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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151235/how-the-urge-to-kill-feels-articulations-of-emic-appetitive-aggression-experiences-among-former-forcefully-recruited-children-and-youth-in-the-acholi-region-of-northern-uganda
#1
Helle Harnisch, Anett Pfeiffer
Based on 10 months of fieldwork in the Acholi region of northern Uganda among youth and adults who were forcefully recruited into the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) during the war, this article provides qualitative details to research on 'appetitive aggression.' Through two case-stories the article unfolds first person articulations of how 'appetitive aggression' is experienced as 'the urge to kill' and how it relates to the emic Acholi spiritual concept of 'cen'; a local Luo expression used to describe places and human beings possessed by evil spirits...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150643/%C3%AE-eudesmol-an-oxygenized-sesquiterpene-stimulates-appetite-via-trpa1-and-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#2
Kazuaki Ohara, Takafumi Fukuda, Yuko Ishida, Chika Takahashi, Rena Ohya, Mikio Katayama, Kunitoshi Uchida, Makoto Tominaga, Katsuya Nagai
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel, which is activated by various noxious or irritant substances in nature. TRPA1 activators have been generally recognized as noxious, however, foods and beverages containing TRPA1 activators are preferably consumed; the reasons for this discrepancy are not well understood. We demonstrate that TRPA1 is involved in the stimulatory appetite control mechanism. β-Eudesmol is an oxygenated sesquiterpene contained in medicinal or edible plants which activates TRPA1...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146410/cart-neurons-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-and-lateral-hypothalamic-area-exert-differential-controls-on-energy-homeostasis
#3
Jackie Lau, Aitak Farzi, Yue Qi, Regine Heilbronn, Mario Mietzsch, Yan-Chuan Shi, Herbert Herzog
OBJECTIVE: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. METHODS: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX) technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), respectively, was achieved...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143945/one-evidence-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-has-the-bidirectional-effects-on-appetite-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#4
Xin Zhang, Yundi Gao, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Shuyao Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered in 1995, with various biological functions, has received much attention recently due to its role in the regulation of appetite in mammals. However, the function of CART on the appetite control in fish species is still not very clear. In this study, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) cart gene was cloned for the first time, and the cart mRNA levels in 11 feeding-related tissues was investigated. The Siberian sturgeon cart gene sequence was 1459 base pairs (bp), including a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 39 bp, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 52 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding 115 amino acids...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143914/sclerosing-mesenteritis-diagnosed-with-computed-tomography-and-ultrasound-guided-needle-biopsy-the-utility-of-the-coaxial-technique
#5
Masayuki Ueno, Naoyuki Nishimura, Yuichi Shimodate, Akira Doi, Hirokazu Mouri, Kazuhiro Matsueda, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Motowo Mizuno
Here we report a case of sclerosing mesenteritis that we diagnosed with needle biopsy under the guidance of computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) observation. An 82-year-old woman presented with appetite loss, weight loss and epigastric pain. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed increased density of the mesentery adjacent to the small bowel and enlarged lymph nodes. Sclerosing mesenteritis was suspected, but malignancies, such as lymphoma, were also considered. We performed CT and US-guided needle biopsy with the coaxial technique...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143554/the-octanoylated-energy-regulating-hormone-ghrelin-an-expanded-view-of-ghrelin-s-biological-interactions-and-avenues-for-controlling-ghrelin-signaling
#6
Elizabeth R Cleverdon, Kayleigh R McGovern-Gooch, James L Hougland
Ghrelin is a small peptide hormone that requires a unique post-translational modification, serine octanoylation, to bind and activate the GHS-R1a receptor. Initially demonstrated to stimulate hunger and appetite, ghrelin-dependent signaling is implicated in a variety of neurological and physiological processes influencing diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and Prader-Willi syndrome. In addition to its cognate receptor, recent studies have revealed ghrelin interacts with a range of binding partners within the bloodstream...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142478/chronic-opioids-in-gastroparesis-relationship-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-healthcare-utilization-and-employment
#7
Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
AIM: To examine the relationship of chronic scheduled opioid use on symptoms, healthcare utilization and employment in gastroparesis (Gp) patients. METHODS: Patients referred to our tertiary care academic center from May 2016 to July 2017, with established diagnosis or symptoms suggestive of Gp filled out the Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms, abdominal pain and demographics questionnaires, and underwent gastric emptying and blood tests. They were asked about taking pain medicines and the types, doses, and duration...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138480/nitric-oxide-contributes-to-high-salt-perception-in-a-blood-sucking-insect-model
#8
Agustina Cano, Gina Pontes, Valeria Sfara, Diego Anfossi, Romina B Barrozo
In all organisms, salts produce either appetitive or aversive responses depending on the concentration. While low-salt concentration in food elicits positive responses to ingest, high-salt triggers aversion. Still the mechanisms involved in this dual behavior have just started to be uncovered in some organisms. In Rhodnius prolixus, using pharmacological and behavioral assays, we demonstrated that upon high-salt detection in food a nitric oxide (NO) dependent cascade is activated. This activation involves a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#9
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136201/safety-and-tolerability-of-selumetinib-as-a-monotherapy-or-in-combination-with-docetaxel-as-second-line-therapy-in-japanese-patients-with-advanced-solid-malignancies-or-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Takashi Seto, Fumihiko Hirai, Hideo Saka, Yoshihito Kogure, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Kenjiro Fukase, Hitoshi Shimada, Michitaka Sasai, Koichi Fukino
Objective: This Phase I study (NCT01605916) investigated the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of selumetinib plus docetaxel as second-line therapy in Japanese patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), or selumetinib monotherapy in Japanese patients with advanced solid malignancies. Methods: All enrolled patients received single-dose selumetinib 25, 50 or 75 mg, followed by a 3-day washout. Combination therapy cohorts then started a 21-day cycle of docetaxel 60 mg/m2 plus selumetinib 25 or 75 mg twice-daily (BID) on Day 1...
November 10, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131106/gut-microbiota-dependent-modulation-of-energy-metabolism
#11
Christina N Heiss, Louise E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the host's energy balance. It increases the host's ability to harvest energy from the digested food, and produces metabolites and microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolites and microbial products act as signaling molecules that modulate appetite, gut motility, energy uptake and storage, and energy expenditure. Several findings suggest that the gut microbiota can affect the development of obesity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128625/lxr-activation-increases-the-expression-of-gnrh-and-%C3%AE-msh-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-in-vivo
#12
María Sol Kruse, Lucas Gabriel Suarez, Héctor Coirini
Liver X receptors (LXR) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Recently, we described LXR receptors expression in the hypothalamus but their function in this brain area remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the function of LXR on the expression of factors produced in the hypothalamus in vitro and in vivo by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. More precisely we studied the expression of GnRH and GHRH, αMSH and NPY in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128523/acute-effect-of-smoking-and-smoking-abstinence-on-energy-intake-and-appetite-related-hormones-blood-concentrations
#13
M Yannakoulia, C A Anastasiou, K Zachari, M Sidiropoulou, P Katsaounou, R Tenta
The effect of smoking on energy balance and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to examine the acute effect of smoking and its abstinence on energy intake, subjective feelings of appetite and related hormones. Fourteen healthy smokers participated in a randomized, crossover study consisting of two trials: the Cigarette trial (participants smoked two cigarettes of their brand within 15min) and the Sham trial (they were asked to hold the cigarette as smoking, but without lighting it)...
November 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126885/medial-frontal-cortex-response-to-unexpected-motivationally-salient-outcomes
#14
Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts
The medial frontal cortex (MFC) plays a central role allocating resources to process salient information, in part by responding to prediction errors. While there is some recent debate, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is thought to index a reward prediction error by signaling outcomes that are worse than expected. A recent study utilizing electric shock provided data inconsistent with these accounts and reported that the omission of both appetitive (money) and aversive outcomes (electric shocks) elicited a medial frontal negativity...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123848/a-case-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-initially-presenting-the-appearance-of-a-sulfonylurea-related-hypoglycemic-attack
#15
Kota Nishihama, Kanako Maki, Yuko Okano, Rei Hashimoto, Yasuhiro Hotta, Mei Uemura, Taro Yasuma, Toshinari Suzuki, Toyomi Hayashi, Eiji Ishikawa, Yutaka Yano, Esteban C Gabazza, Masaaki Ito, Yoshiyuki Takei
Case: A 64-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus was admitted for hypoglycemia. Her diabetes had been under good control with glimepiride, voglibose, exenatide, and metformin for a few years. Although overt proteinuria was observed, the serum creatinine values were within normal range during the routine outpatient follow-up. Hypoglycemic attack caused by glimepiride and loss of appetite by urinary tract infection were diagnosed. Then, metformin-associated lactic acidosis with acute renal failure caused by dehydration was detected...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123348/symptom-prevalence-in-patients-with-advanced-incurable-illness-in-bangladesh
#16
Megan Doherty, Farzana Khan, Fazle Noor Biswas, Marufa Khanom, Rubayat Rahman, Mohammad Munirul Islam Tanvir, Farhana Akter, Mridul Sarker, Nezamuddin Ahmad
Context: There is a significant need for palliative care for patients living in low- and middle-income countries. The presence and intensity of physical symptoms is a major factor influencing the suffering of patients at the end of life. Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of common physical symptoms experienced by patients with advanced, incurable illness in a developing country. Method: This study used semi-structured interviews in patients with advanced cancer or HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122953/dietary-weight-loss-induced-changes-in-rbp4-ffa-and-ace-predict-weight-regain-in-people-with-overweight-and-obesity
#17
Roel G Vink, Nadia J Roumans, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
Adipokines and other biomarkers were previously identified with roles in energy expenditure, appetite, satiety, and adiposity. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary weight loss-induced changes in adipokines and other biomarkers known to play a role in weight regulation or energy expenditure could predict weight regain in people with overweight and obesity. In this randomized controlled trial 26 males and 30 females (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2)) followed either a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks followed by a weight stable period of 4 weeks (dietary intervention (DI) period) and a 9-month follow-up period...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122806/diagnostic-utility-of-appetite-loss-in-addition-to-existing-prediction-models-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-elderly-a-prospective-diagnostic-study-in-acute-care-hospitals-in-japan
#18
Toshihiko Takada, Yosuke Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Terada, Mitsuyasu Ohta, Wakako Mikami, Hajime Yokota, Michio Hayashi, Jun Miyashita, Teruhisa Azuma, Shingo Fukuma, Shunichi Fukuhara
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the elderly is often delayed because of atypical presentation and non-specific symptoms, such as appetite loss, falls and disturbance in consciousness. The aim of this study was to investigate the external validity of existing prediction models and the added value of the non-specific symptoms for the diagnosis of CAP in elderly patients. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: General medicine departments of three teaching hospitals in Japan...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#19
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120924/potential-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-eating-behaviour
#20
Roxanna Zakeri, Rachel L Batterham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced energy intake, resulting from favourable changes in eating behaviour, is the predominant driver of weight loss following bariatric surgery. Here we review the most recent studies examining the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, the two most common bariatric procedures, upon eating behaviour and the suggested underlying biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Following RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy, most people report subjective changes in appetite, taste and food preference, with decreased high-fat preference most commonly reported...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
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