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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129533/sounds-of-modified-flight-feathers-reliably-signal-danger-in-a-pigeon
#1
Trevor G Murray, Jochen Zeil, Robert D Magrath
In his book on sexual selection, Darwin [1] devoted equal space to non-vocal and vocal communication in birds. Since then, vocal communication has become a model for studies of neurobiology, learning, communication, evolution, and conservation [2, 3]. In contrast, non-vocal "instrumental music," as Darwin called it, has only recently become subject to sustained inquiry [4, 5]. In particular, outstanding work reveals how feathers, often highly modified, produce distinctive sounds [6-9], and suggests that these sounds have evolved at least 70 times, in many orders [10]...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988864/museum-genomics-confirms-that-the-lord-howe-island-stick-insect-survived-extinction
#2
Alexander S Mikheyev, Andreas Zwick, Michael J L Magrath, Miguel L Grau, Lijun Qiu, You Ning Su, David Yeates
The Lord Howe Island stick insect, Dryococelus australis, was once common on the island but was driven to extinction after the arrival of ship rats in the early 20(th) century [1, 2]. It was thought to be extinct for decades, until a tiny population of similar-looking stick insects was discovered 20 km away, on the islet of Ball's Pyramid, in 2001 [2]. Individuals from this population are currently being reared in Australia and elsewhere in the world, with the eventual goal of recolonizing Lord Howe Island [3]...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978738/deceptive-vocal-duets-and-multimodal-display-in-a-songbird
#3
Paweł Ręk, Robert D Magrath
Many group-living animals cooperatively signal to defend resources, but what stops deceptive signalling to competitors about coalition strength? Cooperative-signalling species include mated pairs of birds that sing duets to defend their territory. Individuals of these species sometimes sing 'pseudo-duets' by mimicking their partner's contribution, but it is unknown if these songs are deceptive, or why duets are normally reliable. We studied pseudo-duets in Australian magpie-larks, Grallina cyanoleuca, and tested whether multimodal signalling constrains deception...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766685/salinomycin-s-potential-to-eliminate-glioblastoma-stem-cells-and-treat-glioblastoma-multiforme-review
#4
Justin W Magrath, Yonghyun Kim
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest form of primary brain tumor. Despite treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy with the drug temozolomide, the expected survival after diagnosis remains low. The median survival is only 14.6 months and the two-year survival is a mere 30%. One reason for this is the heterogeneity of GBM including the presence of glioblastoma cancer stem cells (GSCs). GSCs are a subset of cells with the unique ability to proliferate, differentiate, and create tumors...
September 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659448/bright-birds-are-cautious-seasonally-conspicuous-plumage-prompts-risk-avoidance-by-male-superb-fairy-wrens
#5
Alexandra McQueen, Annalise C Naimo, Niki Teunissen, Robert D Magrath, Kaspar Delhey, Anne Peters
Increased predation risk is considered a cost of having conspicuous colours, affecting the anti-predator behaviour of colourful animals. However, this is difficult to test, as individual factors often covary with colour and behaviour. We used alarm call playback and behavioural observations to assess whether individual birds adjust their response to risk according to their plumage colour. Male superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) change from a dull brown to conspicuous blue plumage each year, allowing the behaviour of different coloured birds to be compared while controlling for within-individual effects...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491937/longitudinal-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-segmentation-data-resource
#6
Aaron Carass, Snehashis Roy, Amod Jog, Jennifer L Cuzzocreo, Elizabeth Magrath, Adrian Gherman, Julia Button, James Nguyen, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Peter A Calabresi, Ciprian M Crainiceanu, Lotta M Ellingsen, Daniel S Reich, Jerry L Prince, Dzung L Pham
The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled "Longitudinal multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation: Resource and challenge" (Carass et al., 2017) [1]. In conjunction with the 2015 International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, we organized a longitudinal multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation challenge providing training and test data to registered participants. The training data consists of five subjects with a mean of 4.4 (±0.55) time-points, and test data of fourteen subjects with a mean of 4...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196267/detection-of-minimally-visible-recurrent-retinoblastoma-by-hand-held-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#7
Maria E Gonzalez-Montpetit, Wasim A Samara, George N Magrath, Carol L Shields
A 2-month-old male infant with bilateral familial retinoblastoma was treated with intravenous chemotherapy and focal adjuvant therapy. At 5 months of follow-up, fundus examination and ultrasonography disclosed no recurrence; however, hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) demonstrated subclinical recurrence within a previous regression scar. Subsequent treatment led to flat scar. Hand-held SD-OCT can be a useful tool for detection of subclinical recurrent retinoblastoma. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087490/longitudinal-multiple-sclerosis-lesion-segmentation-resource-and-challenge
#8
Aaron Carass, Snehashis Roy, Amod Jog, Jennifer L Cuzzocreo, Elizabeth Magrath, Adrian Gherman, Julia Button, James Nguyen, Ferran Prados, Carole H Sudre, Manuel Jorge Cardoso, Niamh Cawley, Olga Ciccarelli, Claudia A M Wheeler-Kingshott, Sébastien Ourselin, Laurence Catanese, Hrishikesh Deshpande, Pierre Maurel, Olivier Commowick, Christian Barillot, Xavier Tomas-Fernandez, Simon K Warfield, Suthirth Vaidya, Abhijith Chunduru, Ramanathan Muthuganapathy, Ganapathy Krishnamurthi, Andrew Jesson, Tal Arbel, Oskar Maier, Heinz Handels, Leonardo O Iheme, Devrim Unay, Saurabh Jain, Diana M Sima, Dirk Smeets, Mohsen Ghafoorian, Bram Platel, Ariel Birenbaum, Hayit Greenspan, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Peter A Calabresi, Ciprian M Crainiceanu, Lotta M Ellingsen, Daniel S Reich, Jerry L Prince, Dzung L Pham
In conjunction with the ISBI 2015 conference, we organized a longitudinal lesion segmentation challenge providing training and test data to registered participants. The training data consisted of five subjects with a mean of 4.4 time-points, and test data of fourteen subjects with a mean of 4.4 time-points. All 82 data sets had the white matter lesions associated with multiple sclerosis delineated by two human expert raters. Eleven teams submitted results using state-of-the-art lesion segmentation algorithms to the challenge, with ten teams presenting their results at the conference...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063758/acidic-ph-with-coordinated-reduction-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-maintains-the-glioblastoma-stem-cell-like-phenotype-in%C3%A2-vitro
#9
Elizabeth M Haley, Samantha G Tilson, Ursula L Triantafillu, Justin W Magrath, Yonghyun Kim
Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are a unique subpopulation of cells within glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain tumors that possess the ability to self-renew and differentiate into bulk tumor cells. GSCs are resistant to currently available treatments and are the likely culprit behind tumor relapse in GBM patients. However, GSCs are currently inaccessible to the larger scientific community because obtaining a sufficient number of GSCs remains technically challenging and cost-prohibitive. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a more efficient GSC culture strategy that results in a higher cell yield of GSCs at a lower cost...
May 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997512/variability-in-foveal-avascular-zone-and-capillary-density-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-machines-in-healthy-eyes
#10
George N Magrath, Emil Anthony T Say, Kareem Sioufi, Sandor Ferenczy, Wasim A Samara, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To evaluate the variability in foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and capillary density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography using Optovue RTVue XR Avanti (OA) (Optovue) and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 (ZC) (Carl Zeiss Meditec). METHODS: In this prospective, comparative case series, parafoveal (3 × 3 mm) optical coherence tomography angiography scans were obtained on healthy volunteers using both the Avanti and Cirrus. The FAZ area and capillary density at the level of both the superficial and deep capillary plexus were measured automatically using the built-in ReVue software (Optovue) with the Avanti as well as manually using ImageJ (National Institutes of Health) with both machines...
November 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893622/image-quality-and-artifacts-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-comparison-of-pathologic-and-paired-fellow-eyes-in-65-patients-with-unilateral-choroidal-melanoma-treated-with-plaque-radiotherapy
#11
Emil A T Say, Sandor Ferenczy, George N Magrath, Wasim A Samara, Chloe T L Khoo, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To study image quality and artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Sixty-five consecutive patients with unilateral posterior uveal melanoma treated with plaque radiotherapy had OCTA during follow-up. Optical coherence tomography angiography was performed on both the affected and fellow eye. Signal strength and frequency of image artifacts on en face images were compared between affected and fellow eyes. RESULTS: A total of 130 eyes in 65 patients were analyzed, the mean age at time of OCTA was 55 years (median: 56, range: 12-81 years), and 39 (39/65, 60%) were female...
September 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843899/dissecting-aortic-aneurysm-55-years-after-diagnosis-of-iris-flocculi
#12
Jerry A Shields, George N Magrath, Carol Shields, Richard Mackool, Ralph C Eagle, Hans E Grossniklaus
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to report the clinical features, imaging studies, surgical removal, and pathology of congenital iris flocculi in a patient who developed a life-threatening dissecting aortic aneurysm after 55 years of follow-up. METHODS: Documentation with iris photography was performed from age 18 to 55 years, at which time anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed. At the time of subsequent cataract surgery, the iris flocculi were removed in each eye and submitted for light and electron microscopy...
October 2016: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843235/flat-choroidal-melanoma-masquerading-as-central-serous-chorioretinopathy
#13
Timothy Patrick Higgins, Chloe T L Khoo, George Magrath, Carol L Shields
There are several mimickers of choroidal melanoma. We report a patient with recent family stress who developed blurred vision to 20/50 OD and was found to have unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy and a coincidental choroidal nevus. After 1 year without resolution of the subretinal fluid, the patient was referred for our opinion. On examination, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The left eye was normal. Evaluation of the right eye showed a small, pigmented submacular choroidal lesion measuring 4 mm × 3 mm...
September 2016: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797395/continuity-change-and-complexity-in-the-performance-of-masculinity-among-elite-young-footballers-in-england
#14
Steven Roberts, Eric Anderson, Rory Magrath
Following recent research evidencing that young men are redefining the essential components of what it is to be a man, this paper draws on qualitative interviews with 22 elite-level, English Premier League academy level football (soccer) players to investigate their performances and understandings of masculinity in relation to decreasing homohysteria. Even in this gender-segregated, near-total institution, these working-class, non-educationally aspiring adolescents evidence an attenuated performance of 'maleness' and improved attitudinal disposition toward homosexuality...
October 31, 2016: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27232466/parafoveal-capillary-density-after-plaque-radiotherapy-for-choroidal-melanoma-analysis-of-eyes-without-radiation-maculopathy
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Emil Anthony T Say, Wasim A Samara, Chloe T L Khoo, George N Magrath, Priya Sharma, Sandor Ferenczy, Carol L Shields
PURPOSE: To study the parafoveal capillary density using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes treated with plaque radiotherapy. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients treated with plaque radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma without evident radiation maculopathy on ophthalmoscopy or optical coherence tomography were imaged with OCTA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Comparison of the parafoveal capillary density in the superficial and deep capillary plexuses in the irradiated versus fellow nonirradiated eye...
September 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26820991/scope-for-genetic-rescue-of-an-endangered-subspecies-though-re-establishing-natural-gene-flow-with-another-subspecies
#16
Katherine A Harrisson, Alexandra Pavlova, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Rebecca Rose, James K Bull, Melanie L Lancaster, Neil Murray, Bruce Quin, Peter Menkhorst, Michael J L Magrath, Paul Sunnucks
Genetic diversity is positively linked to the viability and evolutionary potential of species but is often compromised in threatened taxa. Genetic rescue by gene flow from a more diverse or differentiated source population of the same species can be an effective strategy for alleviating inbreeding depression and boosting evolutionary potential. The helmeted honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops cassidix is a critically endangered subspecies of the common yellow-tufted honeyeater. Cassidix has declined to a single wild population of ~130 birds, despite being subject to intensive population management over recent decades...
March 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765038/unilateral-retinoblastoma-managed-with-intravenous-chemotherapy-versus-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-outcomes-based-on-the-international-classification-of-retinoblastoma
#17
Carol L Shields, Rodrigo Jorge, Emil Anthony T Say, George Magrath, Adel Alset, Emi Caywood, Ann M Leahey, Pascal Jabbour, Jerry A Shields
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to compare outcomes after intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) versus intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) for unilateral retinoblastoma. DESIGN: A retrospective comparative interventional case series. METHODS: Patients with unilateral retinoblastoma managed with either IVC using vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin or IAC using melphalan with or without topotecan with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were compared...
March 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26679982/hearing-is-believing-birds-learn-fear
#18
Christopher B Sturdy, Darren S Proppe
Although it is known that animals attend to the vocalizations of others (referred to as eavesdropping), what has been missing, or at least left experimentally unproven, until now is whether animals can learn new associations between a signal and a threat. Here Magrath and colleagues (Current Biology, 25(15), 2047-2050, 2015) have for the first time conducted a field experiment that demonstrates just this: superb fairy-wrens learned to associate a novel vocalization with a predator.
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650557/-ssri-and-bone-metabolism-in-hiv-patients-with-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Martín J Mazzoglio y Nabar, Milagros María Muñiz, Alexis A Mejías Delamano, Santiago Muñoz, Nahuel Magrath Guimet
We report a series of 9 male HIV + patients, average age of 41.2 years, viral load negative (<50 copies RNA/ml), treated with antiretroviral (nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase) without systemic infections, the CNS diseases or marker or corticoidoterapia in progress. Were evaluated and supported by their infectologists interconsultation during the period October 2008-October 2013 by depressive syndrome. Psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment was initiated with SSRIs and clonazepam; Neuroimaging control and biochemical laboratory studies at baseline and 2 months of treatment were conducted...
May 2015: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26578618/structural-barriers-to-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cancer-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-the-urgent-need-for-scaling-up
#20
REVIEW
Eduardo Cazap, Ian Magrath, T Peter Kingham, Ahmed Elzawawy
Noncommunicable diseases are now recognized by the United Nations and WHO as a major public health crisis. Cancer is a main part of this problem, and health care systems are facing a great challenge to improve cancer care, control costs, and increase systems efficiency. The disparity in access to care and outcomes between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries is staggering. The reasons for this disparity include cost, access to care, manpower and training deficits, and a lack of awareness in the lay and medical communities...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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