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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088109/carbetocin-versus-oxytocin-for-prevention-of-post-partum-haemorrhage-at-caesarean-section-in-the-united-kingdom-an-economic-impact-analysis
#1
Helen A van der Nelson, Tim Draycott, Dimitrios Siassakos, Christopher W H Yau, Anthony J Hatswell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic impact of the introduction of carbetocin for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at caesarean section, compared to oxytocin. STUDY DESIGN: The model is a decision tree conducted from a UK National Health Service perspective. 1500 caesarean sections (both elective and emergency) were modelled over a 12 month period. Efficacy data was taken from a published Cochrane meta-analysis, and costs from NHS Reference costs, the British National Formulary and the NHS electronic Medicines Information Tool...
January 3, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088073/strategies-to-design-clinical-studies-to-identify-predictive-biomarkers-in-cancer-research
#2
REVIEW
Jose Luis Perez-Gracia, Miguel F Sanmamed, Ana Bosch, Ana Patiño-Garcia, Kurt A Schalper, Victor Segura, Joaquim Bellmunt, Josep Tabernero, Christopher J Sweeney, Toni K Choueiri, Miguel Martín, Juan Pablo Fusco, Maria Esperanza Rodriguez-Ruiz, Alfonso Calvo, Celia Prior, Luis Paz-Ares, Ruben Pio, Enrique Gonzalez-Billalabeitia, Alvaro Gonzalez Hernandez, David Páez, Jose María Piulats, Alfonso Gurpide, Mapi Andueza, Guillermo de Velasco, Roberto Pazo, Enrique Grande, Pilar Nicolas, Francisco Abad-Santos, Jesus Garcia-Donas, Daniel Castellano, María J Pajares, Cristina Suarez, Ramon Colomer, Luis M Montuenga, Ignacio Melero
The discovery of reliable biomarkers to predict efficacy and toxicity of anticancer drugs remains one of the key challenges in cancer research. Despite its relevance, no efficient study designs to identify promising candidate biomarkers have been established. This has led to the proliferation of a myriad of exploratory studies using dissimilar strategies, most of which fail to identify any promising targets and are seldom validated. The lack of a proper methodology also determines that many anti-cancer drugs are developed below their potential, due to failure to identify predictive biomarkers...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088060/life-cycle-analysis-of-mitigation-methodologies-for-railway-rolling-noise-and-groundbourne-vibration
#3
Mariana Valente Tuler, Sakdirat Kaewunruen
Negative outcomes such as noise and vibration generated by railways have become a challenge for both industry and academia in order to guarantee that the railway system can accomplish its purposes and at the same time provide comfort for users and people living in the neighbourhood along the railway corridor. The research interest on this field has been increasing and the advancement in noise and vibration mitigation methodologies can be observed using various engineering techniques that are constantly put into test to solve such effects...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087936/fungal-ligninolytic-enzymes-and-their-applications
#4
Miia R Mäkelä, Erin L Bredeweg, Jon K Magnuson, Scott E Baker, Ronald P de Vries, Kristiina Hildén
The global push toward an efficient and economical biobased economy has driven research to develop more cost-effective applications for the entirety of plant biomass, including lignocellulosic crops. As discussed elsewhere (Karlsson M, Atanasova L, Funck Jensen D, Zeilinger S, in Heitman J et al. [ed], Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus, 2nd ed, in press), significant progress has been made in the use of polysaccharide fractions from lignocellulose, cellulose, and various hemicellulose types. However, developing processes for use of the lignin fraction has been more challenging...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087891/physical-activity-and-exercise-for-chronic-pain-in-adults-an-overview-of-cochrane-reviews
#5
REVIEW
Louise J Geneen, R Andrew Moore, Clare Clarke, Denis Martin, Lesley A Colvin, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is defined as pain lasting beyond normal tissue healing time, generally taken to be 12 weeks. It contributes to disability, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, and healthcare costs. Chronic pain has a weighted mean prevalence in adults of 20%.For many years, the treatment choice for chronic pain included recommendations for rest and inactivity. However, exercise may have specific benefits in reducing the severity of chronic pain, as well as more general benefits associated with improved overall physical and mental health, and physical functioning...
January 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087890/overview-of-the-benefits-and-potential-issues-of-the-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine
#6
REVIEW
Luciano Mariani, Mario Preti, Paolo Cristoforoni, Carlo M Stigliano, Antonio Perino
HPV-related diseases affect anogenital and oropharyngeal regions, heavily affecting the psychosexual dimension of both male and female individuals. HPV vaccination programs based on a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine have opened broad perspectives for primary prevention. A nonavalent HPV vaccine (9vHPV), covering nine genotypes (HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58), might provide further improvement in terms of direct protection. In the present report, efficacy and safety data from 9vHPV vaccine development programs are examined...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087781/deleterious-variants-in-asian-rice-and-the-potential-cost-of-domestication
#7
Qingpo Liu, Yongfeng Zhou, Peter L Morrell, Brandon S Gaut
Many SNPs are predicted to encode deleterious amino acid variants. These slightly deleterious mutations can provide unique insights into population history, the dynamics of selection, and the genetic bases of phenotypes. This is especially true for domesticated species, where a history of bottlenecks and selection may affect the frequency of deleterious variants and signal a 'cost of domestication'. Here we investigated the numbers and frequencies of deleterious variants in Asian rice (O. sativa), focusing on two varieties (japonica and indica) and their wild relative (O...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087761/proteomics-technologies-and-their-applications
#8
REVIEW
Bilal Aslam, Madiha Basit, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Mohsin Khurshid, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool
Proteomics involves the applications of technologies for the identification and quantification of overall proteins present content of a cell, tissue or an organism. It supplements the other "omics" technologies such as genomic and transcriptomics to expound the identity of proteins of an organism, and to cognize the structure and functions of a particular protein. Proteomics-based technologies are utilized in various capacities for different research settings such as detection of various diagnostic markers, candidates for vaccine production, understanding pathogenicity mechanisms, alteration of expression patterns in response to different signals and interpretation of functional protein pathways in different diseases...
February 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087552/screening-for-atrial-fibrillation-using-economical-and-accurate-technology-safety-a-pilot-study
#9
Mark Lown, Arthur Yue, George Lewith, Paul Little, Mike Moore
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cause of stroke and a marker of atherosclerosis and of all patients with stroke, around 17% have AF. The screening and treatment of AF could prevent about 12% of all strokes. Several relatively low-cost devices with good accuracy now exist which can detect AF including WatchBP and AliveCor. However, they can only measure the ECG or pulse over short time periods. Inexpensive devices such as heart rate monitors, which are widely available, can measure heart rate for prolonged periods and may have potential in screening for AF...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087551/cost-effectiveness-of-superficial-femoral-artery-endovascular-interventions-in-the-uk-and-germany-a-modelling-study
#10
Benjamin C Kearns, Steven M Thomas
OBJECTIVES: To assess the lifetime costs and cost-effectiveness of 5 endovascular interventions to treat superficial femoral arterial disease. DESIGN: A model-based health economic evaluation. An existing decision analytical model was used, with updated effectiveness data taken from the literature, and updated costs based on purchasing prices. SETTING: UK and German healthcare perspectives were considered. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with intermittent claudication of the femoropopliteal arteries eligible for endovascular treatment...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087549/engaging-stakeholders-and-target-groups-in-prioritising-a-public-health-intervention-the-creating-active-school-environments-case-online-delphi-study
#11
Katie L Morton, Andrew J Atkin, Kirsten Corder, Marc Suhrcke, David Turner, Esther M F van Sluijs
OBJECTIVES: Stakeholder engagement and public involvement are considered as integral to developing effective public health interventions and is encouraged across all phases of the research cycle. However, limited guidelines and appropriate tools exist to facilitate stakeholder engagement-especially during the intervention prioritisation phase. We present the findings of an online 'Delphi' study that engaged stakeholders (including young people) in the process of prioritising secondary school environment-focused interventions that aim to increase physical activity...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087548/early-lens-extraction-with-intraocular-lens-implantation-for-the-treatment-of-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-an-economic-evaluation-based-on-data-from-the-eagle-trial
#12
Mehdi Javanbakht, Augusto Azuara-Blanco, Jennifer M Burr, Craig Ramsay, David Cooper, Claire Cochran, John Norrie, Graham Scotland
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) compared to standard care. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a multicentre pragmatic two-arm randomised controlled trial. Patients were followed-up for 36 months, and data on health service usage and health state utility were collected and analysed within the trial time horizon. A Markov model was developed to extrapolate the results over a 5-year and 10-year time horizon...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087535/efficient-low-ph-iron-removal-by-a-microbial-iron-oxide-mound-ecosystem-at-scalp-level-run
#13
Christen L Grettenberger, Alexandra R Pearce, Kyle J Bibby, Daniel S Jones, William D Burgos, Jennifer L Macalady
: Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of km of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron-oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable across sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County PA), first-order iron-oxidation rates are ten times faster than at other coal associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087465/are-cardiovascular-disease-risk-assessment-and-management-programmes-cost-effective-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#14
REVIEW
John Tayu Lee, Kenny D Lawson, Yizhou Wan, Azeem Majeed, Stephen Morris, Michael Soljak, Christopher Millett
The World Health Organization recommends that countries implement population-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and management programmes. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to evaluate whether this recommendation is supported by cost-effectiveness evidence. Published economic evaluations were identified via electronic medical and social science databases (including Medline, Web of Science, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database) from inception to March 2016. Study quality was evaluated using a modified version of the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards...
January 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087426/next-generation-sequencing-of-a-large-gene-panel-in-patients-initially-diagnosed-with-idiopathic-ventricular-fibrillation
#15
Marloes Visser, Dennis Dooijes, Jasper J van der Smagt, Jeroen F van der Heijden, Pieter A Doevendans, Peter Loh, Folkert W Asselbergs, Rutger J Hassink
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) is a rare primary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome that is diagnosed in a resuscitated cardiac arrest victim, with documented ventricular fibrillation, in whom no underlying cause is identified after comprehensive clinical evaluation. In some patients causative genetic mutations are detected which facilitate patient treatment and follow-up. The feasibility of next generation sequencing (NGS) has increased with its greater availability and decreasing costs...
January 10, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087407/polymeric-micelles-for-ocular-drug-delivery-from-structural-frameworks-to-recent-preclinical-studies
#16
REVIEW
Abhirup Mandal, Rohit Bisht, Ilva D Rupenthal, Ashim K Mitra
Effective intraocular drug delivery poses a major challenge due to the presence of various elimination mechanisms and physiological barriers that result in low ocular bioavailability after topical application. Over the past decades, polymeric micelles have emerged as one of the most promising drug delivery platforms for the management of ocular diseases affecting the anterior (dry eye syndrome) and posterior (age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma) segments of the eye. Promising preclinical efficacy results from both in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies have led to their steady progression through clinical trials...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087381/prevalence-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-atopic-and-nonatopic-asthma-among-rural-children
#17
Joshua A Lawson, Luan M Chu, Donna C Rennie, Louise Hagel, Chandima P Karunanayake, Punam Pahwa, James A Dosman
BACKGROUND: Because of time and cost constraints, objective classification of atopic and nonatopic asthma has been limited in large epidemiologic studies. However, as we try to better understand exposure-outcome associations and ensure appropriate treatment of asthma, it is important to focus on phenotype-defined asthma classification. OBJECTIVE: To compare atopic and nonatopic asthma in rural children with regard to risk factors and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in rural Saskatchewan, Canada, in 2011...
January 10, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087365/parasite-induced-increases-in-the-energy-costs-of-movement-of-host-freshwater-fish
#18
Ondřej Slavík, Pavel Horký, Karel Douda, Josef Velíšek, Jitka Kolářová, Pavel Lepič
Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption...
January 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087349/combination-of-multiple-ligation-dependent-probe-amplification-and-illumina-miseq-amplicon-sequencing-for-tsc1-tsc2-gene-analyses-in-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#19
Nur Farrah Dila Ismail, Abdul Qawee Rani, Nik Mohd Ariff Nik Abdul Malik, Chia Boon Hock, Siti Nabilahuda Mohd Azlan, Salmi Abdul Razak, Wee Teik Keng, Lock Hock Ngu, Abdul Rashid Silawati, Nor AzniYahya, Narazah Mohd Yusoff, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by tumor growth in multiple organs and caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Because of their relatively large genomic sizes, absence of hotspots, and common type of mutations, mutation detection in TSC1 and TSC2 genes has been challenging. We devised a combination of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and amplicon sequencing (AS) to simplify the detection strategy, yet we come up with reasonably high detection rate...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087319/biliary-fistula-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-data-from-1618-consecutive-pancreaticoduodenectomies
#20
Stefano Andrianello, Giovanni Marchegiani, Giuseppe Malleo, Tommaso Pollini, Deborah Bonamini, Roberto Salvia, Claudio Bassi, Luca Landoni
BACKGROUND: Biliary fistula (BF) occurs in 3-8% of patients following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). It usually pursues a benign course, but rarely may represent a life-threatening event. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 1618 PDs were collected prospectively. BF was defined as the presence of bile stained fluid from drains by post-operative day 3 and confirmed by sinogram in the majority of cases. Three classifications were validated. RESULTS: BF occurred in 58 (3...
January 11, 2017: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
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