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Metabolic capacity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938461/adipokines-and-their-receptor-are-widely-expressed-and-distinctly-regulated-by-the-metabolic-environment-in-the-prostate-of-male-mice-direct-role-under-normal-and-tumoral-conditions
#1
André Sarmento-Cabral, Fernando L-López, Raúl M Luque
Adipose tissue-derived adipokines (i.e. leptin/adiponectin/resistin) play important roles in the regulation of several pathophysiological processes through the activation of specific receptors. However, although adipokines and their receptors are widely distributed in many tissues and exhibit a clear modulation by the particular metabolic conditions (e.g. obesity and/or fasting), their expression, regulation, and putative action on normal prostate-glands (PGs; a hormone-dependent organ tightly regulated by the endocrine-metabolic milieu) is still to be defined...
August 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938424/adiponectin-predicts-hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-adults-irrespective-of-body-mass-index-and-fat-distribution
#2
Gunther Marsche, Sieglinde Zelzer, Andreas Meinitzer, Sabine Kern, Sabine Meissl, Gudrun Pregartner, Daniel Weghuber, Gunter Almer, Harald Mangge
Context: Obesity is associated with hypoadiponectemia, dyslipidemia and increased risk of coronary vascular disease (CVD). Mechanisms linking these conditions remain to be fully understood. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a crucial functional property of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that strongly predicts CVD incidence. Objective: To investigate whether age, fat distribution, and other obesity related factors affect CEC in juvenile and adult overweight/obese participants of the STYJOBS/EDECTA cohort (NCT00482924)...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937985/interference-with-plastome-gene-expression-and-clp-protease-activity-in-arabidopsis-triggers-a-chloroplast-unfolded-protein-response-to-restore-protein-homeostasis
#3
Ernesto Llamas, Pablo Pulido, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion
Disruption of protein homeostasis in chloroplasts impairs the correct functioning of essential metabolic pathways, including the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for the production of plastidial isoprenoids involved in photosynthesis and growth. We previously found that misfolded and aggregated forms of the first enzyme of the MEP pathway are degraded by the Clp protease with the involvement of Hsp70 and Hsp100/ClpC1 chaperones in Arabidopsis thaliana. By contrast, the combined unfolding and disaggregating actions of Hsp70 and Hsp100/ClpB3 chaperones allow solubilization and hence reactivation of the enzyme...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937827/effect-of-saffron-on-metabolic-profile-and-retina-in-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#4
Evangelos K Doumouchtsis, Aspasia Tzani, Ilias P Doulamis, Panagiotis Konstantopoulos, Korou Laskarina-Maria, Georgios Agrogiannis, Emmanouil Agapitos, Marilita M Moschos, Alkiviadis Kostakis, Despina N Perrea
Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937597/total-antioxidant-capacity-from-dietary-supplement-decreases-the-likelihood-of-having-metabolic-syndrome-in-korean-adults
#5
Subeen Kim, YoonJu Song, Jung Eun Lee, Shinyoung Jun, Sangah Shin, Gyung-Ah Wie, Yoon Hee Cho, Hyojee Joung
This study was conducted to estimate antioxidant vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements and to examine their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. Out of 6308 adults 19~64 years old from the 2010~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1847 adults were classified as dietary supplement users and the other 4461 adults were classified as non-users. Antioxidant intake and TAC from diet and dietary supplements were estimated using dietary intake data and linked with the antioxidant and TAC database for common Korean foods...
September 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937529/effects-of-propofol-on-wound-closure-and-barrier-function-of-cultured-endothelial-cells-an-in-vitro-experimental-study
#6
Karina Zitta, Lars Hummitzsch, Ole Broch, Matthias Gruenewald, Henning Ohnesorge, Kerstin Parczany, Markus Steinfath, Martin Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Propofol is widely used in routine clinical practice for the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Although propofol is regarded as a well tolerated anaesthetic, its effect on intact or damaged endothelial cells has not yet been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of propofol on cell damage, metabolic activity, barrier function and wound healing capacity of human endothelial cells...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937257/uric-acid-contributes-greatly-to-hepatic-antioxidant-capacity-besides-protein
#7
T Mikami, M Sorimachi
Uric acid is the end-product of purine nucleotide metabolism and an increase in uric acid concentration in the body results in hyperuricemia, ultimately leading to gout. However, uric acid is a potent antioxidant and interacts with reactive oxygen species (ROS) to be non-enzymatically converted to allantoin. Uric acid accounts for approximately 60% of antioxidant capacity in the plasma; however, its contribution to tissue antioxidant capacity is unknown. In this study, the contribution of uric acid to tissue antioxidant capacity and its conversion to allantoin by scavenging ROS in tissue were examined...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936203/modulation-of-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function-in-experimental-colitis-treated-with-sulfasalazine
#8
Haihui Zheng, Mingyi Chen, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Lin Wei, Ziqiong Liao, Mengxia Wang, Fangli Ma, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935956/potential-effects-of-an-invasive-seaweed-caulerpa-cylindracea-sonder-on-sedimentary-organic-matter-and-microbial-metabolic-activities
#9
Lucia Rizzo, Antonio Pusceddu, Loredana Stabili, Pietro Alifano, Simonetta Fraschetti
Caulerpa cylindracea (Sonder), among the most successful marine bio-invaders on a global scale, poses severe threats to biodiversity. However, the effects of this seaweed on the quantity and the biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter are still poorly known. Since the whole set of sedimentary features affects the availability of substrates for benthic microbial communities, we: i) investigated the biochemical composition of sediments colonized and not-colonized by C. cylindracea, and ii) compared the metabolic patterns of the microbial communities associated with C...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933627/primary-care-for-mentally-ill-adults-in-acute-residential-treatment-facilities
#10
Linda Chafetz, Gerri Collins-Bride
Psychiatric bed capacity has decreased nationally with an impact on the number and the types of patients admitted to acute in-patient units. Acute residential programs provide alternatives to hospitals for patients with problems that do not meet criteria for admission. However, these settings may not have resources to respond to the medical co-morbidities associated with severe mental illness. To understand the medical needs of patients in these settings, this research examined data from a nurse-managed primary care outreach service...
September 21, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932942/required-hydrophobicity-of-fluorescent-reporters-for-phosphatidylinositol-family-of-lipid-enzymes
#11
Jarod Waybright, Weigang Huang, Angela Proctor, Xiaoyang Wang, Nancy L Allbritton, Qisheng Zhang
The phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) family of lipids plays important roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Abnormal expression, mutation, or regulation of their metabolic enzymes has been associated with various human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and bipolar disorder. Recently, fluorescent derivatives have increasingly been used as chemical probes to monitor either lipid localization or enzymatic activity. However, the requirements of a good probe have not been well defined, particularly modifications on the diacylglycerol side chain partly due to challenges in generating PtdIns lipids...
September 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932489/the-impact-of-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-on-routine-laboratory-parameters
#12
András Mihály Boros, Péter Perge, Klaudia Vivien Nagy, Astrid Apor, Zsolt Bagyura, Endre Zima, Levente Molnár, Tamás Tahin, Dávid Becker, László Gellér, Béla Merkely, Gábor Széplaki
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in chronic heart failure has been shown to improve mortality and morbidity. However, comprehensive data are not available as concerns how circulating biomarkers reflecting different organ functions, such as serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin, cholesterol, or various liver enzymes, change over time as a consequence of CRT. The aim of this prospective study was to overview these possible changes. METHODS: A total of 20 routine laboratory parameters were measured in 122 control subjects and in 129 patients with chronic heart failure before CRT, 6 months, and 2 years later...
March 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932171/the-role-of-ppar%C3%AE-and-autophagy-in-ros-production-lipid-droplets-biogenesis-and-its-involvement-with-colorectal-cancer-cells-modulation
#13
José Antonio Fagundes Assumpção, Kelly Grace Magalhães, José Raimundo Corrêa
BACKGROUND: In cancer cells, autophagy can act as both tumor suppressor, when autophagic event eliminates cellular contends which exceeds the cellular capacity of regenerate promoting cell death, and as a pro-survival agent removing defective organelles and proteins and helping well-established tumors to maintain an accelerated metabolic state while still dealing with harsh conditions, such as inflammation. Many pathways can coordinate the autophagic process and one of them involves the transcription factors called PPARs, which also regulate cellular differentiation, proliferation and survival...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931728/fish-face-a-trade-off-between-eating-big-for-growth-efficiency-and-eating-small-to-retain-aerobic-capacity
#14
Tommy Norin, Timothy D Clark
Feeding provides the necessary energy to fuel all fitness-related processes including activity, growth and reproduction. Nevertheless, prey consumption and digestive processes can have physical and physiological trade-offs with other critical functions, many of which are not clearly understood. Using an ambush predator, barramundi (Lates calcarifer), fed meals ranging 0.6-3.4% of body mass, we examined interrelations between meal size, growth efficiency and surplus aerobic metabolic capacity (aerobic scope, AS)...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931650/epigenetic-inactivation-of-tumour-suppressor-coding-and-non-coding-genes-in-human-cancer-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Pere Llinàs-Arias, Manel Esteller
Cancer cells undergo many different alterations during their transformation, including genetic and epigenetic events. The controlled division of healthy cells can be impaired through the downregulation of tumour suppressor genes. Here, we provide an update of the mechanisms in which epigenetically altered coding and non-coding tumour suppressor genes are implicated. We will highlight the importance of epigenetics in the different molecular pathways that lead to enhanced and unlimited capacity of division, genomic instability, metabolic shift, acquisition of mesenchymal features that lead to metastasis, and tumour plasticity...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931411/topiramate-s-effectiveness-on-weight-reduction-in-overweight-obese-persons-with-schizophrenia-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Miyuru Chandradasa, Layani Champika, Silumini de Silva, K A L A Kuruppuarachchi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with a higher mortality than that of the general population. Most of the deaths are due to cardiovascular causes and are related to metabolic risks. This risk is due not only to antipsychotics but also to inherent factors of the disorder. Studies in the West have shown topiramate to be effective in schizophrenia to reduce weight gain and for symptomatic control. Whether this is effective for South Asians is not known. It is important because South Asians have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930955/comparison-of-compensatory-reserve-and-arterial-lactate-as-markers-of-shock-and-resuscitation
#17
Michael Craig Johnson, Abdul Alarhayem, Victor Convertino, Robert Carter, Kevin Chung, Ronald Stewart, John Myers, Daniel Dent, Lilian Liao, Ramon Cestero, Susannah Nicholson, Mark Muir, Martin Schwaca, David Wampler, Mark DeRosa, Brian J Eastridge
BACKGROUND: During traumatic hemorrhage, the ability to identify shock and intervene before decompensation is paramount to survival. Lactate is extremely sensitive to shock, and its clearance has been demonstrated a useful gauge of shock and resuscitation status. Though lactate can be measured in the field, logistical constraints render it impractical in certain environments. The compensatory reserve represents a new clinical measurement reflecting the remaining capacity to compensate for hypoperfusion...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929981/the-presence-of-acylated-ghrelin-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-bovine-oocytes-induces-cumulus-cell-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-and-impairs-early-embryo-development
#18
Matias A Sirini, Juan Mateo Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio Anchordoquy, Ana M Pascua, Noelia Nikoloff, Ana Carranza, Alejandro E Relling, Cecilia C Furnus
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acylated ghrelin supplementation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes. IVM medium was supplemented with 20, 40 or 60 pM acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cumulus expansion area and oocyte nuclear maturation were studied as maturation parameters. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were assessed with the comet, apoptosis and viability assays. The in vitro effects of acylated ghrelin on embryo developmental capacity and embryo quality were also evaluated...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928971/association-of-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidant-status-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-iranian-healthy-elderly-women
#19
Afsaneh Bakhtiari, Karimolla Hajian-Tilaki, Shabnam Omidvar, Fatemeh Nasiri Amiri
The interconnection between aging and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their effect on oxidative stress (OxS) status lacks adequate information. Additionally, the age-related changes of antioxidant defenses and OxS in senior women with MetS in comparison to healthy senior women are not yet established. We analyzed the correlation between oxidative defense status and OxS with MetS components. Through further examination of MetS and aging, we aimed to determine their independent effects on OxS and oxidative defense status...
October 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928483/arca-overexpression-induces-fermentation-and-results-in-enhanced-growth-rates-of-e-coli
#20
Markus Basan, Sheng Hui, James R Williamson
Overflow metabolism in the presence of oxygen occurs at fast growth rates in a wide range of organisms including bacteria, yeast and cancer cells and plays an important role in biotechnology during production of proteins or metabolic compounds. As recently suggested, overflow metabolism can be understood in terms of proteome allocation, since fermentation has lower proteome cost for energy production than respiration. Here, we demonstrate that ArcA overexpression in aerobic conditions, results in downregulation of respiratory pathways and enhanced growth rates on glycolytic substrates of E...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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