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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088621/4-hydroxynonenal-causes-impairment-of-human-subcutaneous-adipogenesis-and-induction-of-adipocyte-insulin-resistance
#1
Mohamed Elrayess, Shamma Al-Muraikhy, Wael Kafienah, Afnan Al-Menhali, Fatima Al-Khalaifi, Moataz Bashah, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Mohammed Alsayrafi, Morana Jaganjac
OBJECTIVE: Increased adipose production of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a bioreactive aldehyde, directly correlates with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of 4-HNE in mediating adipocyte differentiation and function in two metabolically distinct obese groups; the insulin sensitive (IS) and the insulin resistant (IR). METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues were obtained from eighteen clinically well characterized obese premenopausal women undergoing weight reduction surgery...
January 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086788/comprehensive-circrna-expression-profile-and-selection-of-key-circrnas-during-priming-phase-of-rat-liver-regeneration
#2
Lifei Li, Jianlin Guo, Yanhui Chen, Cuifang Chang, Cunshuan Xu
BACKGROUND: Rat liver regeneration (LR) proceeds along a process of highly organized and ordered tissue growth in response to the loss or injury of liver tissue, during which many physiological processes may play important roles. The molecular mechanism of hepatocyte proliferation, energy metabolism and substance metabolism during rat LR had been elucidated. Further, the correlation of circular RNA (circRNA) abundance with proliferation has recently been clarified. However, the regulatory capacity of circRNA in rat LR remains a fascinating topic...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081353/clinical-correlation-between-the-6-min-walk-test-andcardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
Serap Acar, Sema Savcı, Didem Kardibak, Buse Özcan Kahraman, Bahri Akdeniz, Ebru Özpelit, Can Sevinç
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aims of the present study were to assess the relationship between the distance walked during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and exercise capacity as determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and to investigate the prognostic value of the 6MWT in comparison to clinical parameters of CPET and echocardiography findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty PAH patients participated in the study...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081256/inhibition-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-1-acc1-and-2-acc2-reduces-proliferation-and-de-novo-lipogenesis-of-egfrviii-human-glioblastoma-cells
#4
Jessica E C Jones, William P Esler, Rushi Patel, Adhiraj Lanba, Nicholas B Vera, Jeffrey A Pfefferkorn, Cecile Vernochet
Tumor cell proliferation and migration processes are regulated by multiple metabolic pathways including glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. Since acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is at the junction of lipids synthesis and oxidative metabolic pathways, we investigated whether use of a dual ACC inhibitor would provide a potential therapy against certain lipogenic cancers. The impact of dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibition was investigated using a dual ACC1/ACC2 inhibitor as well as dual siRNA knock down on the cellular viability and metabolism of two glioblastoma multiform cancer cell lines, U87 and a more aggressive form, U87 EGFRvIII...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081181/aronia-melanocarpa-extract-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-through-ppar%C3%AE-2-downregulation
#5
Chung-Hwa Park, Jung-Hee Kim, Eun Byul Lee, Wonhee Hur, Oh-Joo Kwon, Hyoung-Jin Park, Seung Kew Yoon
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Studies have demonstrated that anthocyanin-rich foods may improve hyperlipidemia and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. Here, effects of Aronia melanocarpa (AM), known to be rich of anthocyanins, on hepatic lipid metabolism and adipogenic genes were determined. AM was treated to C57BL/6N mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) or to FL83B cells treated with free fatty acid (FFA). Changes in levels of lipids, enzymes and hormones were observed, and expressions of adipogenic genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were detected by PCR, Western blotting and luciferase assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081127/transient-in-vivo-resistance-mechanisms-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-to-ceftazidime-and-molecular-markers-for-monitoring-treatment-response
#6
Jason E Cummings, Richard A Slayden
Much is known about the mode of action of drugs and resistance mechanisms under laboratory growth conditions, but research on the bacterial transcriptional response to drug pressure in vivo or efficacious mode of action and transient resistance mechanisms of clinically employed drugs is limited. Accordingly, to assess active alternative metabolism and transient resistance mechanisms, and identify molecular markers of treatment response, the in vivo transcriptional response of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026b to treatment with ceftazidime in infected lungs was compared to the in vitro bacterial response in the presence of drug...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079506/response-of-human-rheumatoid-arthritis-osteoblasts-and-osteoclasts-to-adiponectin
#7
Grit Krumbholz, Susann Junker, Florian M P Meier, Markus Rickert, Jürgen Steinmeyer, Stefan Rehart, Uwe Lange, Klaus W Frommer, Georg Schett, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann
OBJECTIVES: Adiponectin is an effector molecule in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, e.g. by inducing cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes in synovial fibroblasts. There is growing evidence that adiponectin affects osteoblasts and osteoclasts although the contribution to the aberrant bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis is unclear. Therefore, the adiponectin effects on rheumatoid arthritis-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts were evaluated. METHODS: Adiponectin and its receptors were examined in bone tissue...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079172/25-oh-d-and-1-25-oh-d-vitamin-d-fails-to-predict-sepsis-and-mortality-in-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Franz Ratzinger, Helmuth Haslacher, Markus Stadlberger, Ralf L J Schmidt, Markus Obermüller, Klaus G Schmetterer, Thomas Perkmann, Athanasios Makristathis, Rodrig Marculescu, Heinz Burgmann
The clinical role of vitamin D in sepsis and mortality prediction is controversially discussed. Therefore, we conducted a prospective cohort study on standard care wards, including 461 patients with suspected sepsis fulfilling two or more SIRS criteria. On the first and third day after onset of SIRS symptoms levels of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)D and sepsis biomarkers were analysed for their predictive capacity for identifying infection, bacteraemia and an elevated mortality risk. Additionally, several SNPs associated with vitamin D metabolism were evaluated...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079119/interleukin-32-gamma-stimulates-bone-formation-by-increasing-mir-29a-in-osteoblastic-cells-and-prevents-the-development-of-osteoporosis
#9
Eun-Jin Lee, Sang-Min Kim, Bongkun Choi, Eun-Young Kim, Yeon-Ho Chung, Eun-Ju Lee, Bin Yoo, Chang-Keun Lee, Seokchan Hong, Beom-Jun Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Soo-Hyun Kim, Yong-Gil Kim, Eun-Ju Chang
Interleukin-32 gamma (IL-32γ) is a recently discovered cytokine that is elevated in inflamed tissues and contributes to pathogenic features of bone in human inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Nevertheless, the role of IL-32γ and its direct involvement in bone metabolism is unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of IL-32γ in bone remodeling and the hypothetical correlation between IL-32γ and disease activity in osteoporosis patients. Transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human IL-32γ showed reduced bone loss with advancing age, increased bone formation, and high osteogenic capacity of osteoblast compared to wild-type (WT) mice through the upregulation of miR-29a, which caused a reduction of Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) expression...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078086/unusual-aerobic-performance-at-high-temperatures-in-juvenile-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tshawytscha
#10
Jamilynn B Poletto, Dennis E Cocherell, Sarah E Baird, Trinh X Nguyen, Valentina Cabrera-Stagno, Anthony P Farrell, Nann A Fangue
Understanding how the current warming trends affect fish populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. To help define suitable thermal habitat for juvenile Chinook salmon, the thermal performance of juvenile Chinook salmon acclimated to either 15 or 19°C was tested across a range of environmentally relevant acute temperature changes (from 12 to 26°C). Swim tunnel respirometers were used to measure routine oxygen uptake as a measure of routine metabolic rate (RMR) and oxygen uptake when swimming maximally as a measure of maximal metabolic rate (MMR) at each test temperature...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#11
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077541/the-role-of-bicarbonate-precursors-in-balanced-fluids-during-haemorrhagic-shock-with-and-without-compromised-liver-function
#12
B Ergin, A Kapucu, P Guerci, C Ince
BACKGROUND: Lactate, acetate, and gluconate are anions used in balanced resuscitation fluids, of which lactate and acetate are considered bicarbonate precursors. This study investigated the role of the liver in the ability of balanced and unbalanced solutions to correct acid-base alterations and renal haemodynamics and microvascular oxygenation in a rat model of resuscitated haemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Ringer's lactate, Ringer's acetate, PlasmaLyte, or normal saline were administered following haemorrhagic shock in the presence or absence of a 70% partial liver resection...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#13
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076683/modulation-of-cytotoxicity-by-transcription-coupled-nucleotide-excision-repair-is-independent-of-the-requirement-for-bioactivation-of-acylfulvene
#14
Claudia Otto, Graciela Spivak, Claudia Marie Nathalie Aloisi, Mirco Menigatti, Hanspeter Nägeli, Philip C Hanawalt, Marina Tanasova, Shana J Sturla
Bioactivation as well as DNA repair affect the susceptibility of cancer cells to the action of DNA-alkylating chemotherapeutic drugs. However, information is limited with regard to the relative contributions of these processes to the biological outcome of metabolically activated DNA alkylating agents. We evaluated the influence of cellular bioactivation capacity and DNA repair on cytotoxicity of the DNA alkylating agent, acylfulvene (AF). We compared cytotoxicity and RNA synthesis inhibition by AF and its synthetic activated analog iso-M0 in a panel of fibroblast cell lines with deficiencies in transcription-coupled (TC-NER) or global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER)...
January 11, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075422/inflammation-cardiometabolic-markers-and-functional-changes-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-12-month-exercise-program-for-prostate-cancer-men
#15
Katarzyna Hojan, Eliza Kwiatkowska-Borowczyk, Ewa Leporowska, Piotr Milecki
INTRODUCTION    Previous studies have shown that physical exercise in cancer patients during radiotherapy (RT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves cardiac fitness and quality of life (QoL), and reduces fatigue but it is still not entirely known how it affects inflammation or metabolic factors and what its consequences are in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. OBJECTIVES    Effect of a 12-month physical exercise program on inflammatory and cardiometabolic factors, and on functional status in PCa patients undergoing RT and ADT...
January 10, 2017: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074669/implementation-of-a-novel-ultra-fast-metabolic-stability-analysis-method-using-exact-mass-tof-ms
#16
Joseph D Manna, Samantha J Richardson, Mehran F Moghaddam
AIM: Increasing numbers of compounds requiring stability data means highly optimized methods capable of rapid turnaround are desirable during early discovery. Materials and methods/results: An advanced, generic analytical workflow for metabolic stability has been developed that utilizing ballistic gradient LC (sub 1 min run times), exact mass TOF-MS (Waters Xevo-G2-XS Q-TOF) and automated data processing (Waters UNIFI software) allowed for rapid integration and interpretation of all data produced, eliminating the need for method development and manual processing...
January 11, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074664/recent-advances-in-molecular-biomarkers-for-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review
#17
Ty Lees, Najah Nassif, Ann Simpson, Fatima Shad-Kaneez, Rose Martiniello-Wilks, Yiguang Lin, Allan Jones, Xianqin Qu, Sara Lal
CONTEXT: Diabetes is a growing global metabolic epidemic. Current research is focusing on exploring how the biological processes and clinical outcomes of diabetes are related and developing novel biomarkers to measure these relationships, as this can subsequently improve diagnostic, therapeutic and management capacity. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most recent advances in molecular biomarkers of diabetes and directions that warrant further research. METHODS: Using a systematic search strategy, the MEDLINE, CINAHL and OVID MEDLINE databases were canvassed for articles that investigated molecular biomarkers for diabetes...
January 11, 2017: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074064/o-glcnacylation-of-stat5-controls-tyrosine-phosphorylation-and-oncogenic-transcription-in-stat5-dependent-malignancies
#18
P Freund, M A Kerenyi, M Hager, T Wagner, B Wingelhofer, H T T Pham, M Elabd, X Han, P Valent, F Gouilleux, V Sexl, O H Krämer, B Groner, R Moriggl
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) regulates differentiation, survival, proliferation and transformation of hematopoietic cells. Upon cytokine stimulation, STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation (pYSTAT5) is transient, while in diverse neoplastic cells persistent overexpression and enhanced pYSTAT5 are frequently found. Posttranslational modifications might contribute to enhanced STAT5 activation in the context of transformation, but the strength and duration of pYSTAT5 are incompletely understood...
January 11, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074021/the-assimilation-of-diazotroph-derived-nitrogen-by-scleractinian-corals-depends-on-their-metabolic-status
#19
Vanessa N Bednarz, Renaud Grover, Jean-François Maguer, Maoz Fine, Christine Ferrier-Pagès
: Tropical corals are associated with a diverse community of dinitrogen (N2)-fixing prokaryotes (diazotrophs) providing the coral an additional source of bioavailable nitrogen (N) in oligotrophic waters. The overall activity of these diazotrophs changes depending on the current environmental conditions, but to what extent it affects the assimilation of diazotroph-derived N (DDN) by corals is still unknown. Here, in a series of (15)N2 tracer experiments, we directly quantified DDN assimilation by scleractinian corals from the Red Sea exposed to different environmental conditions...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073315/metabolically-active-3-dimensional-brown-adipose-tissue-engineered-from-white-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#20
Jessica P Yang, Amy Elizabeth Anderson, Annemarie McCartney, Xavier Ory, Garret Ma, Elisa Pappalardo, Joel Bader, Jennifer Elisseeff
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have investigated markers and function of native BAT, however, successful therapies will rely on methods that supplement the small existing pool of brown adipocytes in adult humans. In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function...
January 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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