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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331366/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-is-related-to-loss-of-control-eating-hedonic-hunger-and-short-term-weight-gain-in-normal-weight-women
#1
Emily H Feig, Amani D Piers, Tanja V E Kral, Michael R Lowe
Eating beyond physiological need contributes to obesity onset. Measuring this behavior could help identify those at risk for weight gain. This study measured eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and its relationship with weight change and self-report measures related to appetite and eating behavior. EAH was assessed in 46 lean young women (69% pre-selected for weight gain proneness) after lunch and defined as the number of calories subsequently consumed from snacks. Participants also completed questionnaires, and their body weights were measured regularly over the next year...
January 10, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330137/the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward-bnst-modulation-of-aversive-and-appetitive-states
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329993/pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-four-patients-treated-by-leflunomide
#3
Valentin Coirier, Alain Lescoat, Céline Chabanne, Maxime Fournet, Guillaume Coiffier, Stéphane Jouneau, Elisabeth Polard, Patrick Jégo
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disorder that can be drug-induced, mostly following treatment by appetite-suppressant drugs. We report four cases of patients who developed PAH following a treatment by leflunomide for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or undetermined connective tissue disease. All patients described a progressive dyspnea from grade II to IV of NYHA classification; clinical examination found signs of heart failure. PAH was finally diagnosed and confirmed by right heart catheterisation...
January 9, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329911/mrna-expression-and-metabolic-regulation-of-npy-and-agrp1-2-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#4
Inyoung Jeong, Eunmi Kim, Suhyun Kim, Hwan-Ki Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Jae Young Seong, Hae-Chul Park
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide implicated in feeding regulation in vertebrates. In mammals, NPY neurons coexpress Agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and NPY/AgRP neurons activate orexigenic signaling to increase food intake. Zebrafish express npy and two agrp genes, agrp1 and agrp2, in the brain. Similar to mammals, NPY and AgRP1 act as orexigenic factors in zebrafish, but the exact distribution of NPY and AgRP neurons in the zebrafish brain and the regulation of these genes by metabolic states remain unclear...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329826/gender-differences-in-presentation-treatment-and-in-hospital-outcome-of-patients-admitted-with-heart-failure-complicated-by-atrial-fibrillation-from-the-get-with-the-guidelines-heart-failure-gwtg-hf-registry
#5
Mitra Daneshvar, Nayan Desai, John Andriulli, Matthew Ortman, Eben Eno, Krystal Hunter, Andrea M Russo
Almost 25% of patients with heart failure (HF) have coexisting atrial fibrillation (AF), the latter of which may increase morbidity and mortality. Despite the high prevalence of HF with concomitant AF, this subgroup of patients remains understudied. This study examines gender differences in presentation, treatment and in-hospital outcome of patients with HF and AF. The Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) database enrolled 6,496 patients with HF who presented to Cooper University Hospital from 2005 to 2012...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329582/when-do-patient-reported-quality-of-life-indicators-become-prognostic-in-breast-cancer
#6
Chee Khoon Lee, Malcolm Hudson, John Simes, Karin Ribi, Jürg Bernhard, Alan S Coates
BACKGROUND: Various patient reported quality-of-life indicators are independently prognostic for survival in metastatic breast cancer and other cancers. The same measures recorded at first diagnosis of early breast cancer carry no corresponding prognostic information. The present study aims to assess at what time in the disease evolution the prognostic association appears. METHODS: Among 8024 patients enrolled in one of seven randomized controlled trials in early-stage breast cancer 3247 had a breast cancer relapse after a median follow-up of 12...
January 12, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#7
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326860/retroperitoneal-mass-masquerading-as-failure-to-thrive-in-a-91-year-old-woman
#8
Gabriel O Ologun, Noel Yarze, David Bertsch, Joseph Mwesige
Failure to thrive (FTT) is a state of overall decline. Patients often present with weight loss, poor appetite, malnutrition, and decreased physical functioning. The etiology is multifactorial including chronic diseases, functional impairments, and acute illnesses. Evaluation for reversible causes is paramount, and treatment is aimed at maintaining or improving functional status. We present a case of a 91-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal mass that was found on workup for failure to thrive.
November 8, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#9
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325791/the-therapeutic-effects-of-cannabis-and-cannabinoids-an-update-from-the-national-academies-of-sciences-engineering-and-medicine-report
#10
REVIEW
Donald I Abrams
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conducted a rapid turn-around comprehensive review of recent medical literature on The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. The 16-member committee adopted the key features of a systematic review process, conducting an extensive search of relevant databases and considered 10,000 recent abstracts to determine their relevance. Primacy was given to recently published systematic reviews and primary research that studied one of the committee's 11 prioritized health endpoints- therapeutic effects; cancer incidence; cardiometabolic risk; respiratory disease; immune function; injury and death; prenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes; psychosocial outcomes; mental health; problem Cannabis use; and Cannabis use and abuse of other substances...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325757/the-role-of-fatty-acids-and-their-endocannabinoid-like-derivatives-in-the-molecular-regulation-of-appetite
#11
REVIEW
Renger F Witkamp
Intake, absorption and synthesis of fatty acids, including those produced by the intestinal microbiota are tightly monitored via specific receptors and, indirectly through their conversion into a variety of signalling molecules. The resulting information is integrated and translated to different physiological processes, including the regulation of appetite and satiation. Direct chemosensing of fatty acids takes place via interaction with free fatty acid (FFA) and other receptors. These are present in the oronasal cavity and along the entire gastrointestinal tract, in various other tissues, and, for some receptors also in brain...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325236/treatment-with-a-ghrelin-agonist-in-outpatient-women-with-anorexia-nervosa-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Pouneh K Fazeli, Elizabeth A Lawson, Alexander T Faje, Kamryn T Eddy, Hang Lee, Fred T Fiedorek, Anne Breggia, Ildiko M Gaal, Rebecca DeSanti, Anne Klibanski
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of relamorelin-an agonist of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin, which has effects on gastric emptying-on (1) weight gain and (2) gastric emptying in women with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, the effects of the ghrelin agonist relamorelin were studied in 22 outpatient women with anorexia nervosa, diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria. The study was conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital Clinical Research Center between March 11, 2013, and February 26, 2015...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322540/review-article-coeliac-disease-in-later-life-must-not-be-missed
#13
REVIEW
P Collin, A Vilppula, L Luostarinen, G K T Holmes, K Kaukinen
BACKGROUND: The presenting symptoms of coeliac disease are often subtle and the diagnosis is frequently delayed or overlooked. Therefore, especially elderly patients may be denied the benefits conferred by gluten free diet which can be dramatically life-changing. AIM: To review the occurrence, clinical features, diagnosis and management in coeliac patients detected later in life. METHODS: To review manuscripts concerned with coeliac disease in the elderly and to derive subgroups of elderly people from publications on the disorder...
January 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321989/antidepressant-like-effects-of-gan-mai-dazao-tang-via-monoamine-regulatory-pathways-on-forced-swimming-test-in-rats
#14
Hsiang-Ling Huang, Swee-Ling Lim, Kuan-Hung Lu, Lee-Yan Sheen
Depression is a highly prevalent and recurrent mental disorder that impacts all aspects of human life. Undesirable effects of the antidepressant drugs led to the development of complementary and alternative therapies. Gan-Mai-Da-Zao-Tang (, gān mài dà zǎo tang) is a traditional herbal formula commonly used for the treatment of depression, but lack of scientific proof on its mechanism. It consisted of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (licorice), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Zizphus jujuba Mill. (jujube)...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321967/teratoma-as-unusual-cause-of-chest-pain-hemoptysis-and-dyspnea-in-a-young-patient
#15
Irena Hammen, Achhe Lal Yadav
A 16-year-old girl presented with intermittent left chest pain and breathlessness on exertion for last 4 months with one episode of haemoptysis. There has been loss of appetite and weight loss of 4 kg over a period of 1 month. A chest radiograph revealed a large mass like opacity with pleural effusion in the left lung field. Computerized Tomography scanning (CT scanning) and Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography scanning (PET/CT scanning) demonstrated a 7 cm round, cystic lesion in the anterior mediastinum...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320575/azp-531-an-unacylated-ghrelin-analog-improves-food-related-behavior-in-patients-with-prader-willi-syndrome-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Soraya Allas, Assumpta Caixàs, Christine Poitou, Muriel Coupaye, Denise Thuilleaux, Françoise Lorenzini, Gwenaëlle Diene, Antonino Crinò, Frédéric Illouz, Graziano Grugni, Diane Potvin, Sarah Bocchini, Thomas Delale, Thierry Abribat, Maithé Tauber
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by early-onset hyperphagia and increased circulating levels of the orexigenic Acylated Ghrelin (AG) hormone with a relative deficit of Unacylated Ghrelin (UAG). AZP-531, a first-in-class UAG analog, was shown to inhibit the orexigenic effect of AG in animals, to improve glycemic control and decrease body weight in humans. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of AZP-531 in patients with PWS for whom no approved treatment for hyperphagia is currently available...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318993/a-case-of-severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-co-infected-with-hiv-improved-with-exchange-transfusion
#17
Ayşe Sağmak Tartar, Ayhan Akbulut, Ömür Gökmen Sevindik, Hatice Handan Akbulut, Kutbeddin Demirdağ
In our country, within years, despite a dramatic drop in the number of patients with malaria, a dramatic increase in the number of patients with import malaria is noteworthy. A 32-year-old male patient presented with fever, shivering, malaise, and loss of appetite. He had travelled to West Africa. Laboratory findings were as follows: hemoglobin: 8.8 g/dL and anti-HIV: positive. Microscopic examinations of thin blood smears and thick blood preparations revealed widespread trophozoites. The presence of double-dotted ring forms and banana-shaped gametocytes resulted in Plasmodium falciparum malaria being diagnosed...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318004/poly-de-prescribing-to-treat-polypharmacy-efficacy-and-safety
#18
Doron Garfinkel
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of poly-de-prescribing (PDP) based on the Garfinkel method in older people with polypharmacy. Methods: A longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized study in Israel was carried out between 2009 and 2016. Comprehensive geriatric assessments were performed at home in people age ⩾66 years consuming ⩾6 prescription drugs. Exclusion criteria were life expectancy <6 months and a seeming unwillingness to cooperate (poor compliance)...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317597/preliminary-evidence-for-genetic-overlap-between-body-mass-index-and-striatal-reward-response
#19
T M Lancaster, I Ihssen, L M Brindley, D E Linden
The reward-processing network is implicated in the aetiology of obesity. Several lines of evidence suggest obesity-linked genetic risk loci (such as DRD2 and FTO) may influence individual variation in body mass index (BMI) through neuropsychological processes reflected in alterations in activation of the striatum during reward processing. However, no study has tested the broader hypotheses that (a) the relationship between BMI and reward-related brain activation (measured through the blood oxygenation-dependent (BOLD) signal) may be observed in a large population study and (b) the overall genetic architecture of these phenotypes overlap, an assumption critical for the progression of imaging genetic studies in obesity research...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317145/evaluation-of-quality-of-life-outcomes-following-palliative-treatment-of-bone-metastases-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-an-international-multicentre-study
#20
D Harding, S L Giles, M R D Brown, G R Ter Haar, M van den Bosch, L W Bartels, Y-S Kim, M Deppe, N M deSouza
AIMS: To determine quality of life (QoL) outcomes after palliation of pain from bone metastases using magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-guided HIFU), measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C15-PAL and the QLQ-BM22 questionnaires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients undergoing MR-guided HIFU in an international multicentre trial self-completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BM22 questionnaires before and on days 7, 14, 30, 60 and 90 post-treatment...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
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