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Shalender Bhasin, Juan P Brito, Glenn R Cunningham, Frances J Hayes, Howard N Hodis, Alvin M Matsumoto, Peter J Snyder, Ronald S Swerdloff, Frederick C Wu, Maria A Yialamas
Objective: To update the "Testosterone Therapy in Men With Androgen Deficiency Syndromes" guideline published in 2010. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of 10 medical content experts and a clinical practice guideline methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nghia H Nguyen, Lucila Ohno-Machado, William J Sandborn, Siddharth Singh
Background and Aims: Prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in older patients is increasing. Risk-benefit trade-offs of therapy are poorly understood in older patients, who may be at higher risk of nonIBD and/or treatment-related complications, rather than disease-related complications. We conducted a nationally representative cohort study to estimate and compare annual burden, costs, and causes for hospitalization in older versus younger patients with IBD. Methods: Using the Nationwide Readmissions Database 2013, we created a cohort of 47,402 patients with IBD who had been hospitalized at least once between January-June 2013 and followed for rehospitalization until December 2013...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Amanda C Carroll, Alex Wong
Plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA elements that can be found throughout bacteria, as well as in other domains of life. Nonetheless, the evolutionary processes underlying the persistence of plasmids are incompletely understood. Bacterial plasmids may encode genes for traits which are sometimes beneficial to their hosts, such as antimicrobial resistance, virulence, heavy metal tolerance, and the catabolism of unique nutrient sources. In the absence of selection for these traits, however, plasmids generally impose a fitness cost on their hosts...
March 21, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Nadavala Siva Kumar, Mohammad Asif, Mansour I Al-Hazzaa, Ahmed A Ibrahim
Most industrial waste discharges are often contaminated with phenolic compounds, which constitute a major source of water pollution owing to their toxicity and low biodegradability. Development of cost-effective treatment of such industrial wastewater is therefore of paramount importance. Towards this end, we explore the efficacy of Pine bark powder (PBP), which is an agricultural solid waste material, as a low-cost biosorbent without any pre-treatment, for the adsorptive removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous media...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Cynthia de Jesus Freire, Lucas Roberto da Silva Barbosa, João Gomes da Costa, Renata Guerda de Araújo Santos, Aldenir Feitosa Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of phytotherapy as a therapy adopted in the context of Primary Care to Childhood. METHOD: Observational and analytical field research, with quantitative-qualitative approach. A semi-structured survey was used on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological variables, audio interview and daily observation. RESULTS: The production of knowledge about phytotherapy constitutes a family heritage, but incorporated data resulting from the daily experiences shared by the community...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Carlos Vitor Braga Rodrigues, Anderson Oliveira, Christiane Cigagna Wiefels, Maurício de Souza Leão, Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita
BACKGROUND: Data on the current situation of nuclear medicine practices in cardiology in Brazil are scarce. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended eight "good practices" to minimize patients' ionizing radiation exposure during myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). OBJECTIVES: To assess the adoption of the eight good practices in MPS in Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with data obtained by use of a questionnaire...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Daniel Ianni Filho, Ilka de Fatima Santana Ferreira Boin, Ademar Yamanaka
BACKGROUND: Fibrosis are common structural hepatic change in patients with chronic hepatitis. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for determining the extent of liver fibrosis. Considering the technical difficulties and cost, improvements in non-invasive screening tools are greatly needed. Bioimpedance have been shown to be safe to evaluate tissue fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of using monofrequential bipolar bioimpedance for the detection of severity of liver fibrosis consistent with chronic viral hepatitis C infections...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Li Dong, Yi-Kun Kang, Xiang-Guang An
BACKGROUND: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) is one of the standard treatments for coronary artery disease (CAD) while hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) represents an evolving revascularization strategy. However, the difference in outcomes between them remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the short-term and mid-term outcomes of HCR versus OPCAB for the treatment of multivessel or left main CAD. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane databases to identify related studies and a routine meta-analysis was conducted...
March 19, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Kathiane Lustosa Augusto, Aline Veras Morais Brilhante, Gisele Cristine Duarte Modesto, Dayana Maia Saboia, Cássia Fernandes Coelho Rocha, Sara Arcanjo Lino Karbage, Thaís Fontes de Magalhães, Leonardo Robson Pinheiro Sobreira Bezerra
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the costs of hysterectomies performed in Brazil due to benign conditions, and to assess its hospital admittance and mortality rates. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was carried out from January 2010 to December 2014, analyzing all hysterectomies (n = 428,346) registered on the DATASUS database between January 2010 and December 2014. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire and analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 for Windows. RESULTS: Hospital admissions were 300,231 for total abdominal hysterectomies, 46,056 for vaginal hysterectomies, 29,959 for subtotal abdominal hysterectomies and 1,522 for laparoscopic hysterectomies...
March 12, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
Adam L Crane, Douglas P Chivers, Maud C O Ferrari
Exposure to intense predation risk can induce morphological and behavioural phenotypes that prepare prey, often at young ages, for surviving attacks from unknown predators. However, previous studies revealed that this survival advantage depended on the predator species. Here, we used alarm cues from injured conspecifics to simulate a period of high predation risk for embryonic wood frogs, Lithobates sylvaticus. Two weeks post-hatching, we tested whether the embryonic risk exposure influenced survival in encounters with two novel predators: (1) a spider (Dolomedes sp...
2018: PloS One
Paula Finatto, Edson Soares Da Silva, Alexandre B Okamura, Bruna P Almada, Henrique B Oliveira, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
PURPOSE: Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. METHODS: Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners...
2018: PloS One
Frédéric Kosmowski, Tigist Worku
Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated...
2018: PloS One
Shaoran Yang, Kaili Zhang
Carbon materials derived from biomass are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor application due to their specific porosity, low cost and electrochemical stability. Herein, a hierarchical porous carbon derived from corncob was developed for use as electrodes. Benefitting from its hierarchical porosity, inherited from the natural structure of corncob, high BET surface area (1471.4 m²·g-1 ) and excellent electrical conductivity, the novel carbon material exhibited a specific capacitance of 293 F·g-1 at 1 A·g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte and maintained at 195 F·g-1 at 5 A·g-1 ...
March 21, 2018: Nanomaterials
Sreenivasan Ramaswami, Joachim Behrendt, Ralf Otterpohl
Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are among the state-of-the-art technologies for treating landfill leachates. Due to the complexity and variance in the composition of leachates, numerous combinations of multiple technologies are used for their treatment. One process chain for the treatment of raw leachate is RO followed by further concentration of RO-retentate using NF (RO-NF scheme). The aptness of this process train used by some landfill sites around the world (usually with the aim of volume reduction so as to re-inject the concentrate into the landfill) is questionable...
March 21, 2018: Membranes
Tan Li, Qingguo Zhang, Ying Zhang
The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ByungWan Jo, Rana Muhammad Asad Khan
The implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for monitoring the complex, dynamic, and harsh environment of underground coal mines (UCMs) is sought around the world to enhance safety. However, previously developed smart systems are limited to monitoring or, in a few cases, can report events. Therefore, this study introduces a reliable, efficient, and cost-effective internet of things (IoT) system for air quality monitoring with newly added features of assessment and pollutant prediction. This system is comprised of sensor modules, communication protocols, and a base station, running Azure Machine Learning (AML) Studio over it...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Peter G Bittar, Anna R Carlson, Ann Mabie-DeRuyter, Jeffrey R Marcus, Alexander C Allori
OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to describe the process of adapting a conceptual framework into a practical toolkit for one cleft team. DESIGN: This is a single-arm implementation study in a single institution. SETTING: Implementation took place at a mid-sized multidisciplinary clinic for patients with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from urban/suburban and rural areas across North Carolina and neighboring states. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were patients with CL/P from English-speaking families...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Alison Kaye, Sandra Lybrand, William L Chew
OBJECTIVE: To determine family-reported psychosocial stressors and social worker assessments and interventions within a comprehensive cleft team. DESIGN: Single-institution prospective provider-completed survey. PATIENTS: Four hundred one families seen by cleft team social worker over a 7-month period. RESULTS: Most families (n = 331; 83%) participated in the team social work assessment. At least 1 active psychosocial stressor was reported by 238 (72%) families, with 63 (19%) families reported 3 or more stressors...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Hubert Y Pan, Jing Jiang, Karen E Hoffman, Chad Tang, Seungtaek L Choi, Quynh-Nhu Nguyen, Steven J Frank, Mitchell S Anscher, Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Benjamin D Smith
Purpose To compare the toxicities and cost of proton radiation and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer among men younger than 65 years of age with private insurance. Methods Using the MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database, we identified men who received radiation for prostate cancer between 2008 and 2015. Patients undergoing proton therapy and SBRT were propensity score-matched to IMRT patients on the basis of clinical and sociodemographic factors...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Kenneth E Thorpe, Peter Joski, Kenton J Johnston
Antibiotic-resistant infections are a global health care concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 23,000 Americans with these infections die each year. Rising infection rates add to the costs of health care and compromise the quality of medical and surgical procedures provided. Little is known about the national health care costs attributable to treating the infections. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimated the incremental health care costs of treating a resistant infection as well as the total national costs of treating such infections...
March 21, 2018: Health Affairs
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