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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546010/cognitive-training-as-a-potential-treatment-for-overweight-and-obesity-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-proposal-for-special-issue-in-appetite-executive-function-training-eating-behaviour
#1
REVIEW
Andrew Jones, Charlotte A Hardman, Natalia Lawrence, Matt Field
The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the effectiveness and candidate mechanisms of action of psychological interventions which aim to either (a) improve the capacity for self-regulatory, reflective processes or (b) reduce the impact of automatic appetitive processes, in an attempt to influence food intake and associated weight-gain. Our aim was to examine three important issues regarding each type of intervention: i) whether the intervention influenced behaviour in the laboratory, ii) whether the intervention influenced behaviour and/or body mass index in the real world, and iii) whether the proposed mechanism of action was supported by evidence...
May 22, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544344/fed-and-fasted-administration-of-a-novel-extended-release-methylphenidate-orally-disintegrating-tablet-formulation-for-the-treatment-of-adhd
#2
Richard H Weisler, Jeffrey G Stark, Carolyn Sikes
Extended-release methylphenidate is a first-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablet (MPH XR-ODT) has recently been developed. Here we report an open-label, randomized, 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study to determine the effect of food on the bioavailability of a single 60-mg dose of MPH XR-ODT in healthy adults. Blood samples were collected predose through 36 hours postdose. Maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax ), terminal elimination half-life (T1/2 ), overall systemic exposure (AUClast and AUCinf ), and partial areas under the concentration curve (AUC0-3 , AUC3-7 , and AUC7-12 ) were calculated...
May 25, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543944/anterior-cingulate-cortex-supports-effort-allocation-toward-a-qualitatively-preferred-option
#3
Evan E Hart, Julian O Gerson, Yael Zoken, Marisella Garcia, Alicia Izquierdo
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be involved in effortful choice, yet its role in cost-benefit evaluation of qualitatively different rewards (more/less preferred), beyond magnitude differences (larger/smaller), is poorly understood. Selecting between qualitatively different options is a decision type commonly faced by humans. Here we assessed the role of ACC on a task that has primarily been used to probe striatal function in motivation. Rats were trained to stable performance on a progressive ratio schedule for sucrose pellets and were then given sham surgeries (control) or excitotoxic NMDA-lesions of ACC...
May 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543624/areas-for-quality-improvements-in-heart-failure-care-quality-of-care-from-the-family-members-perspective
#4
Karin Hellström Ängerud, Kurt Boman, Margareta Brännström
BACKGROUND: The complex needs of people with chronic heart failure (HF) place great demands on their family members, and it is important to ask family members about their perspectives on the quality of HF care. OBJECTIVE: To describe family members' perceptions of quality of HF care in an outpatient setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a short form of the Quality from Patients' Perspective (QPP) questionnaire for data collection...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542914/efficacy-and-adverse-events-of-oral-isotretinoin-for-acne-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
I A Vallerand, R T Lewinson, M S Farris, C D Sibley, M L Ramien, A G M Bulloch, S B Patten
Despite many years of clinical use of isotretinoin, a comprehensive review of evidence for isotretinoin therapy in acne patients is lacking. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, relevant webpages and bibliographies for randomized controlled trials for acne evaluating isotretinoin vs control (placebo or other therapy). Data were extracted and summarized descriptively. Eleven trials were identified (total n=760 patients randomized), containing mostly males. Mean treatment ages ranged from 18 to 47.9 years and participants generally had moderate-severe acne...
May 19, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542626/the-relationship-between-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-pain-appetite-and-fatigue-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#6
Ørnulf Paulsen, Barry Laird, Nina Aass, Tor Lea, Peter Fayers, Stein Kaasa, Pål Klepstad
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is associated with reduced quality of life and increased symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between inflammatory biomarkers and the Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) of pain, appetite and fatigue; and to explore whether levels of baseline biomarkers were associated with changes in these PROMs following treatment with corticosteroids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An exploratory analysis was done on a trial examining the analgesic properties of corticosteroids in patients with advanced cancer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542153/erratum-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-thirst-and-salt-appetite-in-the-subfornical-organ
#7
Takashi Matsuda, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Fumio Niimura, Taiji Matsusaka, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuto Kobayashi, Masaharu Noda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542003/providing-choice-in-exercise-influences-food-intake-at-the-subsequent-meal
#8
Natalya J Beer, James A Dimmock, Ben Jackson, Kym J Guelfi
The benefits of regular exercise for health are well established; however, certain behaviors following exercise, such as unhealthy or excessive food consumption, can counteract some of these benefits. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of autonomy support (through the provision of choice) in exercise - relative to a no-choice condition with matched energy expenditure - on appetite and subsequent energy intake. METHODS: Fifty-eight men and women (body mass index: 22...
May 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539422/galanin-expressing-gaba-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-modulate-food-reward-and-non-compulsive-locomotion
#9
Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Sangho Yu, Marie Francois, John Hoang, Clara Huesing, Annadora Bruce-Keller, David Burk, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Christopher D Morrison, Heike Münzberg
The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) integrates reward and appetitive behavior and is composed of many overlapping neuronal populations. Recent studies associated LHA GABAergic neurons (LHA (GABA) ), that densely innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), with modulation of food reward and consumption; yet, LHA (GABA) >VTA projections exclusively modulated food consumption, not reward. We identified a subpopulation of LHA (GABA) neurons that co-express the neuropeptide galanin (LHA (Gal) ). These LHA (Gal) neurons also modulate food reward, but lack direct VTA innervation...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538729/cryo-em-structure-of-the-activated-glp-1-receptor-in-complex-with-a-g-protein
#10
Yan Zhang, Bingfa Sun, Dan Feng, Hongli Hu, Matthew Chu, Qianhui Qu, Jeffrey T Tarrasch, Shane Li, Tong Sun Kobilka, Brian K Kobilka, Georgios Skiniotis
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone with essential roles in regulating insulin secretion, carbohydrate metabolism and appetite. GLP-1 effects are mediated through binding to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals primarily through the stimulatory G protein Gs. Class B GPCRs are important therapeutic targets; however, our understanding of their mechanism of action is limited by the lack of structural information on activated and full-length receptors. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the peptide-activated GLP-1R-Gs complex at near atomic resolution...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537802/seasonal-pattern-in-bipolar-disorders-and-cardio-vascular-risk-factors-a-study-from-the-face-bd-cohort
#11
Pierre A Geoffroy, Ophelia Godin, Diane Mahee, Chantal Henry, Valérie Aubin, Jean-Michel Azorin, Thierry Bougerol, Philippe Courtet, Sébastien Gard, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Christine Passerieux, Marion Leboyer, Frank Bellivier, Bruno Etain
Seasonal pattern (SP) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are major contributors to poor outcome in bipolar disorders (BD). Patients with seasonal bipolar depression present increased appetite, carbohydrate cravings, weight gain, and hypersomnia, which can increase the development of MetS. MetS also appears to be associated with seasonal mood changes in the general population. This study examines whether a SP in BD is associated with an increased risk of MetS and its sub-components. One thousand four hundred and seventy-one outpatients with BD were systematically enrolled from 2009 to 2016...
May 24, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537462/symptom-prevalence-and-the-negative-emotional-states-in-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-with-or-without-renal-replacement-therapy-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#12
Wan Zul Haikal Wan Zukiman, Hayati Yaakup, Nor Fadhlina Zakaria, Shamsul Azhar Bin Shah
BACKGROUND: Limited comparative data are available on the symptom severity and burden of dialyzed versus nondialyzed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and their association with negative emotional states. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of symptom burden and severity of ESRD patients and correlate the findings with their psychological status. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of dialyzed (N = 87) and nondialyzed (N = 100) patients...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537337/relationship-between-sensory-perception-and-frailty-in-a-community-dwelling-elderly-population
#13
S Somekawa, T Mine, K Ono, N Hayashi, S Obuchi, H Yoshida, H Kawai, Y Fujiwara, H Hirano, M Kojima, K Ihara, H Kim
BACKGROUND: Aging anorexia, defined as loss of appetite and/or reduced food intake, has been postulated as a risk factor for frailty. Impairments of taste and smell perception in elderly people can lead to reduced enjoyment of food and contribute to the anorexia of aging. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between frailty and taste and smell perception in elderly people living in urban areas. DESIGN: Data from the baseline evaluation of 768 residents aged ≥ 65 years who enrolled in a comprehensive geriatric health examination survey was analyzed...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537322/trajectories-of-nutritional-risk-the-manitoba-follow-up-study
#14
C O Lengyel, D Jiang, R B Tate
OBJECTIVES: To identify patterns of nutritional risk among older men over a four-year period and to project their survival rates over the next two and a half years. DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and thirty-six male survivors of the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) cohort with an average age of 90 years in 2011. MEASUREMENTS: Four years of nutritional risk SCREEN II scores (five waves) from the male survivors of the MFUS cohort...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536884/an-update-in-symptom-clusters-using-the-edmonton-symptom-assessment-system-in-a-palliative-radiotherapy-clinic
#15
Vithusha Ganesh, Liying Zhang, Stephanie Chan, Bo Angela Wan, Leah Drost, May Tsao, Cyril Danjoux, Elizabeth Barnes, Rachel McDonald, Leigha Rowbottom, Pearl Zaki, Ronald Chow, Matthew K Hwang, Carlo DeAngelis, Nicholas Lao, Edward Chow
PURPOSE: To identify symptom clusters in advanced cancer patients attending a palliative radiotherapy clinic using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). METHODS: Principal component analysis (PCA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to identify symptom clusters among the nine ESAS items using scores from each patient's first visit. RESULTS: ESAS scores from 182 patients were analyzed...
May 23, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536553/succumbing-to-the-call-of-violence-sex-linked-development-of-appetitive-aggression-in-relation-to-familial-and-organized-violence
#16
Mareike Augsburger, Danie Meyer-Parlapanis, Thomas Elbert, Corina Nandi, Manassé Bambonye, Anselm Crombach
Appetitive aggression is the attraction to violent behavior, which can peak in the experience of a combat high. In various war and conflict scenarios, members of armed groups have reported developing a desire to hunt and even kill humans. More recently, we reported that the phenomenon has also been observed in female ex-combatants with varying participation in warfare. Despite recent investigations on risk factors for appetitive aggression, sex-specific pathways in the development of appetitive aggression have not yet been delineated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533998/ipilimumab-as-a-cause-of-severe-pan-colitis-and-colonic-perforation
#17
Raj Shah, Danielle Witt, Talal Asif, Fahad F Mir
Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that functions as a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor that is used to treat malignant melanoma. Due to ipilimumab's removal of immune regulation, specifically through the inactivation of CTLA-4, it is commonly associated with inflammatory and autoimmune events. Gastrointestinal (GI) related immune-related adverse events such as diarrhea occur in 29% of patients with 7.6% of patients specifically suffering from colitis. We describe a case of colonic perforation with ipilimumab use...
April 20, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533782/towards-an-integrative-understanding-of-diet-host-gut-microbiome-interactions
#18
Mark N Read, Andrew J Holmes
Over the last 20 years, a sizeable body of research has linked the microbiome and host diet to a remarkable diversity of diseases. Yet, unifying principles of microbiome assembly or function, at levels required to rationally manipulate a specific individual's microbiome to their benefit, have not emerged. A key driver of both community composition and activity is the host diet, but diet-microbiome interactions cannot be characterized without consideration of host-diet interactions such as appetite and digestion...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531893/association-study-of-serotonin-3-receptor-subunit-gene-variants-in-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain
#19
Clement C Zai, Arun K Tiwari, Nabilah I Chowdhury, Eva J Brandl, Sajid A Shaikh, Natalie Freeman, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Herbert Y Meltzer, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic severe neuropsychiatric disorder, where pharmacological treatment has been hindered by adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) and related complications. Genetic studies have been exploring the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis pathways in AIWG with some promising leads. The serotonin system has been shown to participate in these pathways. METHODS: In the current study, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms across the serotonin receptor genes HTR3A and HTR3B...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#20
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
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