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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785939/exploring-an-integrative-patient-tailored-complementary-medicine-approach-for-chemotherapy-induced-taste-disorders
#1
Eran Ben-Arye, Ilana Doweck, Elad Schiff, Noah Samuels
CONTEXT: Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder (CITD) is a common adverse effect among patients with cancer, with no effective known treatment. OBJECTIVES: Exploring the impact of a patient-tailored complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) treatment program on CITD-related severity. DESIGN: Prospective study on patients' chart. SETTING: Integrative oncology program operating within the Clalit Healthcare Oncology Service in northern Israel...
April 22, 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785132/influence-of-fto-rs9939609-polymorphism-on-appetite-ghrelin-leptin-il6-tnf%C3%AE-levels-and-food-intake-of-women-with-morbid-obesity
#2
Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos Magno, Helena Chrispim Guaraná, Ana Carolina Proença Fonseca, Giselda Maria Kalil Cabello, João Régis Ivar Carneiro, Aline Pereira Pedrosa, Ana Carolina Ximenes, Eliane Lopes Rosado
Background: The fat mass and obesity-related ( FTO ) gene has a strong relationship with obesity, extreme obesity and inflammatory state, and may also be associated with food intake regulation. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism of the FTO gene on appetite, ghrelin, leptin, interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) levels and food intake of morbidly obese women. Materials and methods: The study comprised 70 women, aged between 20 and 48 years, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784940/starvation-suppresses-t-cell-appetite
#3
Gabrielle Belz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#4
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779825/associations-between-eating-difficulties-nutritional-status-and-activity-of-daily-living-in-acute-geriatric-patients
#5
Mie Marie Nielsen, Thomas Maribo, Albert Westergren, Dorte Melgaard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Eating difficulties, having a poor nutritional status, and low activity of daily living are all prevalent issues in the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to explore associations between patients' eating difficulties, their nutritional status and their activity of daily living in patients aged 60 years or older who were admitted to an acute geriatric unit. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March and September 2016 at the geriatric department of North Denmark Regional Hospital, Hjørring...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779496/invited-review-improving-feed-efficiency-of-beef-cattle-the-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-challenges
#6
D A Kenny, C Fitzsimons, S M Waters, M McGee
Improvements in feed efficiency of beef cattle have the potential to increase producer profitability and simultaneously lower the environmental footprint of beef production. Although there are many different approaches to measuring feed efficiency, residual feed intake (RFI) has increasingly become the measure of choice. Defined as the difference between an animal's actual and predicted feed intake (based on weight and growth), RFI is conceptually independent of growth and body size. In addition, other measurable traits related to energy expenditure such as estimates of body composition can be included in the calculation of RFI to also force independence from these traits...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778511/observed-appetite-and-nutrient-intake-three-months-after-icu-discharge
#7
Lee-Anne S Chapple, Luke M Weinel, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Matthew J Summers, Thu Nguyen, Palash Kar, Kylie Lange, Marianne J Chapman, Adam M Deane
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral intake is diminished immediately after ICU discharge, yet factors affecting nutritional intake after hospital discharge have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake and factors which may influence intake - appetite and gastric emptying - 3-months after ICU discharge. METHODS: Inception cohort study with ICU survivors compared to healthy subjects. Following an overnight fast, all participants consumed a standardized carbohydrate drink, containing 13 C-octanoic acid, to measure gastric emptying...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777378/characterization-of-low-active-ghrelin-ratio-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Tomofumi Miura, Shuichi Mitsunaga, Masafumi Ikeda, Izumi Ohno, Hideaki Takahashi, Hidetaka Suzuki, Ai Irisawa, Takeshi Kuwata, Atsushi Ochiai
PURPOSE: Acyl ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide. Active ghrelin ratio, the ratio of acyl ghrelin to total ghrelin, has an important role in physiological functions and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, low active ghrelin ratio-related characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms, and chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer have not been previously evaluated. The goal of this study was to identify low active ghrelin ratio-related factors in treatment-naïve advanced pancreatic cancer patients...
May 18, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776968/liraglutide-modulates-appetite-and-body-weight-via-glp-1r-expressing-glutamatergic-neurons
#9
Jessica M Adams, Hongjuan Pei, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Rui B Chang, Stephen D Liberles, David P Olson
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are FDA-approved weight loss drugs. Despite their widespread use, the sites of action through which GLP-1R agonists (GLP1RAs) impact appetite and body weight are still not fully understood. Here, we determined whether GLP-1Rs in either GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons are necessary for the acute and chronic effects of the GLP1RA liraglutide on food intake, visceral illness, body weight and neural network activation. We found that mice lacking GLP-1Rs in vGAT -expressing GABAergic neurons responded identically to controls in all parameters measured, whereas deletion of GLP-1Rs in vGlut2 -expressing glutamatergic neurons eliminated liraglutide-induced weight loss and visceral illness and severely attenuated its effects on feeding...
May 18, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776493/mechanisms-in-bariatric-surgery-gut-hormones-diabetes-resolution-and-weight-loss
#10
Jens Juul Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Maria Saur Svane, Nils Bruun Jørgensen, Carsten Dirksen, Christoffer Martinussen
Gastric bypass surgery leads to profound changes in the secretion of gut hormones with effects on metabolism, appetite, and food intake. Here, we discuss their contributions to the improvement in glucose tolerance and the weight loss that results from the operations. We find that the improved glucose tolerance is due the following events: a negative energy balance and resulting weight loss, which improve first hepatic and later peripheral insulin sensitivity, in combination with increased postprandial insulin secretion elicited particularly by exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 responses...
May 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773846/appetite-during-the-recovery-phase-of-critical-illness-a-cohort-study
#11
Judith L Merriweather, David M Griffith, Timothy S Walsh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Reduced appetite is a recognised physiological symptom in survivors of critical illness. While reduced appetite has been reported by patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge, quantification using visual analogue scales (VAS) has not been previously performed, and follow-up duration has been limited. We aimed to describe appetite scores in ICU survivors during the first 3 months after ICU discharge and explore association with systemic inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Secondary analysis of data collected in a complex rehabilitation intervention trial (RECOVER)...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772309/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obesity-a-review-and-model-of-current-hypotheses-explaining-their-comorbidity
#12
REVIEW
Tomasz Hanć, Samuele Cortese
Available meta-analyses point to a significant association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. The possible mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Here, we overview the studies aimed at identifying the factors contributing to the comorbidity between ADHD and obesity, including genetic factors, fetal programming, executive dysfunctions, psychosocial stress, factors directly related to energy balance, and sleep patterns alterations. The bulk of current research has focused on reduced physical activity and abnormal eating patterns as possible causes of weight gain in individuals with ADHD...
May 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772263/comparative-analysis-of-microrna-expression-in-dog-lungs-infected-with-the-h3n2-and-h5n1-canine-influenza-viruses
#13
Yun Zheng, Xinliang Fu, Lifang Wang, Wenyan Zhang, Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Jidang Chen, Zongxi Cao, Kun Jia, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs, a class of noncoding RNAs 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) in length, play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine differences in microRNA expression profiles derived from the lungs of beagle dogs infected with the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) or the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (canine-origin isolation strain). After dogs were infected with H3N2 or H5N1, microRNA expression in the lungs was assessed using a deep-sequencing approach...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771164/retrospective-evaluation-of-clinical-experience-with-intravenous-ascorbic-acid-in-patients-with-cancer
#14
Anthony J Bazzan, George Zabrecky, Nancy Wintering, Andrew B Newberg, Daniel A Monti
BACKGROUND: Intravenous ascorbic acid (IV AA) has been used extensively in cancer patients throughout the United States. Currently, there are limited data on the safety and clinical effects of IV AA. The purpose of this study was to expand the current literature using a retrospective analysis of adverse events and symptomatic changes of IV AA in a large sample of cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients receiving IV AA for cancer at the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital over a 7-year period...
May 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770352/context-driven-salt-seeking-test-rats
#15
Stephen E Chang, Kyle S Smith
Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation...
April 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768649/selection-for-associative-learning-of-colour-stimuli-reveals-correlated-evolution-of-this-learning-ability-across-multiple-stimuli-and-rewards
#16
Maartje Liefting, Katja M Hoedjes, Cécile Le Lann, Hans M Smid, Jacintha Ellers
We are only starting to understand how variation in cognitive ability can result from local adaptations to environmental conditions. A major question in this regard is to what extent selection on cognitive ability in a specific context affects that ability in general through correlated evolution. To address this question we performed artificial selection on visual associative learning in female Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Using appetitive conditioning in which a visual stimulus was offered in association with a host reward, the ability to learn visual associations was enhanced within 10 generations of selection...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768529/cross-cultural-psychometric-assessment-of-an-appetite-questionnaire-for-patients-with-cancer
#17
Maria Claudia Bernardes Spexoto, Sergio Vicente Serrano, Vanessa Halliday, João Maroco, Andrew Wilcock, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties, along with cross-cultural invariance analysis, of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ). METHOD: Data from 555 United Kingdom (UK) cancer patients were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CASQ. Construct validity was assessed through factorial and convergent validity. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis using as indices the chi-square ratio by degrees of freedom (χ2/df), the comparative fit index (CFI), the goodness of fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)...
May 14, 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768152/effect-of-cannabidiol-on-drop-seizures-in-the-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#18
Orrin Devinsky, Anup D Patel, J Helen Cross, Vicente Villanueva, Elaine C Wirrell, Michael Privitera, Sam M Greenwood, Claire Roberts, Daniel Checketts, Kevan E VanLandingham, Sameer M Zuberi
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol has been used for treatment-resistant seizures in patients with severe early-onset epilepsy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol added to a regimen of conventional antiepileptic medication to treat drop seizures in patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 30 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (age range, 2 to 55 years) who had had two or more drop seizures per week during a 28-day baseline period to receive cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of either 20 mg per kilogram of body weight (20-mg cannabidiol group) or 10 mg per kilogram (10-mg cannabidiol group) or matching placebo, administered in two equally divided doses daily for 14 weeks...
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766697/the-assessment-of-the-nutritional-value-of-meals-consumed-by-patients-with-recognized-schizophrenia
#19
Ewa Stefańska, Agnieszka Wendołowicz, Magdalena Lech, Karolina Wilczyńska, Beata Konarzewska, Joanna Zapolska, Lucyna Ostrowska
Background: As studies show, changes in diet - so important in the therapy of psychiatric disorders and related to changes in appetite and nutritional preferences, including avoiding of the consumption of specific groups of products and dishes - are much more frequent among patients affected by schizophrenia. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the chosen nutritional habits, including the number and type of meals usually consumed during a day, snacking between meals and the energy value and content of the chosen nutrients in the diets of persons with recognized schizophrenia...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766599/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-enrofloxacin-as-a-second-line-antibiotic-for-treatment-of-acute-escherichia-coli-mastitis
#20
Yasunori Shinozuka, Kazuhiro Kawai, Akira Takeda, Michiaki Yamada, Fumi Kayasaki, Nao Kondo, Yoshiko Sasaki, Nahoko Kanai, Takuma Mukai, Naoki Sawaguchi, Masaya Higuchi, Haruka Kondo, Kouki Sugimoto, Akane Yasuda, Aiko Watanabe
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin (ERFX) as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis. Forty-two cows with naturally occurring acute E. coli mastitis were enrolled. On the first day of treatment (day 0), empirically selected antibiotics (oxytetracycline: n = 32, kanamycin: n = 10) were administered. Although systemic signs improved in 10 cows (first-line group), the signs remained unchanged or worsened in 32 cows on day 1, including two cows that were found dead...
May 16, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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