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Lithium dosing

Gideon Koren, Matitiahu Berkovitch, Asher Ornoy
Since the inception of clinical teratology, the vast majority of scientific work has focused on identification of drugs and environmental agents causing malformations in humans as a dichotomous variable (i.e. yes or no), as well as the relative and absolute risks of such occurrences. Generally, the dose dependency of such events has not been investigated. With the establishment of large pregnancy databases, dose-dependence relationships are being uncovered for increasing numbers of medications, including valproic acid, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, lamotrigine, topiramate, and lithium...
May 4, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Yizhi Shao, Juanjuan Liu, Jinglun Li, Mingwei Xing
Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ), the most toxic form of arsenic found in foodstuffs, is considered a carcinogen for human and animal. But many of the events that occur during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract are uncharted in birds. This study assesses the toxic effect on the jejunum of chicken which subchronically exposed to diets that contain As2 O3 (0, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 90 days. Electron microscopy, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL), qPCR, and Western blot were performed...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Damri Odeya, Agam Galila, Toker Lilah
Upregulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma (BCL)2 expression following lithium treatment is seemingly well established and has been related to the neuroprotective property of the drug. However, while demonstrated by some (but not all) studies based on low-throughput techniques (e.g. qPCR) this effect is not reflected in high-throughput studies, such as microarrays and RNAseq. This manuscript presents a systematic review of currently available reports of lithium's effect on BCL2 expression. To our surprise, we found that the majority of the literature does not support the effect of lithium on BCL2 transcript or protein levels...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric E Brown, Philip Gerretsen, Bruce Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
INTRODUCTION: Lithium is a medication used to treat bipolar disorder and may also prevent cognitive decline and suicide. Lithium is also found naturally, in levels well below clinical doses, in drinking water worldwide, and levels have been inversely associated with rates of psychiatric disorders. Lead (Pb) is another element in the environment but is a toxin of public health concern. Negative effects of chronic lead exposure and possible benefits of environmental lithium exposure appear complementary...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Danyao Nie, Yun Peng, Ming Li, Xinhua Liu, Meilan Zhu, Lin Ye
This study evaluated whether lithium chloride (LiCl) prevents cytoplasmic accumulation of mutant-transforming growth factor β-induced protein (Mut-TGFBI) in granular corneal dystrophy (GCD) via activation of the autophagy pathway. Levels of TGFBI and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) in 3 GCD patients and healthy controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and Western blot. Primary corneal fibroblasts were isolated and transfected with wild type or mutant type TGFBI over-expressed vectors, and then treated with LiCl and/or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA)...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
B Grant, J A Salpekar
Lithium has been an intriguing treatment option in psychiatry for over a century. While seemingly just a simple elemental compound, it has powerful treatment effects for both depression and bipolar disorder. The evidence base for treatment of pediatric bipolar disorder is relatively small, but, in recent years, additional clinical trial data have enabled lithium to re-emerge as a valuable and, in many cases, preferred treatment. Pharmacologically, lithium is complex, with varied effects at both intracellular and extracellular levels...
April 12, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Lauren J Heath, Sarah J Billups, Kerri M Gaughan, Kristen N Gardner, Daniel Dugan, Sheila R Botts
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated risk factors for utilization of acute care services (ACS) (hospitalization or emergency department or urgent care visit) for lithium toxicity and the prevalence of lithium toxicity in a large, ambulatory population. METHODS: A nested case-control study compared lithium users with ACS utilization for lithium toxicity (case group) to lithium users without toxicity (control group) by using data from Kaiser Permanente Colorado for patients with at least one lithium prescription purchase...
April 2, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Lu Li, Swastik Basu, Yiping Wang, Zhizhong Chen, Prateek Hundekar, Baiwei Wang, Jian Shi, Yunfeng Shi, Shankar Narayanan, Nikhil Koratkar
Lithium (Li) metal electrodes are not deployable in rechargeable batteries because electrochemical plating and stripping invariably leads to growth of dendrites that reduce coulombic efficiency and eventually short the battery. It is generally accepted that the dendrite problem is exacerbated at high current densities. Here, we report a regime for dendrite evolution in which the reverse is true. In our experiments, we found that when the plating and stripping current density is raised above ~9 milliamperes per square centimeter, there is substantial self-heating of the dendrites, which triggers extensive surface migration of Li...
March 30, 2018: Science
Sattar Ostadhadi, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Vahid Nikoui, Samira Zolfaghari, Abouzar Moradi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Lithium is still the main agent in the management of mood disorders such as depression. Likewise, agmatine protects the central nervous system (CNS) against depression. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible additive antidepressant-like effect of agmatine and lithium in mice forced swim test (FST) as well as exploration of the probable involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in this response. Results showed that pretreatment with a subeffective dose of agmatine (0.01 mg/kg) augmented the antidepressant-like effect of lithium subeffective dose (3 mg/kg) (P < 0...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Suchitra Joshi, Karthik Rajasekaran, Kyle M Hawk, Stephen J Chester, Howard P Goodkin
OBJECTIVE: Clinical factors contributing to benzodiazepine failure in treating status epilepticus include suboptimal dosing and seizure duration. As many benzodiazepine-refractory episodes of status epilepticus (SE) arise from acute etiologies, we sought to determine whether etiology impacts SE treatment. METHODS: The potency of diazepam to terminate SE induced by lithium-pilocarpine (LiPilo-SE) or kainic acid (KA-SE) in 3-week old rats was studied by video-electroencephalograpy...
March 24, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Hong-Jie Li, Dong-Sheng Gao, Yong-Tao Li, Yong-Sheng Wang, Hong-Ying Liu, Jun Zhao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. Severe outbreaks of PEDV variants have re-emerged in Asia and North America since 2010, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. The lack of effective therapeutic treatment promotes the research for new antivirals. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported as a potential antiviral drug for certain viruses. In this study, the antiviral effect of LiCl on PEDV in Vero cells was evaluated...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Orwa Dandash, Murat Yücel, Rothanthi Daglas, Christos Pantelis, Patrick McGorry, Michael Berk, Alex Fornito
Mood disturbances seen in first-episode mania (FEM) are linked to disturbed functional connectivity of the striatum. Lithium and quetiapine are effective treatments for mania but their neurobiological effects remain largely unknown. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled maintenance trial in 61 FEM patients and 30 healthy controls. Patients were stabilized for a minimum of 2 weeks on lithium plus quetiapine then randomly assigned to either lithium (serum level 0.6 mmol/L) or quetiapine (dosed up to 800 mg/day) treatment for 12 months...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
M Rahimi, M Zahedifar, E Sadeghi
Lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) nanoparticles (NPs) doped with manganese (Mn) were prepared for the first time by the solid-state sintering method. NPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence and thermoluminescence (TL) techniques. The synthesized NPs exhibited highest TL response at 0.3 wt% of Mn dopant under gamma irradiation. TL dose response is linear for the absorbed dose from 1 Gy to 20 kGy and beyond this range behaves sub-linear. Such feature makes the synthesized nanophosphor as a promising material for high-dose dosimetry applications...
March 1, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Marlijn Vermeiden, Astrid M Kamperman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Walter W van den Broek, Tom K Birkenhäger
BACKGROUND: In patients suffering from major depressive disorder, non-response to initial antidepressant monotherapy is relatively common. The use of treatment algorithms may optimize and enhance treatment outcome. METHODS: A single-center 3-phase treatment algorithm was evaluated for inpatients with major depressive disorder, i.e. phase I (n = 85): 7 weeks optimal antidepressant monotherapy (imipramine or venlafaxine); phase II (n = 39): 4 weeks subsequent plasma level-targeted dose lithium addition in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant monotherapy; and phase III (n = 8): subsequent electroconvulsive therapy in case of insufficient improvement of antidepressant‑lithium treatment...
June 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Niels J Aachmann-Andersen, Soren J Christensen, Kristian Lisbjerg, Peter Oturai, Pär I Johansson, Niels-Henrik Holstein-Rathlou, Niels V Olsen
The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt intake, according to instructions from a dietitian. Renal clearance studies were done for measurements of renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the segmentel tubular handling of sodium and water (lithium clearance)...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
E Sadeghi, M Zahedifar, M Khalifeh Shoushtari
Lithium fluoride doped with Mg and Dy was fabricated for the first time using melting method. The optimum concentrations of impurities and thermal treatment were studied to achieve high thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity. TL sensitivity of the fabricated phosphor is close to that of TLD-100 powder. Tm -Tstop technique was used to identify the number of overlapped TL glow peaks. Initial rise, isothermal decay and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods were applied to obtain kinetic parameters of the prepared TL material...
June 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Roxanne J Wadia, Marilyn Stolar, Clarice Grens, Barbara E Ehrlich, Herta H Chao
Peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse effect in the use of chemotherapeutic drugs. In nearly 50% of patients, chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) has been reported as irreversible. With increasing numbers of patients surviving treatment as well as increasing duration of survival after treatment, reducing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life has become a major focus of cancer survivorship. Multiple classes of chemotherapeutic drugs including taxanes, platinum agents and vinka alkaloids list peripheral neuropathy as the main dose-limiting side effect of treatment...
January 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Jasper A Heinsbroek, Amelia B Furbish, Jamie Peters
Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists have known anti-addiction properties and can reduce drug seeking. Their potential for clinical use has largely been daunted by their aversive properties mediated through p38 MAPK signaling. Here we examined the therapeutic potential of the KOR agonist U50,488 (U50) to reduce cocaine seeking in a self-administration model. Following cocaine self-administration and 7 days of forced home-cage abstinence, rats were administered a single dose of U50 (5 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to the first extinction training session, wherein cocaine and the discrete cocaine-paired cues were no longer available...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Krzysztof Pietruczuk, Katarzyna A Lisowska, Karol Grabowski, Jerzy Landowski, Jacek M Witkowski
The aim of the study was to evaluate proliferation capacity and susceptibility to apoptosis of T lymphocytes of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to investigate in vitro influence of two standard mood stabilizers: lithium and valproic acid on these parameters using flow cytometry. Our results show that T lymphocytes of BD patients, especially those treated with lithium, have reduced proliferation capacity compared to healthy people. In vitro studies showed that valproic acid reduces the number of cell divisions and percentages of proliferating cells regardless of health status but mainly in very high dose, while lithium has no significant influence on proliferation capacity of patients' T lymphocytes...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
W M Dose, M J Piernas-Muñoz, V A Maroni, S E Trask, I Bloom, C S Johnson
A silicon-graphite blended anode is paired with a high capacity LiFePO4 reference/counter electrode to track irreversibility and lithium inventory. The LiFePO4 electrode provides a reliable, flat potential for dQ dV-1 analysis of LixSi and LixC electrochemical reactions. We relate this electrochemistry to the morphological and physical changes taking place.
April 5, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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