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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918764/fragile-environment-seasonality-and-maternal-and-childhood-undernutrition-in-bangladesh
#1
Masuda Mohsena, Mahabub Hossain, Barnali Chakraborty, Abdul Bayes, A N Mahfuzur Rahman
This study assessed whether agricultural and household incomes were the same across different agro-ecological environments in Bangladesh. An in-depth analysis of the effect of unfavourable ecologies on maternal and child malnutrition was carried out. Data were from a longitudinal data set comprising a nationally representative data sample collected in 2014 and the Food Security Nutrition Surveillance Project (FSNSP) conducted in 2011 and 2012. Anthropometric indices were used to assess the nutritional status of mothers and under-five children...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918147/invited-review-effects-of-heat-stress-on-dairy-cattle-welfare
#2
Liam Polsky, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The effects of high ambient temperatures on production animals, once thought to be limited to tropical areas, has extended into northern latitudes in response to the increasing global temperature. The number of days where the temperature-humidity index (THI) exceeds the comfort threshold (>72) is increasing in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Compounded by the increasing number of dairy animals and the intensification of production, heat stress has become one of the most important challenges facing the dairy industry today...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917947/effect-of-meal-glycemic-load-and-caffeine-consumption-on-prolonged-monotonous-driving-performance
#3
Christopher Bragg, Ben Desbrow, Susan Hall, Christopher Irwin
OBJECTIVE: Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. METHOD: Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials...
September 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902620/associations-between-body-weight-status-psychological-well-being-and-disordered-eating-with-intuitive-eating-among-malaysian-undergraduate-university-students
#4
Wan Ying Gan, Wei Ching Yeoh
Intuitive eating, which can be defined as reliance on physiological hunger and satiety cues to guide eating, has been proposed as a healthy weight management strategy. To date, there has not been a published study on intuitive eating in the context of Malaysia. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aims to determine associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating behaviors with intuitive eating among undergraduate university students. A total of 333 undergraduate respondents (21...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899652/predicting-preschool-children-s-eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-from-maternal-pressure-to-eat-a-longitudinal-study-of-low-income-latina-mothers
#5
Lionor Galindo, Thomas G Power, Ashley D Beck, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, Teresia M O'Connor, Sheryl O Hughes
Early work by Klesges et al. (1983, 1986) suggested that mothers who frequently prompt their children to eat have children at greater risk for obesity. This is consistent with the hypothesis that controlling feeding practices override children's responsiveness to their internal fullness cues, increasing the risk of overeating and obesity (e.g., Johnson & Birch, 1994). Subsequent cross-sectional research on pressure to eat, however, has been inconsistent. Most studies have shown that maternal self-reports of pressure to eat are negatively associated with childhood obesity, and observational studies showed inconsistent relationships with child weight status...
September 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899534/gene-by-environment-interactions-of-the-clock-pemt-and-ghrelin%C3%A2-loci-with-average-sleep-duration-in-relation-to-obesity-traits%C3%A2-using-a-cohort-of-643-new-zealand-european-children
#6
Mohanraj Krishnan, Andrew N Shelling, Clare R Wall, Edwin A Mitchell, Rinki Murphy, Lesley M E McCowan, John M D Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Modern technology may have desensitised the 'biological clock' to environmental cues, disrupting the appropriate co-ordination of metabolic processes. Susceptibility to misalignment of circadian rhythms may be partly genetically influenced and effects on sleep quality and duration could predispose to poorer health outcomes. Shorter sleep duration is associated with obesity traits, which are brought on by an increased opportunity to eat and/or a shift of hormonal profile promoting hunger...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898708/cue-exposure-therapy-reduces-overeating-of-exposed-and-non-exposed-foods-in-obese-adolescents
#7
Ghislaine Schyns, Anne Roefs, Fren T Y Smulders, Anita Jansen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether two sessions of food cue exposure therapy reduced eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), specified for exposed and non-exposed food, in overweight and obese adolescents, and whether habituation of food cue reactivity and reduced CS-US expectancies predicted a decrease in EAH. METHODS: 41 overweight adolescents (aged 12-18 years) were randomly assigned to a cue exposure intervention or a lifestyle intervention (control condition)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894777/relationship-between-dyspnea-descriptors-and-underlying-causes-of-the-symptom-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Seyyed Mohammad Ali Sajadi, Alireza Majidi, Fahimeh Abdollahimajd, Fatemeh Jalali
INTRODUCTION: History taking and physical examination help clinicians identify the patient's problem and effectively treat it. This study aimed to evaluate the descriptors of dyspnea in patients presenting to emergency department (ED) with asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients presenting to ED with chief complaint of dyspnea, during 2 years. The patients were asked to describe their dyspnea by choosing three items from the valid and reliable questionnaire or articulating their sensation...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891499/astroglial-hydro-ionic-waves-guided-by-the-extracellular-matrix-an-exploratory-model
#9
Alfredo Pereira
Calcium waves are generated from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum, in response to neuronal electrochemical stimulation. The waves feed back on neurons, modulating (reinforcing or depressing) their activity and the resulting behavior. How do these waves propagate from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum to the synaptic space and reach neuron membrane channels? An exploratory model is elaborated, on the basis of complex interactions of ions, water negative exclusion zones and charged sites of proteins...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888931/biomechanical-testing-of-zirconium-dioxide-osteosynthesis-system-for-le-fort-i-advancement-osteotomy-fixation
#10
Lukas Hingsammer, Markus Grillenberger, Martin Schagerl, Michael Malek, Stefan Hunger
The following work is the first evaluating the applicability of 3D printed zirconium dioxide ceramic miniplates and screws to stabilize maxillary segments following a Le-Fort I advancement surgery. Conventionally used titanium and individual fabricated zirconium dioxide miniplates were biomechanically tested and compared under an occlusal load of 120N and 500N using 3D finite element analysis. The overall model consisted of 295,477 elements. Under an occlusal load of 500N a safety factor before plastic deformation respectively crack of 2...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888491/breakfast-eating-habits-among-schoolchildren
#11
Mohammed ALBashtawy
BACKGROUND: A healthy breakfast provides school-age children with the essential nutrients needed for their activities and is correlated with improving a person's general nutritional status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of two months in 2015, involving 1798 Jordanian schoolchildren from grade 1 to grade 6. The study data sheet covered the breakfast habits of those children. Descriptive measures and Pearson's chi-square test were computed...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888462/control-of-protein-digestion-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-conditions-using-biopolymer-microgels
#12
Zipei Zhang, Ruojie Zhang, David Julian McClements
Controlling the rate and extent of protein digestion within different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is important for regulating hormonal responses (such as hunger, satiety, and satiation) and immune responses (such as allergenicity). In this study, hydrogel beads (biopolymer microgels) were fabricated by injecting a solution of anionic alginate molecules into a solution of cationic calcium ions using a vibrating extrusion device. A model food protein (whey protein isolate, WPI) was mixed with the alginate solution prior to bead formation...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886468/do-drives-drive-the-train-of-thought-effects-of-hunger-and-sexual-arousal-on-mind-wandering-behavior
#13
Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884449/insulin-resistance-and-hunger-in-childhood-obesity-a-patient-and-physician-s-perspective
#14
Wendy Scinta, Harold Bayes, Nicole Smith
This article is co-authored by the mother of a child with obesity and insulin resistance, who gives her perspective. It is also co-authored by the treating Obesity Medicine clinician and an investigator in obesity clinical research (both certified in Obesity Medicine), who give their perspectives. The discussion focuses upon the potential clinical use of metformin in managing young patients with obesity and insulin resistance. The article integrates what is scientifically known about the mechanisms of actions of metformin and how these mechanisms are reflected in the clinical response of young patients...
September 7, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882425/presence-of-pups-suppresses-hunger-induced-feeding-in-virgin-adult-mice-of-both-sexes
#15
Ying Han, Xing-Yu Li, Shao-Ran Wang, Yi-Chao Wei, Xiao-Hong Xu
Despite recent progress on neural pathways underlying individual behaviors, how an animal balances and prioritizes behavioral outputs remains poorly understood. While studying the relationship between hunger-induced feeding and pup-induced maternal behaviors in virgin female mice, we made the unexpected discovery that presence of pups strongly delayed and decreased food consumption. Strikingly, presence of pups also suppressed feeding induced by optogenetic activation of Agrp neurons. Such a suppressive effect inversely correlated with the extents of maternal behaviors, but did not rely on the display of these behaviors, and was also present in virgin males...
September 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881087/organometallic-dna-b12-conjugates-as-potential-oligonucleotide-vectors-synthesis-structural-and-binding-studies-with-human-cobalamin-transport-proteins
#16
Elena Mutti, Miriam Hunger, Sergey Fedosov, Ebba Nexo, Bernhard Kräutler
We report on the synthesis and structural characterization of Co-(dN)25-Cbl and Co-(dN)39-Cbl, organometallic DNA-B12-conjugates with single DNA-strands consisting of 25 and 39 deoxy-nucleotides, respectively, and on binding studies of these two DNA-cobalamin (DNA-Cbl) conjugates to the three homologous human Cbl transporting proteins transcobalamin (TC), intrinsic factor (IF) and haptocorrin (HC). This investigation tests the suitability of such DNA-Cbls for the task of eventual in-vivo oligonucleotide delivery...
September 7, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878762/the-c-terminal-six-amino-acids-of-the-fnt-channel-foca-are-required-for-formate-translocation-but-not-homopentamer-integrity
#17
Doreen Hunger, Marie Röcker, Dörte Falke, Hauke Lilie, R Gary Sawers
FocA is the archetype of the pentameric formate-nitrite transporter (FNT) superfamily of channels, members of which translocate small organic and inorganic anions across the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. The N- and C-termini of each protomer are cytoplasmically oriented. A Y-L-R motif is found immediately after transmembrane helix 6 at the C-terminus of FNT proteins related to FocA, or those with a role in formate translocation. Previous in vivo studies had revealed that formate translocation through FocA was controlled by interaction with the formate-producing glycyl-radical enzyme pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB) or its structural and functional homolog, TdcE...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873709/yacon-syrup-food-applications-and-impact-on-satiety-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Maria de Fátima Gomes da Silva, Ana Paula Dionísio, Antônio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, Lia Silveira Adriano, Claudia Oliveira Pinto, Fernando Antonio Pinto de Abreu, Nedio Jair Wurlitzer, Idila Maria Araújo, Deborah Dos Santos Garruti, Dorasilvia Ferreira Pontes
Syrup obtained from yacon roots could be well positioned as a nutritional product due to its high fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content. Considering this, we examined the potential food applications of yacon syrup, using the focal group methodology, and its sensorial acceptability when incorporated in yogurt. The beneficial effects of the consumption of yacon syrup were studied over a 2-week period in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment (namely Test A) and other consistent of only one day of yacon syrup consumption (namely Test B) were also evaluated...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873388/gastrointestinal-endocrinology-in-bariatric-surgery
#19
Martin Wabitsch
The long-lasting weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgical procedures cannot simply be explained by the malabsorption of nutrients and the subsequent energy deficit due to this malabsorption. Clinical studies have shown that the reorganization of the anatomy of the gut and the subsequent alterations of gastrointestinal physiology have a large impact on the secretion and function of gastrointestinal hormones, which regulate hunger and satiety. These changes have been named the BRAVE effect: <under>b</under>ile flow alteration, <under>r</under>eduction of gastric size, <under>a</under>natomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, <under>v</under>agal manipulation, and <under>e</under>nteric gut modulation...
2017: Endocrine Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870608/association-among-food-insecurity-academic-performance-and-weight-status-in-primary-schoolchildren-in-tehran-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Saeed Esfandiari, Nasrin Omidvar, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Aazam Doustmohammadian, Zeynab Amirhamidi
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations among household food insecurity (FI), academic performance, and weight status in urban primary schoolchildren. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary schools in Tehran, Iran. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 803 students (419 boys and 384 girls), aged 10-12 years, were recruited from 43 primary schools. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of FI were measured using a locally validated, 18-item household food security survey module...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
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