Carlos M Isales, Robert E Guldberg, Mark W Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515288/motor-recovery-beginning-23-years-after-ischemic-stroke
#14
Peter Sörös, Robert Teasell, Daniel F Hanley, J David Spence
It is widely believed that most stroke recovery occurs within 6 months, with little benefit of physiotherapy or other modalities beyond a year. We report a remarkable case of stroke recovery beginning 23 years after a severe stroke due to embolization from the innominate artery and subclavian artery, resulting from compression of the right subclavian artery by a cervical rib. The patient had a large right fronto-parietal infarction with severe left hemiparesis, and a totally non-functional spastic left hand...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514744/characterization-of-mouse-serum-exosomal-small-rna-content-the-origins-and-their-roles-in-modulating-inflammatory-response
#15
Xin Zhou, Zinan Jiao, Juling Ji, Shuyuan Li, Xiaodi Huang, Xiaoshuang Lu, Heng Zhao, Jingwen Peng, Xinya Chen, Qiuhong Ji, Yuhua Ji
In the last decade, although studies on exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from serum and other body fluids have increased dramatically; the contents and biological significance of serum exosomes under normal conditions remain unclear. In the present study, we profiled the small RNA content of mouse serum exosomes (mSEs) using small RNAseq and found that fragments of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and miRNAs were the two predominant exosomal RNA species, accounting for approximately 60% and 10% of mapped reads, respectively...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512335/arginine-rich-cell-penetrating-peptide-modified-extracellular-vesicles-for-active-macropinocytosis-induction-and-efficient-intracellular-delivery
#16
Ikuhiko Nakase, Kosuke Noguchi, Ayako Aoki, Tomoka Takatani-Nakase, Ikuo Fujii, Shiroh Futaki
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes have been shown to play crucial roles in cell-to-cell communication because of their ability to carry biofunctional molecules (e.g., microRNAs and enzymes). EVs also have pharmaceutical advantages and are highly anticipated to be a next-generation intracellular delivery tool. Here, we demonstrate an experimental technique that uses arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-modified EVs to induce active macropinocytosis for effective cellular EV uptake. Modification of arginine-rich CPPs on the EV membrane resulted in the activation of the macropinocytosis pathway, and the number of arginine residues in the peptide sequences affected the cellular EV uptake efficiency...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512211/correction-for-bernard-et-al-splicing-factor-spf30-assists-exosome-mediated-gene-silencing-in-fission-yeast
#17
Pascal Bernard, Julie Drogat, Sonia Dheur, Sylvie Genier, Jean-Paul Javerzat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511177/familial-hyperkalemia-and-hypertension-fhht-and-klhl3-description-of-a-family-with-a-new-recessive-mutation-s553l-compared-to-a-family-with-a-dominant-mutation-q309r-with-analysis-of-urinary-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#18
Orit Kliuk-Ben Bassat, Vered Carmon, Aaron Hanukoglu, Liat Ganon, Eias Massalha, Eliezer J Holtzman, Zvi Farfel, Haim Mayan
BACKGROUND: Familial hyperkalemia and hypertension (FHHt) is an inherited disorder manifested by hyperkalemia and hypertension. The following four causative genes were identified: WNK1, WNK4, CUL3, and KLHL3. For the first 3 genes, inheritance is autosomal dominant. For KLHL3, inheritance is mostly dominant. A few cases with autosomal recessive disease were described. The mechanism of these 2 modes of inheritance is not clear. In the recessive form, the phenotype of heterozygotes is not well described...
May 17, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508895/exosomes-maintain-cellular-homeostasis-by-excreting-harmful-dna-from-cells
#19
Akiko Takahashi, Ryo Okada, Koji Nagao, Yuka Kawamata, Aki Hanyu, Shin Yoshimoto, Masaki Takasugi, Sugiko Watanabe, Masato T Kanemaki, Chikashi Obuse, Eiji Hara
Emerging evidence is revealing that exosomes contribute to many aspects of physiology and disease through intercellular communication. However, the biological roles of exosome secretion in exosome-secreting cells have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that exosome secretion plays a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in exosome-secreting cells. The inhibition of exosome secretion results in the accumulation of nuclear DNA in the cytoplasm, thereby causing the activation of cytoplasmic DNA sensing machinery...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508366/isolation-and-proteomic-analysis-of-microvesicles-and-exosomes-from-ht22-cells-and-primary-neurons
#20
Richard Witas, Dale Chaput, Hirah Khan, Stanley M Stevens, David Kang
Exosomes and microvesicles are extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by most cell types. The role of EVs as a method of intercellular communication has led to these vesicles becoming a major area of interest in a variety of scientific fields including neuroscience. Emerging evidence is now demonstrating that the biomolecular composition of EVs, especially exosomes, can play a role in the progression of disease including various neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In addition to the miRNA profiles of EVs, these vesicles also show interesting changes in protein expression profiles under different physiological and pathological conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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