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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449268/ventral-but-not-dorsal-hippocampus-inactivation-impairs-reward-memory-expression-and-retrieval-in-contexts-defined-by-proximal-cues
#1
Sadia Riaz, Anett Schumacher, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Matthijs Van Der Meer, Rutsuko Ito
The hippocampus (HPC) has been widely implicated in the contextual control of appetitive and aversive conditioning. However, whole hippocampal lesions do not invariably impair all forms of contextual processing, as in the case of complex biconditional context discrimination, leading to contention over the exact nature of the contribution of the HPC in contextual processing. Moreover, the increasingly well-established functional dissociation between the dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) subregions of the HPC has been largely overlooked in the existing literature on hippocampal-based contextual memory processing in appetitively-motivated tasks...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448236/development-of-a-french-version-of-the-edmonton-symptom-assessment-system-revised-a-pilot-study-of-palliative-care-patients-perspectives
#2
Cheryl Nekolaichuk, Ann Huot, Valérie Gratton, Shirley H Bush, Yoko Tarumi, Sharon M Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r) is a nine-item self-report symptom intensity tool developed for palliative care patients, with the option of adding a 10th patient-specific symptom. Due to growing international uptake, the ESAS-r has been translated into different languages. There has not been agreement, however, regarding a standard process for translation into multiple languages, which also includes patients' perspectives. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a French version of the ESAS-r, using a standardized translation protocol, and to obtain palliative care patients' perspectives regarding this translated tool...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#3
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447434/the-influence-of-different-muscle-mass-measurements-on-the-diagnosis-of-cancer-cachexia
#4
Susanne Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Jacqueline A E Langius, Annemarie Becker, Henk M W Verheul, Marian A E de van der Schueren
BACKGROUND: Progressive loss of muscle mass is a major characteristic of cancer cachexia. Consensus definitions for cachexia provide different options to measure muscle mass. This study describes the effect of different methods to determine muscle mass on the diagnosis of cancer cachexia. In addition, the association of cachexia with other features of cachexia, quality of life, and survival was explored. METHODS: Prior to chemotherapy, cachexia was assessed by weight loss, body mass index, and muscle mass measurements, the latter by mid-upper arm muscle area (MUAMA), computed tomography (CT) scans, and bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447070/ratios-of-soluble-and-insoluble-dietary-fibers-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-overweight-pre-and-postmenopausal-women
#5
Britt Burton-Freeman, Dhanesh Liyanage, Sajida Rahman, Indika Edirisinghe
BACKGROUND: Fibers' properties impact different mechanisms involved in satiety and energy intake regulation and metabolic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effect of fiber types and menopausal status on satiety and metabolic responses in overweight women. METHODS: In a randomized within-subjects design, 19 overweight/obese women [9 premenopausal and 10 postmenopausal] consumed 3 preloads that varied by fiber content and source: 1) 3:1 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (SF), 2) 1:3 ratio of soluble:insoluble fiber (IF), 3) no fiber control (NFC)...
March 31, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446933/stress-as-a-factor-contributing-to-obesity-in-patients-qualified-for-bariatric-surgery-studies-in-a-selected-group-of-patients-a-pilot-study
#6
Iwona Boniecka, Helena Wileńska, Anna Jeznach-Steinhagen, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Marzena Sekuła, Krzysztof Paśnik
INTRODUCTION: Recently, the incidence of obesity, especially extreme obesity, has significantly increased. It is connected with inappropriate lifestyle, including a high calorie diet, psychological and genetic factors, some medications, diseases or infectious factors. Nowadays, the consumption of food is not only to satisfy a physiological need, but also fulfils psychological needs. The most effective method of morbid obesity treatment is metabolic surgery. Moreover, food is considered to be a reward and method of coping with stress...
2017: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446630/texture-based-differences-in-eating-rate-reduce-the-impact-of-increased-energy-density-and-large-portions-on-meal-size-in-adults
#7
Keri McCrickerd, Charlotte Mh Lim, Claudia Leong, Edwin M Chia, Ciaran G Forde
Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly.Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size.Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446382/compensatory-mechanisms-activated-with-intermittent-energy-restriction-a-randomized-control-trial
#8
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Eline Holli Halset, Sigrid Gåsbakk, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446144/association-of-physical-activity-and-appetite-with-visual-function-related-to-driving-competence-in-older-adults
#9
Takafumi Ando, Hiroyuki Sakai, Yuji Uchiyama
BACKGROUND: Older people are at greater risk of traffic accidents, partially because of age-related declines in visual function, including reduced useful field of view (UFOV). However, lifestyle factors which cause age-related decline in UFOV remain poorly understood. We conducted a study to investigate whether physical activity and appetite status were related to UFOV test performance in healthy older adults. METHODS: Thirty community-dwelling older people (age 68...
April 26, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446037/caffeine-coffee-and-appetite-control-a-review
#10
Matthew M Schubert, Christopher Irwin, Rebekah F Seay, Holly E Clarke, Deanne Allegro, Ben Desbrow
Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445299/endoscopic-ultrasonography-predicts-early-esophageal-variceal-bleeding-in-liver-cirrhosis-a-case-report
#11
Changjun Men, Guoliang Zhang
RATIONALE: Bleeding esophageal and gastric varices constitute a serious complication in liver cirrhosis. Previous studies have shown that endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can be used to predict early esophageal variceal bleeding in liver cirrhosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 46-year-old man with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (CTP score, 5; Child-Pugh class, A) who was admitted to our hospital due to a decreased appetite lasting 1 week. DIAGNOSIS: He was initially diagnosed with decompensated hepatitis B cirrhosis; an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan indicated a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PHT)...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443064/loss-of-vagal-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-retardation-and-consequence-on-food-intake
#12
Marième Ndjim, Camille Poinsignon, Patricia Parnet, Gwenola Le Dréan
Perinatal malnutrition is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Modification of food intake (FI) regulation was observed in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by maternal dietary protein restriction during gestation and maintained restricted until weaning. Gastrointestinal peptides and particularly cholecystokinin (CCK) play a major role in short-term regulation of FI by relaying digestive signals to the hindbrain via the vagal afferent nerve (VAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442335/do-impulsive-individuals-benefit-more-from-food-go-no-go-training-testing-the-role-of-inhibition-capacity-in-the-no-go-devaluation-effect
#13
Zhang Chen, Harm Veling, Ap Dijksterhuis, Rob W Holland
Not responding to food items in a go/no-go task can lead to devaluation of these food items, which may help people regulate their eating behavior. The Behavior Stimulus Interaction (BSI) theory explains this devaluation effect by assuming that inhibiting impulses triggered by appetitive foods elicits negative affect, which in turn devalues the food items. BSI theory further predicts that the devaluation effect will be stronger when food items are more appetitive and when individuals have low inhibition capacity...
April 22, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442334/pica-practices-among-apparently-healthy-women-and-their-young-children-in-ghana
#14
B A Z Abu, V L van den Berg, J E Raubenheimer, V J Louw
BACKGROUND: Pica is an increased appetite/craving for food or non-food substances like clay, and chalk, and is strongly associated with iron deficiency (ID) anemia. This study assessed pica practices among non-pregnant mothers and their children, 12-to-59months, in an anemia endemic population in Ghana. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted in two randomly selected districts in Northern Ghana. The researchers developed semi-structured questionnaires with components on pica practice, history and experiences and administered via structured face-to-face interviews with mothers (N=161)...
April 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441852/-clinical-presentation-of-kleine-levin-syndrome
#15
Y Hu, J Y Wang, X S Dong, J Li, H Yan, P P Wang, L Zhao, X Z Zhang, F Han
Objective: To analyze the clinical features of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) patients. Methods: Clinical data of 44 patients with KLS of the Sleep Center of Peking University People's Hospital from January 2002 to July 2013 were systematically reviewed. The predisposing factors and clinical presentations were summarized, and compared with the data from a Western KLS study with a large subjects number. Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were conducted during relapse and remission period, respectively...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441584/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-aripiprazole-for-tic-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Shuai Wang, Yan-Zhao Wei, Jian-Hong Yang, Yu-Ming Zhou, Yu-Hang Cheng, Chao Yang, Yi Zheng
The aims are to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole for tic disorders (TDs) in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane database as well as Chinese databases of CNKI, VIP, CBM and Wanfang from the database inception to October 2016, and 17 full-text studies (N=1305) were included in our article. The meta-analysis of 10 studies (N=817) showed that there was no significant difference in the reduction of total YGTSS score between aripiprazole and other drugs, and meta-analysis of 7 studies (n=324) which used tic symptom control ≧30% as outcome measure showed that there was no significant difference between aripiprazole and other treatments...
April 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441450/commensal-bacteria-and-essential-amino-acids-control-food-choice-behavior-and-reproduction
#17
Ricardo Leitão-Gonçalves, Zita Carvalho-Santos, Ana Patrícia Francisco, Gabriela Tondolo Fioreze, Margarida Anjos, Célia Baltazar, Ana Paula Elias, Pavel M Itskov, Matthew D W Piper, Carlos Ribeiro
Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439682/cancer-induced-bone-pain-management-through-buddhist-beliefs
#18
Fung Kei Cheng
Dealing with physical pain represents a huge public health expenditure, especially for cancer-induced bone pain, one of the most difficult health issues, which impairs appetite, sleep, and mobility, negatively impacting quality of life and evoking mental problems. Although some literature has reported positive correlation between religion and pain management, there is a dearth of research examining the effectiveness of Buddhism on this topic. This study investigates the usefulness of Buddhist beliefs in managing cancer-induced bone pain through a case example...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439255/assessing-the-functional-role-of-leptin-in-energy-homeostasis-and-the-stress-response-in-vertebrates
#19
REVIEW
Courtney A Deck, Jamie L Honeycutt, Eugene Cheung, Hannah M Reynolds, Russell J Borski
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that plays a critical role in regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, stress, and immune function across vertebrate groups. In mammals, it has been classically described as an adipostat, relaying information regarding energy status to the brain. While retaining poor sequence conservation with mammalian leptins, teleostean leptins elicit a number of similar regulatory properties, although current evidence suggests that it does not function as an adipostat in this group of vertebrates...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439227/requirement-of-nf-kappa-b-activation-in-different-mice-brain-areas-during-long-term-memory-consolidation-in-two-contextual-one-trial-tasks-with-opposing-valences
#20
Angeles Salles, Maria Del C Krawczyk, Mariano Blake, Arturo Romano, Mariano M Boccia, Ramiro Freudenthal
NF-kappa B is a transcription factor whose activation has been shown to be necessary for long-term memory consolidation in several species. NF-kappa B is activated and translocates to the nucleus of cells in a specific temporal window during consolidation. Our work focuses on a one trial learning tasks associated to the inhibitory avoidance (IA) setting. Mice were trained either receiving or not a footshock when entering a dark compartment (aversive vs. appetitive learning). Regardless of training condition (appetitive or aversive), latencies to step-through during testing were significantly different to those measured during training...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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