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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817798/toward-a-wiring-diagram-understanding-of-appetite-control
#1
REVIEW
Mark L Andermann, Bradford B Lowell
Prior mouse genetic research has set the stage for a deep understanding of appetite regulation. This goal is now being realized through the use of recent technological advances, such as the ability to map connectivity between neurons, manipulate neural activity in real time, and measure neural activity during behavior. Indeed, major progress has been made with regard to meal-related gut control of appetite, arcuate nucleus-based hypothalamic circuits linking energy state to the motivational drive, hunger, and, finally, limbic and cognitive processes that bring about hunger-mediated increases in reward value and perception of food...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817565/peer-violence-perpetration-and-victimization-prevalence-associated-factors-and-pathways-among-1752-sixth-grade-boys-and-girls-in-schools-in-pakistan
#2
Rozina Karmaliani, Judith Mcfarlane, Rozina Somani, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja, Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Tazeen Saeed Ali, Saleema Gulzar, Yasmeen Somani, Esnat D Chirwa, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts health and education. There are few research studies available in Pakistan, or South Asia. We describe the prevalence of peer violence, associations, and pathways between socio-economic status, school performance, gender attitudes and violence at home. METHODS: 1752 children were recruited into a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted on 40 fairly homogeneous public schools (20 for girls and 20 for boys), in Hyderabad, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812253/the-land-of-no-milk-and-no-honey-force-feeding-in-israel
#3
Zohar Lederman, Shmuel Lederman
In 2015, the Israeli Knesset passed the force-feeding act that permits the director of the Israeli prison authority to appeal to the district court with a request to force-feed a prisoner against his expressed will. A recent position paper by top Israeli clinicians and bioethicists, published in Hebrew, advocates for force-feeding by medical professionals and presents several arguments that this would be appropriate. Here, we first posit three interrelated questions: 1. Do prisoners have a right to hunger-strike? 2...
August 15, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811972/uncovering-the-immunotherapeutic-cycle-initiated-by-p19arf-and-interferon-%C3%AE-gene-transfer-to-cancer-cells-an-inducer-of-immunogenic-cell-death
#4
REVIEW
Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, João P P Catani, Bryan E Strauss
Simultaneous reestablishment of p53/p19(Arf) and interferon-β pathways in melanoma cells culminates in a cell death process that displays features of necroptosis along with the release of immunogenic cell death molecules and unleashes an antitumor immune response mediated by natural killer cells, neutrophils as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes.
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809814/yerba-mat%C3%A3-ilex-paraguariensis-metabolic-satiety-and-mood-state-effects-at-rest-and-during-prolonged-exercise
#5
Ahmad Alkhatib, Roisin Atcheson
Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP)...
August 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809789/comparison-of-the-effects-of-goat-dairy-and-cow-dairy-based-breakfasts-on-satiety-appetite-hormones-and-metabolic-profile
#6
Elehazara Rubio-Martín, Eva García-Escobar, Maria-Soledad Ruiz de Adana, Fuensanta Lima-Rubio, Laura Peláez, Angel-María Caracuel, Francisco-Javier Bermúdez-Silva, Federico Soriguer, Gemma Rojo-Martínez, Gabriel Olveira
The satiating effects of cow dairy have been thoroughly investigated; however, the effects of goat dairy on appetite have not been reported so far. Our study investigates the satiating effect of two breakfasts based on goat or cow dairy and their association with appetite related hormones and metabolic profile. Healthy adults consumed two breakfasts based on goat (G-Breakfast) or cow (C-Breakfast) dairy products. Blood samples were taken and VAS tests were performed at different time points. Blood metabolites were measured and Combined Satiety Index (CSI) and areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated...
August 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808865/glucagon-like-peptides-1-and-2-are-involved-in-satiety-modulation-after-modified-biliopancreatic-diversion-results-of-a-pilot-study
#7
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of modified biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) on the levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 and correlate them with satiety regulation. METHODS: This is a pilot prospective cohort study that evaluated six mildly obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which underwent modified BPD and were followed-up for 12 months. Levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 after a standard meal tolerance test were determined and correlated with satiety scores obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS)...
August 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805670/appetite-and-gut-hormones-response-to-a-putative-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitor-salacia-chinensis-in-overweight-obese-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Lihong Hao, Yvette Schlussel, Krista Fieselmann, Stephen H Schneider, Sue A Shapses
Animal studies indicate Salacia reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether Salacia Chinensis (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit...
August 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805588/weight-in-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypical-significance
#9
Jagdish C Sharma, Anna Lewis
Body weight in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a significant nonmotor feature. Weight homeostasis is a complex physiological process and gets deranged in PD patients leading to changes in weight. While both the low and high body weight have been reported as risk factors for PD, the majority of PD patients have a lower weight and a subset of patients lose weight during the course of the disease, while a small proportion gain weight. A number of clinical parameters such as older age, impaired cognition, severity of disease, and an imbalance of food intake determined by satiety and hunger hormones have been reported to be associated with but not the cause of weight change...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795737/excited-state-dynamics-and-conformations-of-a-cu-ii-phthalocyanine-perylenebisimide-dyad
#10
K Wilma, T Unger, S Tuncel Kostakoğlu, M Hollfelder, C Hunger, A Lang, A G Gürek, M Thelakkat, J Köhler, A Köhler, S Gekle, R Hildner
We investigate the excited state dynamics and the conformations of a new molecular donor-bridge-acceptor system, a Cu(ii)-phthalocyanine (CuPc) covalently linked via a flexible aliphatic spacer to a perylenebisimide (PBI). We performed time-resolved polarization anisotropy and pump-probe measurements in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. Our data suggest the existence of three conformations of the dyad: two more extended, metastable conformations with centre-of-mass distances >1 nm between the PBI and CuPc units of the dyad, and a highly stable folded structure, in which the PBI and CuPc units are stacked on top of each other with a centre-of-mass distance of 0...
August 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794212/addition-of-rye-bran-and-pea-fiber-to-pork-meatballs-enhances-subjective-satiety-in-healthy-men-but-does-not-change-glycemic-or-hormonal-responses-a-randomized-crossover-meal-test-study
#11
Ursula Kehlet, Josephine Kofod, Jens J Holst, Christian Ritz, Margit D Aaslyng, Anne Raben
Background: The development of high-protein, fiber-rich foods targeting appetite control could be an efficient tool in obesity prevention.Objectives: We investigated whether ad libitum energy intake (EI), appetite, and metabolic markers in a meal context were affected by 1) fiber addition (rye bran and pea fiber) to pork meatballs, 2) the food matrix of the fiber (fiber meatballs compared with fiber bread), or 3) the protein source (animal compared with vegetable protein patties).Methods: In a crossover design, 40 healthy men [mean ± SD: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), 22...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780064/presenting-a-food-in-multiple-smaller-units-increases-expected-satiety
#12
Rose E Oldham-Cooper, Laura L Wilkinson, Charlotte A Hardman, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom
Presentation of the same amount of a food in multiple smaller units ('segmentation') has been shown to reduce food intake and increase estimates of the amount of food consumed. However, this effect has been demonstrated for ad libitum food intake only. In the majority of cases, meals are not consumed ad libitum, but are pre-selected and consumed in their entirety, Expected satiety (ES; the anticipated capacity of a portion of food to relieve hunger between meals) is an excellent predictor of portion size selection...
August 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776087/efficacy-of-in-vivo-electroporation-mediated-il-10-gene-delivery-on-survival-of-skin-flaps
#13
S Morteza Seyed Jafari, Maziar Shafighi, Helmut Beltraminelli, Benedikt Weber, Ralph A Schmid, Thomas Geiser, Amiq Gazdhar, Robert E Hunger
Despite advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of flap necrosis and improvement in surgical techniques, skin flap necrosis after reconstructive surgery remains a crucial issue. We investigated the efficacy of electroporation-mediated IL-10 gene transfer to random skin flap with an aim to accelerate wound healing and improve skin flap survival. Nine male Wistar rats (300-330 g) were divided in two groups (a) control group (n = 5), only surgery no gene transfer, and (b) experimental group, received electroporation-mediated IL-10 gene transfer 24 h before the surgery as prophylaxis (n = 4)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772412/biocompatibility-and-inflammatory-potential-of-titanium-alloys-cultivated-with-human-osteoblasts-fibroblasts-and-macrophages
#14
Jana Markhoff, Martin Krogull, Christian Schulze, Christian Rotsch, Sandra Hunger, Rainer Bader
The biomaterials used to maintain or replace functions in the human body consist mainly of metals, ceramics or polymers. In orthopedic surgery, metallic materials, especially titanium and its alloys, are the most common, due to their excellent mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. Aside from the established Ti6Al4V alloy, shape memory materials such as nickel-titanium (NiTi) have risen in importance, but are also discussed because of the adverse effects of nickel ions. These might be reduced by specific surface modifications...
January 10, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770207/aberrant-cerebral-blood-flow-in-response-to-hunger-and-satiety-in-women-remitted-from-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Christina E Wierenga, Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Grace Rasmusson, Ursula F Bailer, Laura A Berner, Thomas T Liu, Walter H Kaye
The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN) have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW) when hungry (after a 16-h fast) and after a meal...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768906/integration-of-homeostatic-signaling-and-food-reward-processing-in-the-human-brain
#16
Joe J Simon, Anne Wetzel, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Food intake is guided by homeostatic needs and by the reward value of food, yet the exact relation between the two remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different metabolic states and hormonal satiety signaling on responses in neural reward networks. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task distinguishing between the anticipation and the receipt of either food- or monetary-related reward...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766953/working-with-a-fractional-object-enactments-of-appetite-in-interdisciplinary-work-in-anthropology-and-biomedicine
#17
Bodil Just Christensen, Line Hillersdal, Lotte Holm
This paper explores the productive tensions occurring in an interdisciplinary research project on weight loss after obesity surgery. The study was a bio-medical/anthropological collaboration investigating to what extent eating patterns, the subjective experience of hunger and physiological mechanisms are involved in appetite regulation that might determine good or poor response to the surgery. Linking biomedical and anthropological categories and definitions of central concepts about the body turned out to be a major challenge in the collaborative analysis...
August 2, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762951/immunomodulatory-and-antitumor-effects-of-type-i-interferons-and-their-application-in-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, Samir Andrade Mendonça, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Bryan E Strauss
During the last decades, the pleiotropic antitumor functions exerted by type I interferons (IFNs) have become universally acknowledged, especially their role in mediating interactions between the tumor and the immune system. Indeed, type I IFNs are now appreciated as a critical component of dendritic cell (DC) driven T cell responses to cancer. Here we focus on IFN-α and IFN-β, and their antitumor effects, impact on immune responses and their use as therapeutic agents. IFN-α/β share many properties, including activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway and induction of a variety of cellular phenotypes...
July 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762228/-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pros-and-cons-of-consuming-liquids-preoperatively
#19
Fang-Tzu Lin, Tsai-Rung Lin, Chia-Wei Liao, Shu-Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anesthesia long time fasting, may increase patient hemodynamic instability during surgery and may affect the patient's post-surgery electrolyte balance. No meta-analysis has been conducted to explore the effects of preoperative liquid intake amount on gastric fluid PH, gastric fluid volume, surgery inhalation of pulmonary complications, and patient self-perceptions quality of care systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. PURPOSE: To assess the pros and cons of preoperative liquid intake using a systematic review of the literature...
August 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762102/weight-loss-and-appetite-control-in-women
#20
REVIEW
Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Salma Mahmoodianfard, Coralie Bonaparte Auguste, Éric Doucet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe and discuss weight loss-induced variations in appetite in women and factors responsible for these changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown postweight loss increases in fasting and postprandial appetite in individuals engaged in weight loss trials, especially in women. Similarly, appetite-related peptides associated to the homeostatic control of feeding, such as leptin, ghrelin and peptide YY, were also found to be altered in way that promotes increased appetite after weight loss interventions...
July 31, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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