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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076426/evidence-of-a-vocalic-proto-system-in-the-baboon-papio-papio-suggests-pre-hominin-speech-precursors
#1
Louis-Jean Boë, Frédéric Berthommier, Thierry Legou, Guillaume Captier, Caralyn Kemp, Thomas R Sawallis, Yannick Becker, Arnaud Rey, Joël Fagot
Language is a distinguishing characteristic of our species, and the course of its evolution is one of the hardest problems in science. It has long been generally considered that human speech requires a low larynx, and that the high larynx of nonhuman primates should preclude their producing the vowel systems universally found in human language. Examining the vocalizations through acoustic analyses, tongue anatomy, and modeling of acoustic potential, we found that baboons (Papio papio) produce sounds sharing the F1/F2 formant structure of the human [ɨ æ ɑ ɔ u] vowels, and that similarly with humans those vocalic qualities are organized as a system on two acoustic-anatomic axes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058515/relationship-between-tongue-strength-and-1-year-life-expectancy-in-elderly-people-needing-nursing-care
#2
Yuri Yajima, Takeshi Kikutani, Fumiyo Tamura, Mitsuyoshi Yoshida
Tongue strength is a useful indicator of oral function and has been found to decrease with aging and reduced physical functioning. The present study aimed to assess the relationships of tongue strength with physical function, mental function, and nutritional status, and also between these factors and 1-year outcomes, to determine whether tongue strength is related to life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. The subjects were 140 elderly individuals requiring needing nursing care (49 men and 91 women; ≥65 years)...
January 5, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056028/assessing-ultrasonography-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-porcine-cysticercosis
#3
Robert H Flecker, Ian W Pray, Saul J Santivaňez, Viterbo Ayvar, Ricardo Gamboa, Claudio Muro, Luz Maria Moyano, Victor Benavides, Hector H Garcia, Seth E O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium inflicts substantial neurologic disease and economic losses on rural communities in many developing nations. "Ring-strategy" is a control intervention that targets treatment of humans and pigs among clusters of households (rings) that surround pigs heavily infected with cysticerci. These pigs are typically identified by examining the animal's tongue for cysts. However, as prevalence decreases in intervened communities, more sensitive methods may be needed to identify these animals and to maintain control pressure...
January 5, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051949/stereological-assessment-of-the-total-number-of-hypoglossal-neurons-after-repeated-crush-injuries-to-the-hypoglossal-nerve-in-adult-rats
#4
Nanae Fukushima, Mika Karasawa, Kumiko Yokouchi, Norimi Sumitomo, Kyutaro Kawagishi, Tetsuji Moriizumi
OBJECTIVE: Retrograde neuronal cell death does not occur in mature motoneurons following the axonal injury of peripheral nerves. However, a previous study suggested that retrograde neuronal cell death does occur in adult rats after the creation of double lesions on the hypoglossal (XII) nerve based on a substantial decrease in the number of XII neurons. Using stereological methods, we examined neuronal apoptosis in XII neurons and the total number of XII neurons following repeated crush injuries to the XII nerve...
January 4, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051292/truxene-based-hyperbranched-conjugated-polymers-fluorescent-micelles-detect-explosives-in-water
#5
Wei Huang, Emanuel Smarsly, Jinsong Han, Markus Bender, Kai Seehafer, Irene Wacker, Rasmus R Schroeder, Uwe H F Bunz
We report two hyperbranched conjugated polymers (HCP) with truxene units as core and 1,4-didodecyl-2,5-diethynylbenzene as well as 1,4-bis(dodecyloxy)-2,5-diethynyl¬benzene as co-monomers. Two analogous poly(para-phenylene¬ethynylene)s (PPE) are also prepared as comparison to demonstrate the difference between the truxene and the phenyl moieties in their optical properties and their sensing performance. The four polymers are tested for nitroaromatic analytes and display different fluorescence quenching responses...
January 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048438/th-ab-bra-01-a-novel-doubly-focused-multileaf-collimator-design-for-mr-guided-radiation-therapy
#6
H Li, S Mutic, D Low, O Green, G Fought, I Kawrakow, A Sharma, S Shvartsman, J Dempsey
PURPOSE: To describe the physical and dosimetric properties of a novel double-stack multileaf collimator (MLC). METHODS: One of the compromises made in the MLC design has been to employ linear-motion singly-divergent shapes. Because the MLC leading edge moves linearly, it is rounded to provide a consistent, albeit compromised penumbra. The MLC employed in the new linac-based MR-IGRT unit is designed to be doubly focused in that each leaf moves in an arc centered at the source, and the sides of the leaves are machined such that they lie parallel to a line between the leaf edge and the source...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047319/su-f-t-303-quantification-of-mlc-positioning-accuracy-in-vmat-delivery-of-head-and-neck-cancer-treatment
#7
X Li, F Yang
PURPOSE: Knowing MLC leaf positioning error over the course of treatment would be valuable for treatment planning, QA design, and patient safety. The objective of the current study was to quantify the MLC positioning accuracy for VMAT delivery of head and neck treatment plans. METHODS: A total of 837 MLC log files were collected from 14 head and neck cancer patients undergoing full arc VMAT treatment on one Varian Trilogy machine. The actual and planned leaf gaps were extracted from the retrieved MLC log files...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047176/su-c-bra-05-delineating-high-dose-clinical-target-volumes-for-head-and-neck-tumors-using-machine-learning-algorithms
#8
C Cardenas, A Wong, A Mohamed, J Yang, L Court, A Rao, C Fuller, M Aristophanous
PURPOSE: To develop and test population-based machine learning algorithms for delineating high-dose clinical target volumes (CTVs) in H&N tumors. Automating and standardizing the contouring of CTVs can reduce both physician contouring time and inter-physician variability, which is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in H&N radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-five node-negative patients treated with definitive radiotherapy were selected (6 right base of tongue, 11 left and 9 right tonsil)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047089/th-cd-206-05-machine-learning-based-segmentation-of-organs-at-risks-for-head-and-neck-radiotherapy-planning
#9
B Ibragimov, F Pernus, P Strojan, L Xing
PURPOSE: Accurate and efficient delineation of tumor target and organs-at-risks is essential for the success of radiotherapy. In reality, despite of decades of intense research efforts, auto-segmentation has not yet become clinical practice. In this study, we present, for the first time, a deep learning-based classification algorithm for autonomous segmentation in head and neck (HaN) treatment planning. METHODS: Fifteen HN datasets of CT, MR and PET images with manual annotation of organs-at-risk (OARs) including spinal cord, brainstem, optic nerves, chiasm, eyes, mandible, tongue, parotid glands were collected and saved in a library of plans...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045344/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-mapping-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes-in-oral-tongue-cancer-a-pilot-study
#10
Gvetadze R Shalva, P Xiong, Mingming Lv, J Li, J Hu, Konstantin Ilkaev, Xin Yang, Jian Sun
OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with peritumoral injection of microbubble contrast agent for detecting the sentinel lymph nodes for oral tongue carcinoma. METHODS: Preliminary study, case series. The study was carried out on 12 patients withT1-2cN0 oral tongue cancer. A radical resection of the primary disease was planned, a modified radical supraomohyoid neck dissection was reserved for patients owing larger lesions (T2, n=8)...
January 3, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027240/gastrostomy-placement-rates-in-infants-with-pierre-robin-sequence-a-comparison-of-tongue-lip-adhesion-and-mandibular-distraction-osteogenesis
#11
Srinivas M Susarla, Gerhard S Mundinger, Christopher C Chang, Edward W Swanson, Denver Lough, S Alex Rottgers, Richard J Redett, Anand R Kumar
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare the gastrostomy rates in infants with Pierre Robin sequence treated with tongue-lip adhesion or mandibular distraction osteogenesis. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of symptomatic plastic and reconstructive surgery patients treated over an 8-year period. The primary predictor variable was surgical intervention (tongue-lip adhesion or distraction osteogenesis). Secondary predictor variables were categorized as demographic and clinical factors...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024728/laryngeal-tumours-and-radiotherapy-dose-to-the-cricopharyngeus-are-predictive-of-death-from-aspiration-pneumonia
#12
Jolyne O'Hare, Julia Maclean, Michal Szczesniak, Rashmi Gupta, Peter Wu, Harry Quon, Ian Cook, Peter Graham
OBJECTIVES: Aspiration pneumonia is an under-reported treatment sequelae following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. This study aims to investigate its incidence and risk factors in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all HNC patients that had received radiotherapy or chemo radiotherapy with radical intent at a single institution was undertaken (n=206). Dose delivered to the pharyngeal constrictors, base of tongue and cricopharyngeus was calculated and compared between those patients who had died from aspiration pneumonia and those who are alive or had died from other causes...
January 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018688/nigerian-female-with-skin-lesions-in-the-leg-and-face-herpetic-sycosis-folliculitis
#13
Dominique Dilorenzo, Naganna Channaveeraiah, Patricia Gilford, Bruce Deschere
Nongenital HSV 1 presents outside the mucus membrane. Our patient had unusual presentation that caused diagnostic dilemma. 30-year-old native Nigerian female coming with fiancée to the United States presented to our service one day after arrival through ER with a lesion on her right ankle. She was diagnosed with cellulitis, started on antibiotics, and admitted to hospital. She had fever of 39.1°C. Head and neck exam showed multiple sized lesions over tongue and palate and inner aspect of lower lip. Abdomen and genital exam was normal...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017460/vocal-tract-adjustments-of-dysphonic-and-non-dysphonic-women-pre-and-post-flexible-resonance-tube-in-water-exercise-a-quantitative-mri-study
#14
Rosiane Yamasaki, Emi Z Murano, Eloisa Gebrim, Adriana Hachiya, Arlindo Montagnoli, Mara Behlau, Domingos Tsuji
OBJECTIVE: To compare vocal tract (VT) adjustments of dysphonic and non-dysphonic women before and after flexible resonance tube in water exercise (FRTWE) at rest and during phonation using magnetic resonance imaging. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. METHODS: Twenty women, aged 20-40 years, 10 dysphonic with vocal nodules (VNG) and 10 controls (CG), underwent four sets of sagittal VT MRI: two pre-FRTWE, at rest and during phonation, and two post-FRTWE, during phonation and at rest...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011496/identification-and-management-of-head-and-neck-cancer-recurrences-detected-on-adjuvant-radiation-oncology-simulation-scans
#15
Richard L Bakst, William Su
BACKGROUND/AIM: Computerized tomographic (CT) simulation is used to design precise radiation therapy treatment plans. These scans are not routinely read by radiology and are only used for planning purposes. As radiation oncology departments adopt the addition of intravenous contrast to their CT simulations, there is the potential for identification of post-surgical recurrences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all biopsy-proven local recurrences of head and neck cancer detected during CT simulation and followed their outcomes...
January 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008939/csmap34-a-teleost-map-with-dual-role-a-promoter-of-masp-assisted-complement-activation-and-a-regulator-of-immune-cell-activity
#16
Mo-Fei Li, Jun Li, Li Sun
In teleost fish, the immune functions of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) associated protein (MAP) and MBL associated serine protease (MASP) are scarcely investigated. In the present study, we examined the biological properties both MAP (CsMAP34) and MASP (CsMASP1) molecules from tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). We found that CsMAP34 and CsMASP1 expressions occurred in nine different tissues and were upregulated by bacterial challenge. CsMAP34 protein was detected in blood, especially during bacterial infection...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008929/the-overexpressed-functional-transient-receptor-potential-channel-trpm2-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Ling-Yan Zhao, Wan-Lin Xu, Zeng-Qi Xu, Cui Qi, Yang Li, Jie Cheng, Lai-Kui Liu, Yu-Nong Wu, Jun Gao, Jin-Hai Ye
TRPM2, one member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) protein super-family, is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel that is activated by oxidative stress and confers susceptibility to cell death. In the human tongue specimens of carcinoma and the tongue carcinoma SCC cell lines, we observed the enhanced expression of TRPM2. By means of the whole-cell electrophysiological recording, the ADPR-induced currents mediated by TRPM2 were recorded in cultured SCC9 cells. Moreover, after H2O2 treatment for 24 hours, the apoptotic number of SCC9 cells was significantly increased...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005173/diabetes-education-of-patients-and-their-entourage-out-of-hospital-national-study-educated-2
#18
Frédéric Lapostolle, Nadia Hamdi, Majed Barghout, Louis Soulat, Anna Faucher, Yves Lambert, Nicolas Peschanski, Agnès Ricard-Hibon, Carine Chassery, Maryline Roti, Vincent Bounes, Guillaume Debaty, Tarak Mokni, Gérald Egmann, Pierre-Arnaud Fort, Karim Boudenia, Laurent Alayrac, Mohamed Safraou, Michel Galinski, Frédéric Adnet
AIMS: To determine the contributing factors in the successful diabetes education of patients and their entourage. METHODS: Prospective observational study conducted in a pre-hospital setting by 17 emergency services across France (September 2009-January 2011) included all insulin-treated patients (≥18 years) provided that at least one family member was present on scene. Data were collected from patients and their entourage: (1) personal details including language proficiency and educational attainment, (2) treatments, (3) diabetes-related data (log sheets, glucose meter, glucagon, glycated hemoglobin, prior hypoglycemic episodes); (4) care by diabetologist, general practitioner and/or visiting nurse...
December 22, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004284/a-phase-i-study-of-tivantinib-in-combination-with-temsirolimus-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#19
Christos E Kyriakopoulos, Amy M Braden, Jill M Kolesar, Jens C Eickhoff, Howard H Bailey, Jennifer Heideman, Glenn Liu, Kari B Wisinski
Background A wide variety of human cancers exhibit dysregulated c-Met activity that has implications in oncogenesis. Phosphorylation of c-Met results in activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Combined blockade of c-Met and mTOR pathways has shown efficacy in preclinical studies. Tivantinib is a c-Met inhibitor and temsirolimus is a selective mTOR inhibitor. We aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), adverse events (AEs), clinical activity and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of the combination...
December 21, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004263/transoral-robotic-surgery-for-the-pediatric-head-and-neck-surgeries
#20
Evren Erkul, Umamaheswar Duvvuri, Deepak Mehta, Utku Aydil
Pediatric robotic surgery is a relatively new technology that has been shown to be safe and feasible for a number of pediatric procedures. Our literature analysis was performed using Pubmed database between January 2005 and December 2015, using key words: "robotic," "robotic surgery," "TORS," "pediatric," "children," "head and neck," and "da Vinci". We selected only publications in English. Eight published reports met the selection criteria. We totally found 41 patients, and the age range was between 2 months and 19 years...
December 21, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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