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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917322/high-genetic-diversity-in-toxoplasma-gondii-isolates-from-pigs-at-slaughterhouses-in-para%C3%A3-ba-state-northeastern-brazil-circulation-of-new-genotypes-and-brazilian-clonal-lineages
#1
Thais Ferreira Feitosa, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro Vilela, João Leite de Almeida-Neto, Antonielson Dos Santos, Dayana Firmino de Morais, Bruna Farias Alves, Fabiana Nakashima, Solange Maria Gennari, Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena
The consumption of raw or undercooked pig meat containing Toxoplasma gondii cysts is an important transmission route of this protozoon to animals and humans. This study aimed to serologically diagnose, isolate and genotype T. gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Blood and tissue samples (heart, tongue and brain) were collected from 120 pigs at slaughterhouses in the state of Paraíba. Serological examinations were performed with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off point of 1:64...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912088/sip-and-spit-or-sip-and-swallow-choice-of-methods-differentially-alters-taste-intensity-estimates-across-stimuli
#2
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
While the myth of the tongue map has been consistently and repeatedly debunked in controlled studies, evidence for regional differences in suprathreshold intensity has been noted by multiple research groups. Given differences in physiology between the anterior and posterior tongue (fungiform versus foliate and circumvallate papillae) and differences in total area stimulated (anterior only versus whole tongue, pharynx, and epiglottis), small methodological changes (sip and spit versus sip and swallow) have the potential to substantially influence data...
September 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905287/transoral-robotic-surgery-for-the-base-of-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-preliminary-comparison-between-da-vinci-xi-and-si
#3
Marco Alessandrini, Isabella Pavone, Alessandro Micarelli, Claudio Caporale
Considering the emerging advantages related to da Vinci Xi robotic platform, the aim of this study is to compare for the first time the operative outcomes of this tool to the previous da Vinci Si during transoral robotic surgery (TORS), both performed for squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the base of tongue (BOT). Intra- and peri-operative outcomes of eight patients with early stage (T1-T2) of the BOT carcinoma and undergoing TORS by means of the da Vinci Xi robotic platform (Xi-TORS) are compared with the da Vinci Si group ones (Si-TORS)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905208/current-total-knee-designs-does-baseplate-roughness-or-locking-mechanism-design-affect-polyethylene-backside-wear
#4
Zachary W Sisko, Matthew G Teeter, Brent A Lanting, James L Howard, Richard W McCalden, Douglas D Naudie, Steven J MacDonald, Edward M Vasarhelyi
BACKGROUND: Tibial baseplate roughness and polyethylene-insert micromotion resulting from locking-mechanism loosening can lead to polyethylene backside wear in TKAs. However, many retrieval studies examining these variables have evaluated only older TKA implant designs. QUESTIONS: We used implant-retrieval analysis to examine if there were differences in: (1) backside damage scores, (2) backside damage modes, and (3) backside linear wear rates in five TKA implant designs owing to differing baseplate surface roughness and locking mechanisms...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901030/treating-osa-current-and-emerging-therapies-beyond-cpap
#5
REVIEW
Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Fernanda R Almeida, Patrick J Strollo
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, adherence to CPAP is limited and non-CPAP therapies are frequently explored. Oral appliance (OA) therapy is currently widely used for the treatment of snoring, mild, moderate and severe OSA. The most commonly used and studied OA consists of a maxillary and mandibular splint which hold the lower jaw forward during sleep. The efficacy of OA is inferior to CPAP; however, the effectiveness as measured by sleepiness, quality of life, endothelial function and blood pressure is similar likely due to higher acceptance and subjective adherence...
September 12, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893047/an-intervention-airing-the-effect-of-iranian-propolis-on-epithelial-dysplasia-of-the-tongue-a-preliminary-study
#6
Maedeh Salehi, Mina Motallebnejad, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Maryam Seyemajidi, Simin Noori Khanghah, Alireza Ebrahimpour, Tahereh Molania
INTRODUCTION: Since oral cancer is one of the causes of mortality, the use of materials or methods that can reduce cancer or prevent its progression has particular importance. AIM: Aim of the study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of Iranian propolis on dysplastic changes of oral mucosa in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on 28 Wistar male rats (aged 7-11 weeks, 160±20 g). They were divided into four groups of seven rats...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891012/visualization-of-multiple-organ-amyloid-involvement-in-systemic-amyloidosis-using-11-c-pib-pet-imaging
#7
Naoki Ezawa, Nagaaki Katoh, Kazuhiro Oguchi, Tsuneaki Yoshinaga, Masahide Yazaki, Yoshiki Sekijima
PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for evaluating whole-body amyloid involvement in patients with systemic amyloidosis. METHODS: Whole-body (11)C-PiB PET was performed in seven patients with systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, seven patients with hereditary transthyretin (ATTRm) amyloidosis, one asymptomatic TTR mutation carrier and three healthy controls. The correlations between clinical organ involvement, radiological (11)C-PiB uptake and histopathological findings were analysed for each organ...
September 10, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887825/performance-of-a-multi-leaf-collimator-system-for-mr-guided-radiation-therapy
#8
Bin Cai, Harold Li, Deshan Yang, Vivian Rodriguez, Austen Curcuru, Yuhe Wang, Jie Wen, Rojano Kashani, Sasa Mutic, Olga Green
PURPOSE: To investigate and characterize the performance of a Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC) designed for Cobalt-60 based MR-guided radiation therapy system in a 0.35T magnetic field. METHODS: The MLC design and unique assembly features in the ViewRay MRIdian system were first reviewed. The RF cage shielding of MLC motor and cables were evaluated using ACR phantoms with real time imaging and quantified by signal-to-noise ratio. The dosimetric characterizations, including the leaf transmission, leaf penumbra, tongue and groove effect, were investigated using radiosensitive films...
September 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887707/correlations-between-patient-reported-dysphagia-screening-and-penetration-aspiration-scores-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-post-oncological-treatment
#9
Johanna Hedström, Lisa Tuomi, Caterina Finizia, Caroline Olsson
Dysphagia is a common and severe toxicity after oncological treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC). The study aim was to investigate relationships between patient-reported dysphagia and clinically measured swallowing function in HNC after modern curative radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy to identify possible alarm symptoms for clinically manifest dysphagia. Patients with tumors of the tonsil, base of tongue, hypopharynx, and larynx treated in 2007-2015 were assessed for dysphagia post-treatment by telephone interview and videofluoroscopy (VFS)...
September 8, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883766/intraoral-stents-in-preventing-adverse-radiotherapeutic-effects-in-lip-cancer-patients
#10
Breno A Rocha, Lucianne M C Lima, Lívia M R Paranaíba, Angel da S Martinez, Maria Betânia de O Pires, Edimilson M de Freitas, Camilla V Vilas Boas, Mário R de Melo Filho
AIM: To fabricate and evaluate the efficacy of individualized intraoral stents to minimize the potential side effects of radiation on oral tissues in patients with early stages of lip cancer. BACKGROUND: Lower lip cancer is a common tumor found almost exclusively in middle-aged and elderly males. Surgery is the most common treatment of choice, although for less extensive lesions, exclusive radiotherapy may be preferred. Some studies have found that the use of intraoral stents in patients with intraoral cancer (e...
November 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882408/dental-and-oropharyngeal-lesions-in-rats-with-chronic-acid-reflux-esophagitis
#11
Rintaro Shimazu, Mihoko Yamamoto, Akimichi Minesaki, Yuichiro Kuratomi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated pathological changes in the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. METHODS: An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The oral cavities were observed histologically every 2 weeks until 20 weeks after surgery. RESULTS: At 10 weeks after surgery, molar crown heights in GERD rats were shorter than that in control rats, and inflammatory cell infiltration by gastric acid reflux was found in the periodontal mucosa of GERD rats...
September 4, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877282/two-point-discrimination-values-vary-depending-on-test-site-sex-and-test-modality-in-the-orofacial-region-a-preliminary-study
#12
Sang-Yeun Won, Hye-Kyoung Kim, Mee-Eun Kim, Ki-Suk Kim
Objective: The aims of the present study were to determine the normal values of TPD in the six trigeminal sites (the forehead, cheek, mentum, upper lip, lower lip, and the tongue tip) and to investigate the effect of the site, sex, and test modality on the TPD perception. Material and Methods: Forty healthy volunteers consisting of age-matched men (20) and women (20) with a mean age of 27.1 years were recruited. One examiner performed the TPD test using a simple hand-operated device, i...
July 2017: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877061/maml2-rearrangements-in-variant-forms-of-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-ancillary-diagnostic-testing-for-the-ciliated-and-warthin-like-variants
#13
Justin A Bishop, Morgan L Cowan, Chung H Shum, William H Westra
Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common salivary gland malignancy. Recent studies have shown that most MECs harbor gene fusions involving MAML2-an alteration that appears to be specific for MEC, a finding that could be diagnostically useful. While most cases of MEC are histologically straightforward, uncommon variants can cause considerable diagnostic difficulty. We present 2 variants of MEC for which MAML2 studies were crucial in establishing a diagnosis: a previously undescribed ciliated variant, and the recently described Warthin-like variant...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876369/quantitative-analysis-of-tongue-movement-in-14-phonemes-of-brazilian-portuguese
#14
Lídia Maurício da Silva, Aline Mara de Oliveira Vassoler, Viviane Cristina de Castro Marino, Larissa Cristina Berti
Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the ultrasonographic pattern of tongue movement in 14 consonant phonemes of Brazilian Portuguese (BP), seeking to identify and describe ultrasonographic parameters that could grasp the difference of manner and place of articulation among these phonemes. Methods: We selected 20 individuals with typical speech production, aged between 20-30 years of both genders. The selected stimuli included the 14 lingual consonant BP phonemes in the intervocalic context of [a]...
September 4, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870248/functional-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-after-partial-glossectomy-a-multi-institutional-longitudinal-study-of-the-head-and-neck-research-network
#15
Agnieszka Dzioba, Daniel Aalto, Georgina Papadopoulos-Nydam, Hadi Seikaly, Jana Rieger, Johan Wolfaardt, Martin Osswald, Jeffrey R Harris, Daniel A O'Connell, Cathy Lazarus, Mark Urken, Ilya Likhterov, Raymond L Chai, Erika Rauscher, Daniel Buchbinder, Devin Okay, Risto-Pekka Happonen, Ilpo Kinnunen, Irjala Heikki, Tero Soukka, Juhani Laine
BACKGROUND: While aggressive treatment for oral cancer may optimize survival, decrements in speech and swallowing function and quality of life often result. This exploratory study investigated how patients recover their communicative function, swallowing ability, and quality of life after primary surgery [with or without adjuvant (chemo)radiation therapy] for tongue cancer over the course of the first year post-operation. METHODS: Patients treated for oral cancer at three institutions (University of Alberta Hospital, Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center, and Turku University Hospital) were administered patient-reported outcomes assessing speech [Speech Handicap Index (SHI)], swallowing [(M...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868806/validity-of-maximum-isometric-tongue-pressure-as-a-screening-test-for-physical-frailty-cross-sectional-study-of-japanese-community-dwelling-older-adults
#16
Hirotomo Yamanashi, Yuji Shimizu, Miho Higashi, Jun Koyamatsu, Shimpei Sato, Mako Nagayoshi, Koichiro Kadota, Shinya Kawashiri, Mami Tamai, Noboru Takamura, Takahiro Maeda
AIM: Maximum isometric tongue pressure (MIP) seems to have a diagnostic value for oral phase dysphagia. The present study aimed to examine the association between MIP and frailty, and to assess the screening validity of MIP for physical frailty. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study, and enrolled participants aged ≥60 years from Japanese national medical check-ups in 2015 and 2016. The Fried frailty phenotype model was used. We analyzed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of physical frailty using one standard deviation increments of tongue pressure...
September 4, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859695/learning-microbial-community-structures-with-supervised-and-unsupervised-non-negative-matrix-factorization
#17
Yun Cai, Hong Gu, Toby Kenney
BACKGROUND: Learning the structure of microbial communities is critical in understanding the different community structures and functions of microbes in distinct individuals. We view microbial communities as consisting of many subcommunities which are formed by certain groups of microbes functionally dependent on each other. The focus of this paper is on methods for extracting the subcommunities from the data, in particular Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Our methods can be applied to both OTU data and functional metagenomic data...
August 31, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855214/cyclopia-isolated-and-with-agnathia-otocephaly-complex
#18
Lin Tun Wai, Suresh Chandran
Cyclopia is a rare form of lethal holoprosencephaly (HPE) due to incomplete cleavage of prosencephalon during embryogenesis, leading to failure of the orbits of the eye to divide into two cavities. We report two cases, one with cyclopia and another case of cyclopia with agnathia-otocephaly complex (AOC). AOC (also known as agnathia-microstomia-synotia syndrome) is a rare lethal congenital malformation of the first branchial arch characterised by the association of agnathia (agenesis of mandible) or mandibular hypoplasia, melotia (anteromedial malposition of ears), microstomia (small mouth), aglossia or microglossia (absent or rudimentary tongue)...
August 30, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843993/circuits-in-the-rodent-brainstem-that-control-whisking-in-concert-with-other-orofacial-motor-actions
#19
REVIEW
Lauren E McElvain, Beth Friedman, Harvey J Karten, Karel Svoboda, Fan Wang, Martin Deschênes, David Kleinfeld
The world view of rodents is largely determined by sensation on two length scales. One is within the animal's peri-personal space. Sensorimotor control on this scale involves active movements of the nose, tongue, head, and vibrissa, along with sniffing to determine olfactory clues. The second scale involves the detection of more distant space through vision and audition; these detection processes also impact repositioning of the head, eyes, and ears. Here we focus on orofacial motor actions, primarily vibrissa-based touch but including nose twitching, head bobbing, and licking, that control sensation at short, peri-personal distances...
August 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839006/the-physiology-of-oral-whistling-a-combined-radiographic-and-mri-analysis
#20
Alba Miranda Azola, Jeffrey Palmer, Rachel Mulheren, Riccardo Hofer, Florian Fischmeister, W Tecumseh Fitch
The fluid mechanics of whistling involve the instability of an air jet, resultant vortex rings, and the interaction of these rings with rigid boundaries (2,4). Experimental models support the hypothesis that the sound in human whistling is generated by a Helmholtz resonator, suggesting that the oral cavity acts as a resonant chamber bounded by two orifices, posteriorly by raising the tongue to the hard palate, and anteriorly by pursed lips 2,2,3). However, the detailed anatomical changes in the vocal tract and their relation to the frequencies generated have not been described in the literature...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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