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L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Morteza Khodaee, George T Edelman, Jack Spittler, Randall Wilber, Brian J Krabak, Daniel Solomon, Scott Riewald, Alicia Kendig, Laura M Borgelt, Mark Riederer, Vladimir Puzovic, Scott Rodeo
Swimming is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Competitive swimming is one of the most watched sports during the Olympic Games. Swimming has unique medical challenges as a result of a variety of environmental and chemical exposures. Musculoskeletal overuse injuries, overtraining, respiratory problems, and dermatologic conditions are among the most common problems swimmers encounter. Although not unique to swimming, overtraining is a serious condition which can have significant negative impact on swimmers' health and performance...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Philip B Maffetone, Paul B Laursen
While the words "fit" and "healthy" are often used synonymously in everyday language, the terms have entirely separate meanings. Fitness describes the ability to perform a given exercise task, and health explains a person's state of well-being, where physiological systems work in harmony. Although we typically view athletes as fit and healthy, they often are not. The global term we place on unhealthy athletes is the overtraining syndrome. In this current opinion, we propose that two primary drivers may contribute to the development of the overtraining syndrome, namely high training intensity and the modern-day highly processed, high glycemic diet...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Rhonda B Friedman, Kelli L Sullivan, Sarah F Snider, George Luta, Kevin T Jones
Objective: An important aspect of the rehabilitation of cognitive and linguistic function subsequent to brain injury is the maintenance of learning beyond the time of initial treatment. Such maintenance is often not satisfactorily achieved. Additional practice, or overtraining, may play a key role in long-term maintenance. In particular, the literature on learning in cognitively intact persons has suggested that it is testing, and not studying, that contributes to maintenance of learning. The present study investigates the hypothesis that continuing to test relearned words in persons with anomia will lead to significantly greater maintenance compared with continuing to study relearned words...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, Giovana R Teixeira, Bruno C Pereira, Luciana C Oliveira, Adriana C Silva, Gustavo P Morais, Dennys E Cintra, José R Pauli, Adelino S R da Silva
Recently, we demonstrated that an overtraining (OT) protocol for mice based on downhill running sessions increased the hepatic phosphorylation of 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1; Thr389), a downstream target of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). In liver, the overactivation of the Akt/mTORC1 pathway induces lipogenesis via regulation of the action of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) at multiple steps. Herein, we verified the effects of three running OT models with same external load (i...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jeffrey B Kreher
Overtraining syndrome is a condition of maladapted physiology in the setting of excessive exercise without adequate rest. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are unknown and being investigated. Symptoms are multisystem in nature and often representative of underlying hormonal, immunologic, neurologic, and psychologic disturbances. Unfortunately, systematic review of the literature does not clearly direct diagnosis, management, or prevention. However, given the severity of symptoms and impairment to quality of life, prevention of overtraining syndrome should be considered by all who interact with endurance athletes...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Joel S Brenner
Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Martin Schwellnus, Torbjørn Soligard, Juan-Manuel Alonso, Roald Bahr, Ben Clarsen, H Paul Dijkstra, Tim J Gabbett, Michael Gleeson, Martin Hägglund, Mark R Hutchinson, Christa Janse Van Rensburg, Romain Meeusen, John W Orchard, Babette M Pluim, Martin Raftery, Richard Budgett, Lars Engebretsen
The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport...
September 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Insa Nixdorf, Raphael Frank, Jürgen Beckmann
Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Justin X Nicoll, Adam J Sterczala, Andrew C Fry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Uwe Schumann, Martina Zügel, Gunnar Treff, Marion Schneider, Dietmar Abendroth, Jürgen M Steinacker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Maria Concetta Miniaci, Pellegrino Lippiello, Marcellino Monda, Pietro Scotto
To examine how signals from different sensory modalities are integrated to generate an appropriate goal-oriented behavior, we trained rats in an eight-arm radial maze to visit a cue arm provided with intramaze cues from different sensory modalities, i.e. visual, tactile and auditory, in order to obtain a reward. When the same rats were then examined on test trials in which the cue arm contained one of the stimuli that the animals were trained with (i.e. light, sound or rough sheet), they showed a significant impairment with respect to the performance on the polymodal-cue task...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
Karen D Ersche, Claire M Gillan, P Simon Jones, Guy B Williams, Laetitia H E Ward, Maartje Luijten, Sanne de Wit, Barbara J Sahakian, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-addicted patients to act purposefully toward a given goal and on the influence of extended training on their behavior. When patients were rewarded for their behavior, prolonged training improved their response rate toward the goal but simultaneously rendered them insensitive to the consequences of their actions...
June 17, 2016: Science
Marta Majorczyk, Danuta Smoląg
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is known as somatomedin C. This polypeptide hormone is functionally and structurally similar to insulin. IGF-1 effects on tissue by the IGF-1R and the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein also known as IGFBP. Abnormal IGF-1 and IGFBP signaling are positively correlated with a high risk of selected civilization diseases development. Physical inactivity is a one of the main causes of majority of chronic diseases and it is associated with eg...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Orsolya Kiss, Nóra Sydó, Péter Vargha, Hajnalka Vágó, Csilla Czimbalmos, Eszter Édes, Endre Zima, Györgyi Apponyi, Gergő Merkely, Tibor Sydó, Dávid Becker, Thomas G Allison, Béla Merkely
OBJECTIVE: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis has been used to evaluate patients with various cardiovascular diseases. While the vast majority of HRV studies have focused on pathological states, our study focuses on the less explored area of HRV analysis across different training intensity and sports. We aimed to measure HRV in healthy elite and masters athletes and compare to healthy, but non-athletic controls. METHODS: Time-domain HRV analysis was applied in 138 athletes (male 110, age 28...
August 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Bruno C Pereira, Alisson L da Rocha, Ana P Pinto, José R Pauli, Leandro P de Moura, Rania A Mekary, Ellen C de Freitas, Adelino S R da Silva
The main aim of this investigation was to verify the effects of overtraining (OT) on the insulin and inflammatory signaling pathways in mice skeletal muscles. Rodents were divided into control (CT), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up), and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR) groups. Rotarod, incremental load, exhaustive, and grip force tests were used to evaluate performance. Thirty-six hours after the grip force test, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus were extracted for subsequent protein analyses...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Kazuyuki Arakawa, Akihiro Hosono, Kiyoshi Shibata, Reza Ghadimi, Mizuho Fuku, Chiho Goto, Nahomi Imaeda, Yuko Tokudome, Hideki Hoshino, Mitsuhiro Marumoto, Masaaki Kobayashi, Sadao Suzuki, Shinkan Tokudome
We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days) after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters) and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin) and an iron reservoir index (ferritin), muscle damage parameters (uric acid, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase), renal function markers (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), liver injury index (alanine aminotransferase), lipid metabolism indices (free fatty acid), reactive oxygen species and inflammation parameters (white blood cells, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein), and energy production and catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine)...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Peter W Watt, Ashley G B Willmott, Neil S Maxwell, Nicholas J Smeeton, Eleanor Watt, Alan J Richardson
AIM: Fire Service Instructors (FSI) are exposed to many repeated periods of high environmental temperatures when training firefighters. Such repeated exposures will impose significant strains on the function of instructors. We aimed to measure the effects of a training programme including repeated exposures to heat, termed "Wears" in the fire service, on the physiological, psychological some immunological markers of Fire Service Instructors. METHODS: Six FSI and six physiologically matched controls completed blood and cardiovascular tests pre and post a 4wk heat instruction training block, controls completed the tests only...
May 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Dimitar Dobchev, Mati Karelson
INTRODUCTION: Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are highly adaptive nonlinear optimization algorithms that have been applied in many diverse scientific endeavors, ranging from economics, engineering, physics, and chemistry to medical science. Notably, in the past two decades, ANNs have been used widely in the process of drug discovery. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors discuss advantages and disadvantages of ANNs in drug discovery as incorporated into the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) framework...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Frederic Ehrler, Chloe Weber, Christian Lovis
Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for chronic disease morbidity and mortality in aging. Measuring people activity through devices such as pedometers is a recognized intervention to motivate them for more physical activity. However, the feedback provided by these devices must be accurate in order to avoid overtraining and keep users' motivation alive. If the accuracy of pedometers has been validated for healthy people, their lack of accuracy for elderly people walking at slower pace has been reported in several studies...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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