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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#1
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666503/regulatory-t-cell-derived-extracellular-vesicles-modify-dendritic-cell-function
#2
Sim L Tung, Dominic A Boardman, Monica Sen, Marilena Letizia, Qi Peng, Nicole Cianci, Laura Dioni, Leo M Carlin, Robert Lechler, Valentina Bollati, Giovanna Lombardi, Lesley A Smyth
Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subpopulation of T cells that maintain tolerance to self and limit other immune responses. They achieve this through different mechanisms including the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) such as exosomes as shown by us, and others. One of the ways that Treg derived EVs inhibit target cells such as effector T cells is via the transfer of miRNA. Another key target for the immunoregulatory function of Tregs is the dendritic cells (DCs). In this study we demonstrate directly, and for the first time, that miRNAs are transferred from Tregs to DCs via Treg derived EVs...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666210/regulation-and-mechanisms-of-extracellular-vesicle-biogenesis-and-secretion
#3
REVIEW
Crislyn D'Souza-Schorey, Jeffrey S Schorey
EV (extracellular vesicle) biology is a rapidly expanding field. These heterogeneous membrane vesicles, which are shed from virtually all cell types, collectively represent a new dimension of intercellular communication in normal physiology and disease. They have been shown to deliver infectious and pathogenic agents to non-infected cells whereas in cancers they are thought to condition the tumor microenvironment. Their presence in body fluids and inherent capacity for systemic delivery point to their clinical promise...
April 17, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665255/concise-review-rational-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-heart-disease
#4
REVIEW
Michael R Ward, Armin Abadeh, Kim A Connelly
The capacity of stem and progenitor cells to stimulate cardiac regeneration has been studied for almost 20 years, with very promising preclinical data and mixed clinical results. Several cell types have been studied, identified by their cell surface markers, differentiation capacity and their secreted growth factors. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to have potent regenerative capacity, through multiple mechanisms, including mesoderm lineage differentiation, immunomodulation, and paracrine stimulation...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665143/identification-of-potential-tumor-educated-platelets-rna-biomarkers-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-integrated-bioinformatical-analysis
#5
Linlin Xue, Li Xie, Xingguo Song, Xianrang Song
BACKGROUND: Platelets have emerged as key players in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Tumor-educated platelet (TEP) RNA profile has the potential to diagnose non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study was to identify potential TEP RNA biomarkers for the diagnosis of NSCLC and to explore the mechanisms in alternations of TEP RNA profile. METHODS: The RNA-seq datasets GSE68086 and GSE89843 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets (GEO DataSets)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664138/characterization-of-the-catalytic-subunits-of-the-rna-exosome-like-complex-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#6
Ning Jiang, Shengchao Yu, Na Yang, Ying Feng, Xiaoyu Sang, Yao Wang, Mats Wahlgren, Qijun Chen
The eukaryotic ribonucleic acid (RNA) exosome is a versatile multi-ribonuclease complex that mediates the processing, surveillance and degradation of virtually all classes of RNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The complex, composed of ten to eleven subunits, has been widely described in many organisms. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that there may be also an exosome-like complex in Plasmodium falciparum, a parasite of great importance in public health, with eight predicted subunits having high sequence similarity to their counterparts in yeast and human...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664004/-advances-in-the-application-of-exosomes-in-sepsis
#7
Dan Wang, Mengna Zhang, Honghong Pei
Exosomes are of great importance in cell communication and information transmission, which have become a hotspot in recent years. Most studies have focused on the transport of microRNA (miRNA) and proteins, that mediated by exosomes, as well as exosomes as a drug delivery carrier of the feasibility. Therefore, exosomes can be an important method of treatment for systemic inflammatory diseases. This article reviews the relevant literature, mainly on the related characteristics of exosomes, its association with clinical disease, and its application in sepsis...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663493/mouse-serum-exosomal-proteomic-signature-in-response-to-asbestos-exposure
#8
Phillip Munson, Ying-Wai Lam, Maximilian MacPherson, Stacie Beuschel, Arti Shukla
Asbestos-induced diseases like fibrosis and mesothelioma are very aggressive, without any treatment options. These diseases are diagnosed only at the terminal stages due to lack of early stage biomarkers. The recent discovery of exosomes as circulating biomarkers led us to look for exosomal biomarkers of asbestos exposure in mouse blood. In our model, mice were exposed to asbestos as a single bolus dose by oropharyngeal aspiration. Fifty-six days later blood was collected, exosomes were isolated from plasma and characterized and subjected to proteomic analysis using Tandem Mass Tag labeling...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663285/exosomes-in-acquired-neurological-disorders-new-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Vida Motamedi, Katie Edwards, Ava Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill
Exosomes are endogenous nanovesicles that play critical roles in intercellular signaling by conveying functional genetic information and proteins between cells. Exosomes readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have promise as therapeutic delivery vehicles that have the potential to specifically deliver molecules to the central nervous system (CNS). This unique feature also makes exosomes attractive as biomarkers in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics in the context of multiple significant public health conditions, including acquired neurological disorders...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663027/molecular-interactions-at-the-surface-of-extracellular-vesicles
#10
REVIEW
Edit I Buzás, Eszter Á Tóth, Barbara W Sódar, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor
Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and large oncosomes have been shown to participate in a wide variety of biological processes and are currently under intense investigation in many different fields of biomedicine. One of the key features of extracellular vesicles is that they have relatively large surface compared to their volume. Some extracellular vesicle surface molecules are shared with those of the plasma membrane of the releasing cell, while other molecules are characteristic for extracellular vesicular surfaces...
April 16, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662902/isolation-of-extracellular-vesicles-general-methodologies-and-latest-trends
#11
REVIEW
Maria Yu Konoshenko, Evgeniy A Lekchnov, Alexander V Vlassov, Pavel P Laktionov
Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an essential role in the communication between cells and transport of diagnostically significant molecules. A wide diversity of approaches utilizing different biochemical properties of EVs and a lack of accepted protocols make data interpretation very challenging. Scope of Review: This review consolidates the data on the classical and state-of-the-art methods for isolation of EVs, including exosomes, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each method...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662484/nkg2d-and-its-ligands-one-for-all-all-for-one
#12
REVIEW
Alessandra Zingoni, Rosa Molfetta, Cinzia Fionda, Alessandra Soriani, Rossella Paolini, Marco Cippitelli, Cristina Cerboni, Angela Santoni
The activating receptor NKG2D is peculiar in its capability to bind to numerous and highly diversified MHC class I-like self-molecules. These ligands are poorly expressed on normal cells but can be induced on damaged, transformed or infected cells, with the final NKG2D ligand expression resulting from multiple levels of regulation. Although redundant molecular mechanisms can converge in the regulation of all NKG2D ligands, different stimuli can induce specific cellular responses, leading to the expression of one or few ligands...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662176/cancer-cell-secreted-exosomal-mir-105-promotes-tumour-growth-through-the-myc-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming-of-stromal-cells
#13
Wei Yan, Xiwei Wu, Weiying Zhou, Miranda Y Fong, Minghui Cao, Juan Liu, Xiaojing Liu, Chih-Hong Chen, Oluwole Fadare, Donald P Pizzo, Jiawen Wu, Liang Liu, Xuxiang Liu, Andrew R Chin, Xiubao Ren, Yuan Chen, Jason W Locasale, Shizhen Emily Wang
Cancer and other cells residing in the same niche engage various modes of interactions to synchronize and buffer the negative effects of environmental changes. Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated in the intercellular crosstalk. Here we show a mechanistic model involving breast-cancer-secreted, extracellular-vesicle-encapsulated miR-105, which is induced by the oncoprotein MYC in cancer cells and, in turn, activates MYC signalling in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to induce a metabolic program...
April 16, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661576/treatment-of-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-with-stem-cell-derived-exosomes
#14
Christopher J McCulloh, Jacob K Olson, Yijie Wang, Yu Zhou, Natalie Huibregtse Tengberg, Shivani Deshpande, Gail E Besner
PURPOSE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains a devastating disease in premature infants. We previously showed that four stem cell (SC) types equivalently improve experimental NEC. Exosomes are intercellular nanovesicles containing RNA, miRNA, DNA, and protein. Because SC therapy faces challenges, our aim was to determine if the beneficial effects of SC are achievable with cell-free exosomes. METHODS: Exosomes from four SC types were compared: (1) amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal SC (AF-MSC); (2) bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC); (3) amniotic fluid-derived neural SC (AF-NSC); and (4) neonatal enteric NSC (E-NSC)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660899/plasma-exosome-levels-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-correlation-with-clinicopathological-features-and-prognostic-implications
#15
Qingyun Liu, Ying Xiang, Shuai Yuan, Weijia Xie, Chengying Li, Zeyao Hu, Ying Xiang, Na Wu, Long Wu, Zubin Yu, Li Bai, Yafei Li
BACKGROUND: Biomarker studies revealed important clinical significance of exosome for cancer patients. However, there is currently no consensus on exosome quantification methods. METHODS: Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) method and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) were utilized to quantify 20 plasma exosome samples, and interrelations between these three methods were explored. Associations of plasma exosome levels with characteristics and prognosis of 208 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were investigated...
April 3, 2018: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660691/proteomic-analysis-of-liquid-biopsy-from-tumor-draining-vein-indicates-that-high-expression-of-exosomal-ecm1-is-associated-with-relapse-in-stage-i-iii-colon-cancer
#16
Sandra Santasusagna, Isabel Moreno, Alfons Navarro, Joan J Castellano, Francisco Martinez, Raquel Hernández, Carmen Muñoz, Mariano Monzo
BACKGROUND: The analysis of exosomes in blood obtained from the tumor-draining mesenteric vein (MV) can identify tumor biomarkers before they reach target organs and form the premetastatic niche where circulating tumor cells can anchor. Our group has recently shown that microRNAs in plasma from the MV-but not the peripheral vein (PV)-have been related to liver metastases in colon cancer (CC) patients. Here we examine the exosomal protein cargo in plasma from the MV and paired PV in 31 CC patients...
April 13, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660443/cell-to-cell-communication-by-extracellular-vesicles-focus-on-microglia
#17
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Giorgio Bergamini, Lawrence Rajendran
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance...
April 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660237/multiplexed-isobaric-tag-based-profiling-of-seven-murine-tissues-following-in-vivo-nicotine-treatment-using-a-minimalistic-proteomics-strategy
#18
Joao A Paulo, Mark P Jedrychowski, Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Steven P Gygi
Nicotine is a major addictive compound in tobacco and a component of smoking-related products, such as e-cigarettes. Once internalized, nicotine can perturb many cellular pathways and can induce alterations in proteins across different cell types, however the mechanisms thereof remain undetermined. We hypothesize that both tissue-specific and global protein abundance alterations result from nicotine exposure. As such, we present the first proteome analysis of multiple tissues from nicotine-exposed mice. We treat mice via oral administration of nicotine at 200μg/mL in drinking water for 21 days...
April 16, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660008/exosomal-mir-214-from-endometrial-stromal-cells-inhibits-endometriosis-fibrosis
#19
Di Wu, Pan Lu, Xue Mi, Jinwei Miao
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to improve fibrosis in endometriosis by microRNA-214 delivery in exosomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Upregulation of miR-214 may inhibit fibrogenesis and its delivery by exosomes derived from ectopic endometrial stromal cells, offers an alternative therapeutic approach for endometriosis fibrosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fibrosis is the primary pathological feature of endometriosis. MiR-214 plays an important role in fibrotic disease...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659501/the-stability-of-medicinal-plant-micrornas-in-the-herb-preparation-process
#20
Wenyan Xie, Matthias F Melzig
Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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